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Skin, being one of the vital organs and a protective barrier needs to be pampered and taken care of from early childhood. It is the most visible and the widest exposed organ and by far reflects the general health condition and the aging process in humans. Both intrinsic and extrinsic factors contribute to this complex biological process of skin aging. In recent times, skin health and its beauty is perceived as an indicator of one’s health which has resulted in an increasing demand for anti-aging products. Exposure to UV radiation is considered to be one of the factors responsible for aging termed as photoaging. In this review, we have discussed the various factors which may accelerate the process of skin aging. Various approaches and strategies to delay the process of skin aging have been emphasized upon. The patents filed in the area of anti-aging and sunscreen products have also been reviewed to gain an insight into the new formulations which have been developed as an anti-aging product. There has been a tremendous rise in the cosmetic and cosmeceuticals market with products having a dual activity of anti-aging and sun protection. Research is constantly on the rise to ensure the safety of these products. Alternatives to the current topical application of sunscreen are being considered to overcome the drawback of reapplication of the sunscreen often which can be a boon to the cosmeceutical market.
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Adv Pharm Bull, 2019, 9(3), 348-359
doi: 10.15171/apb.2019.042
https://apb.tbzmed.ac.ir
Anti-aging and Sunscreens: Paradigm Shift in Cosmetics
Shreya Shanbhag, Akshatha Nayak, Reema Narayan, Usha Yogendra Nayak*
ID
Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal
576 104, India.
Introduction
Skin is a protective layer of the body of any animal
including humans. As the age progresses, certain changes
occur in the skin which are influenced by certain extrinsic
and intrinsic factors.1 The changes in the skin are among
the most visible signs of aging which include wrinkles,
sagging skin, age spots and dryness, and also loss in the fat
making the skin lose its natural smoothness. The skin is
mainly composed of three layers, the outer part epidermis,
middle part dermis, and the innermost subcutaneous layer.
As a person ages, the epidermis slowly thins even though
the number of cell layers remains same.2 The inherent
repairing ability of skin gradually reduces as a person
ages which may be due to infections and pressure ulcers.
In addition, the number of melanocytes decreases, aging
skin becomes thinner, paler and clear with large pigment
spots, age spots or liver spots. All these signs necessitates
the need for the anti-aging treatment.3 As we age, our
body produces less collagen and elastin which plumps our
skin and makes it lose its elasticity respectively. By the use
of anti-aging products or treatment, either the collagen
production can be boosted, or its natural loss can be
slowed down.4 Anti-aging treatments are also necessary to
reduce fine lines, wrinkle, acne and it also helps in making
the skin firm.
Although sun-exposure is very essential for the synthesis
of vitamin D, exposure to harmful UV rays results in
premature aging, initiation of the reactive oxygen species
generation, skin cancer, and degradation of extracellular
matrix components viz, collagen type I, fibronectin, elastin
and proteoglycans induced by mitogen-activated protein
kinase signaling pathway upregulation. Application of
sunscreens to the exposed parts of the skin may help in
protecting the skin from harmful UV rays. Sunscreens are
the products combining several ingredients which protect
the skin by absorbing, blocking or scattering UV radiation.5
Two types of agents protect the skin from sunlight, one
which reflects the UV rays and the other which absorbs
the UV rays. Reflectors are the substances which when
present on the surface of the skin reflects the UV rays
thus preventing them from entering the skin. Absorbers
absorb the sunlight, and they are active against a specific
spectrum of sunlight. So these can be used individually or
in combination to act as a sunscreen. The sunscreen with
a minimum sun protection factor of 15 (SPF15) should be
used to obtain the maximum benefit.6
In the present review, we have discussed on the aging
mechanisms and various strategies to combat the various
signs of aging. We have also touched upon the advances
in the field of nanotechnology and its importance for
the delivery of cosmeceuticals having anti-aging and sun
protecting effect.
*Corresponding Author: Usha Yogendra Nayak, Tel: +91820-2922482; Fax: +918202571998, Email: usha.nayak@manipal.edu
© 2019 The Author (s). This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY), which permits
unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required
from the authors or the publishers.
Review Article
Article History:
Received: 29 Oct. 2018
Revised: 16 Apr. 2019
Accepted: 20 May 2019
epublished: 1 Aug. 2019
Keywords:
• Aging
• Anti-aging
• Nanoparticles
• Photoprotection
• Sunscreen
• Sun protection factor (SPF)
Abstract
Skin, being one of the vital organs and a protective barrier needs to be pampered and taken care
of from early childhood. It is the most visible and the widest exposed organ and by far reflects
the general health condition and the aging process in humans. Both intrinsic and extrinsic
factors contribute to this complex biological process of skin aging. In recent times, skin health
and its beauty is perceived as an indicator of one’s health which has resulted in an increasing
demand for anti-aging products. Exposure to UV radiation is considered to be one of the factors
responsible for aging termed as photoaging. In this review, we have discussed the various factors
which may accelerate the process of skin aging. Various approaches and strategies to delay the
process of skin aging have been emphasized upon. The patents filed in the area of anti-aging
and sunscreen products have also been reviewed to gain an insight into the new formulations
which have been developed as an anti-aging product. There has been a tremendous rise in the
cosmetic and cosmeceuticals market with products having a dual activity of anti-aging and sun
protection. Research is constantly on the rise to ensure the safety of these products. Alternatives
to the current topical application of sunscreen are being considered to overcome the drawback
of reapplication of the sunscreen often which can be a boon to the cosmeceutical market.
Article info
Anti-aging and sunscreens
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3 349
Skin aging and its mechanism
Skin aging is a complex biological process involving a
blend of multiple components. Although the underlying
mechanism of skin aging is not yet completely understood,
multiple pathways were illustrated which were speculated
to be responsible for skin aging namely changes in DNA
repair and stability, mitochondrial function, cell cycle
and apoptosis, ubiquitin-induced proteolysis, and cellular
metabolism. The most vital factor responsible for skin
aging may be a decline in the physiological hormone.7
UV radiations contribute about 80% in the skin disease
development including skin aging and skin cancer.8 Thus
UV radiation is a causative factor for skin aging.9 Repeated
exposure to UV increases the degradation of collagen
and alters the synthesis of new collagen accompanied by
alterations in elastin fibers. The absence of both collagen
and elastin in the skin leads to loss of its flexibility and
strength.10 In addition, the skin also loses the ability to
repair itself. The different causes of aging are depicted in
Figure 1.
Factors responsible for skin aging
Most of the changes occurring in the skin may be
attributed to a mix of both, endogenous/intrinsic and
exogenous/extrinsic factors. Intrinsic aging causes changes
in the epithelial cell layer whereas extrinsic aging causes
abnormal accumulation of elastic tissue in the dermis.
Intrinsic factors
It is an endogenous mechanism of aging due to hormonal
changes, genetic factors and cellular mechanisms, and
several other mechanisms.
Free radical mechanism: To maintain equilibrium in our
body there is a constant generation and removal of the
Figure 1. Causes of aging.
free radicals. An imbalance in this process results in the
formation of excessive free radicals which are toxic to the
body and cause aging.11
In the process of intrinsic aging, these free radicals are
formed by oxidative cellular metabolism. The free radicals
produced in the process, are removed by anti-oxidative
mechanisms, but as the age progresses, there is a decrease
in the anti-oxidative mechanisms and eventually excessive
free radicals in our body which leads to cellular aging.12
Hormonal mechanisms: The skin aging takes place by
certain modification in growth factors and hormonal
activity. The decline in several hormones in our body
such as estrogen, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone
and its sulfate ester and also melatonin, insulin, cortisol,
thyroxine, and growth hormone can deteriorate several
skin functions.13 In postmenopausal women, there is a
decline in the estrogen levels which results in several aging
signs such as dryness, wrinkles, loss of elasticity, collagen
breakdown and epidermal atrophy.12
Mitochondrial DNA damage: Mitochondria consume
oxygen and produce energy, and as a result, there is a
continuous production of reactive oxygen species. These
reactive oxygen species causes oxidative stress after
exhaustion of cellular defense mechanisms and they also
cause further mutation of mitochondrial DNA. These
mitochondrial DNA cause high mutation rates because
of inefficient recognition and repair mechanism.12 This
damaged mitochondrial DNA produces less energy which
affects the energy supply to the cells which in turn lead to
cellular dysfunction. The damaged mitochondria undergo
degeneration, rupture, leakage which are the prime
reasons for aging.11
Role of telomere: Telomere protects the chromosomes
from degradation and also prevents cellular DNA
damage. Due to shortening of the telomeres, the t-loop
configuration is disrupted which initiates DNA damage
response, apoptosis, senescence or cell cycle arrest. Hence
the shortening of the telomeres is responsible for intrinsic
aging and photoaging.14
Extrinsic factors
Smoking: Smoking damages the collagen and elastic fibers
in the dermis which makes the skin more slack, hardened
and less elastic. Nicotine, carbon monoxide and other
toxic substances produced during smoking result in
vasoconstrictive and hypoxic effects on the skin. These
contribute to premature skin aging.15
Ultraviolet (UV) radiations: About 80% of the facial
aging is attributed to sun exposure. Photo damaged skin
contributes for loss of skin elasticity, skin roughness and
dryness, irregular pigmentation and deep wrinkling.16
Life style: It also has a major impact on aging. Lack of
exercise, alcohol consumption, unhealthy diet, pollution,
stress contributes to aging. Certain lifestyle factors cause
an increase or decrease in the rate of telomere shortening.
Ensuring a healthy lifestyle is important in reducing the
Shanbhag et al
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3
350
telomere shortening and thus slowing down the aging
process.17
Oxidative stress in aging
Oxidative stress has been linked to age-related loss of
elasticity of the skin. The main cause of oxidative stress
is the presence of excessive reactive oxygen species. In
normal conditions, they are produced in our body during
oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria; however,
these are inactivated by cellular antioxidant defense
mechanism. Oxidative stress triggers cellular damage
pathways and causes senescence of cells which may lead
to photoaging. Exposure to UV rays specifically UVA
rays can alter the levels of reactive oxygen species and
the protective antioxidant enzymes such as manganese
superoxide dismutase, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase
and catalases.18 The reactive oxygen species generated
not only cause skin aging but also acts as a toxic agent in
developing cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases
and numerous skin diseases.19 UVB radiations also initiate
photochemical production of reactive oxygen species
mainly superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl
radical and singlet oxygen. To reduce the effect of this
damaging solar radiation, sunscreens can be used which
protects the skin from harmful sun exposure. Oxidative
stress can also be reduced by dietary changes and special
nutrients, and thereby reduce skin damage process.8
Signs and mechanism of skin aging
Wrinkles and sagging of the skin are the two major signs
of skin aging. The underlying mechanism is still poorly
understood. The wrinkled skin has an accumulation of
altered elastic fibers and degradation of collagen bundles
in the dermis. Enhanced elastase activity in dermal
fibroblasts is mainly associated with UVB wrinkling
mechanism. The activation of cytokine expression in
epidermal keratinocytes by UVB irradiation causes the
secretion of IL-1α and GM-CSF which penetrates into the
dermis. This stimulates the expression of skin fibroblast
elastase which cleaves the elastase fibers leading to a
loss in its configuration thereby leading to reduced skin
elasticity leading to wrinkle formation.20
Prevention of aging
Different approaches are available for the prevention and
delay of skin aging. Extrinsic aging is largely preventable
than intrinsic aging. Photoprotection helps to prevent
skin aging which includes the use of sunscreens,
protective clothing and sunglasses, avoiding sun’s harmful
radiation thereby reducing the progression of skin aging.
Antioxidants also help in the prevention and treatment of
intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging by acting as free radical
scavengers thereby preventing the cells from damage.21
Treatment with antioxidants such as ascorbic acid,
polyphenols, tocopherols, and other natural substances
helps to develop resistance to oxidative stress and slows
down the process of skin aging.22 Phytochemicals such
as resveratrol, quercetin, green tea extract have also been
reported to be effective in reducing the progression of the
aging process.23 Apart from these, topical treatment with
cell regulators like vitamin A derivatives, polyphenols, and
botanicals also helps in preventing aging. These act on
collagen metabolism thereby stimulating the production
of collagen and elastic fibers.
Strategies for anti-aging
The proportion of the aged population is gradually
on the rise owing to developments in healthcare and
improvement in lifestyle, particularly in developed
countries. With aging, some of the body functions get
affected leading to a variety of diseases like a chronic
coronary disease, hypertension, and diabetes.24 Increased
production of oxygen-derived free radicals plays a vital
role in the aging process.25 Aging is a process that affects
all cells, tissues, organs, diminishing homeostasis and
increasing organism vulnerability.26 Premature photoaged
skin leads to the thickened epidermis, deep wrinkles,
discoloration, roughness, and dullness.27 Further loss of
skin elasticity leads to a phenomenon called sagging. This,
in turn, leads to less effective desquamation and slower
wound healing in older people. It is a fact that skin beauty is
perceived as an important indicator signifying the overall
well-being of an individual. Hence several anti-aging
strategies are developed. Some of them are skin care, use
of moisturizing preparations, botulinum toxin, hormone
replacement therapy, antioxidants, photoprotection, and
anti-wrinkling treatment.
As age progresses, the skin tends to become dry and
scaly, especially in the elderly. So it becomes important to
use a barrier to preserve this vital layer. Protection against
dehydration, preventing the penetration of irritants,
microorganisms, allergens, radiation, and protection
against the reactive oxygen species requires a healthy and
functioning skin barrier. Penetration via the skin can be
regulated to allow selective penetration of substances which
helps in skin regeneration, maintaining smoothness and
elasticity.1 Degradation of primary structural components,
i.e. elastin and collagen results in the formation of
wrinkles. So, care should be taken by keeping the skin
subtle and moist; this will help the skin look radiant and
younger. Personal care products are available from many
sources for this purpose.28 Some of the practices that can
improve the skin conditions are drinking more water,
eating healthier foods, reducing stress, using sunblock and
exercising more. Another approach is the use of topical
or systemic antioxidants which helps in the prevention of
wrinkles by reducing inflammation. Some of the skin care
approaches are discussed below.
Hormone replacement therapy
Months after menopause, females experience a sudden
onset of the symptoms of skin aging like dryness and a
Anti-aging and sunscreens
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3 351
decrease in skin elasticity. The decrease in estrogen might
thus reduce the skin functions which are in control of
estrogen.29 Studies have shown that hypo-estrogenism
affects the skin collagen. Skin collagen content varies
according to age, and it declines in the years following
menopause. Increase in skin collagen was found in people
who underwent hormone replacement therapy.30 However,
the evidence for the same is limited and hence remains
to be controversial. In one of the studies, an increase in
the levels of procollagen I and III messenger RNA and
collagen I protein was observed in the sun protected
aged hip skin in subjects treated with topical estradiol.
However, surprisingly, no beneficial effects were observed
when applied on photoaged forearm or face skin.31
Botulinum toxin
Botulinum toxin (BTX) does not stop the aging process,
but these BTX injections help in slowing down of the
visible aging processes such as facial lines and wrinkles.
Botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injections are the most
effective cosmetic procedures for reducing the appearance
of facial lines caused by facial muscle contraction. BTX-A
is one of the most effective approaches for wrinkles
which form because of muscular contraction. It works
by selectively blocking the release of acetylcholine at the
neuromuscular junction by binding to presynaptic nerve
terminal and thereby it prevents muscle contraction.
After this injection, improvements were found in about
1-14 days. BTX label recommends its use only for
treating glabellar lines among adults below 65 years of
age, however, it is still being used for different cosmetic
purposes.32 BTX-A has the advantage that it does not cross
the blood-brain barrier neither does it permeate through
the skin. The dosing largely depends on the area, muscle
mass and gender.1 Elders above 65 years of age are likely to
have weaker facial muscle, less elastic skin and are hence
not expected to respond well to this therapy.33 The use of
botulinum toxin type A has rapidly increased over the
years, and it has occupied a major portion in the cosmetic
care market. Its use has become synonymous with wrinkle
reduction and has formed the basis for the identification
and synthesis of many other peptides which may have
similar activity and are relatively safe as compared to
botulinum toxins.34,35
Anti-wrinkling
Wrinkles are mainly caused due to lack of elastic feature of
the skin. A specific skin fibroblast elastase inhibitor can be
used to prevent UVB induced wrinkle formation and thus
help to maintain the linear configuration of elastic fibers
and skin elasticity.20 Hyaluronic acid and botulinum toxin
have also been widely used as anti-wrinkling agents.36
Moisturizing preparations
Hyaluronic acid plays a principal role in the preservation
of hydration and elasticity of the skin. Sericin gel also has
moisturizing effect when applied on the skin. This may
be attributed to the hydration of epidermal cell and an
increase in hydroxyproline level. This aids in skin care and
anti-aging effect of sericin.37
Antioxidants and photoprotection
The primary strategy for prevention of photoaging is
photoprotection, and the secondary treatment is by the
use of exogenous antioxidants and other compounds that
cannot be synthesized in our body. Polyphenols, a novel
set of compounds have garnered widespread interests as
effective anti-aging compounds possessing significant
antioxidant properties. They prevent the formation of
reactive oxygen species triggered by exogenous (UV
radiations) and endogenous agents thereby inhibiting
oxidative skin damage.8 Vitamin B3, C, and E which
shows sufficient penetration into the skin form the
most important antioxidant substances. Several other
compounds like alpha lipoic acids, alpha hydroxyl acids in
conjunction with vitamins have proved to be beneficial as
antioxidants.38,39 Regular use of antioxidants such as vitamin
A, C, E, etc. in the normal diet, may reduce the risk of
UV induced skin damage. Antioxidants prevent oxidative
stress and enhance DNA repair. Defense mechanisms
by the cellular antioxidants help to prevent the damage
caused by the oxidizing components of UV radiations.8
Antioxidants react with the superoxides and suppress
the skin diseases caused by reactive oxygen species.19 The
different types of free radical scavengers are superoxide
dismutase, coenzyme Q10, vitamin E, vitamin C, zinc
sulfate, green tea, ferulic acid, idebenone, polyphenols,
and carotenoids.11 Several photoprotective agents are
nothing but protective clothing, umbrellas, trees which
acts as sunblock. Sunscreen which has several inorganic
and organic filters also helps in photoprotection.40
Sunscreens
Sunscreen agents protect the skin by minimizing the
damaging effects of harmful UV radiations from the sun.
About 90 % of cases of skin cancer are associated with
exposure to the sun’s harmful UV rays. UV radiation
that irradiates the earth is absorbed by the ozone layer.
Consequently, UVA and UVB reach the earth surface.
UVA reaches the earth surface and contributes to
premature skin aging and skin cancer, while, UVB causes
sunburn. Of the UV radiations reaching the earth, UVB
is responsible for most of the deleterious effects of solar
exposure, but the damaging role of UVA has been greatly
documented. Hence, new generation sunscreen which
protects a whole range of UV radiation is recommended.41
Sunscreens are strongly recommended by many healthcare
practitioners to minimize the harmful effects of UV rays
on our skin.42 The most important reason behind the
use of sunscreen is that it shields us from harmful UV
rays, prevents premature aging, tanning, and sunburns,
lowers blotchiness on the face, improves the health of the
Shanbhag et al
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3
352
skin, and lowers the incidence of skin cancer.43 UVA rays
upregulates the expression of matrix metalloproteinase
which degrades elastin and collagen, the two major
components which maintain the rigidity of skin. Failure
to protect from the harmful effects of UVA radiation may
lead to loss of elasticity and lead to wrinkling of skin.44
Sunscreen ingredients/sunscreen filters
The efficiency of the sunscreen depends on the type of UV
filter which may be an organic or an inorganic UV filter.45
The sunscreen ingredients are broadly classified into two
types viz, chemical or organic and physical or inorganic.46
Based on their mechanism of action, sunscreens are also
traditionally divided into inorganic (physical) blockers
and organic (chemical) absorbers.
Organic filters
Organic filters constitute those substances which are
capable of absorbing UV radiation of a specific range of
wavelength based on their chemical structure.47 Broad
spectrum filters used in sunscreen have a higher level
of absorption. The organic filter molecules absorb UV
energy and transform to higher energy state from the
ground state.41 Excess energy is released via isomerization
and heat release resulting in the emission of higher
wavelengths or relaxation.47 If these filter molecules are
photostable, they will deactivate to its ground state from
the excited state with the release of absorbed energy in
the form of heat.41 Organic sunscreens are classified as
derivatives of anthranilates, benzophenones, camphor,
cinnamates, dibenzoylmethanes, para-aminobenzoates,
and salicylates.48 The organic filters can be classified into:
a) Photostable filters: These are the molecules which
dissipate the absorbed energy to the surroundings in the
form of heat. These filters efficiently absorb UV energy
subsequently.
b) Photounstable filters: These are the molecules which
undergo degradation or change in their chemical structure
on the absorption of UV radiation. Hence, these cannot
absorb UV energy on subsequent exposure.
c) Photoreactive filters: These molecules jump to their
excited state on irradiation with UV. Once in their
excited state, they interact with other molecules in their
surrounding including the ingredients of sunscreen,
skin lipids and proteins. This interaction results in the
production of reactive species, resulting in untoward
biological effects.49
Inorganic filters
Inorganic filters include zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, iron
oxide, red veterinary petrolatum, kaolin, and calamine.
These filters are said to block UVB/UVA sunlight through
scattering and reflection. Two major characteristics
that determine the ability of minerals to act as physical
filters are scattering/absorption property and cosmetic
acceptability.50 They include metal oxides like titanium
dioxide or zinc oxide which is used in combination
with organic filters. Inorganic filters protect the skin by
reflecting and diffusing UV radiations. The larger metal
oxide particles tend to diffuse the light from the visible
range of the spectrum leaving an undesirable whitish
appearance on the skin.41 The whitening effect and opaque
nature are some disadvantages of these filters, which
can be minimized to some extent by the use of ultrafine
particles.49
Sunscreens and sunblocks
Sunblocks are the products which protect against UVB
rays while sunscreen protects against UVA rays. Sunblock
comes under the physical category of protective lotion,
containing both non-organic and organic constituents
that get deposited on the surface of the skin when applied,
shielding the skin from harmful UVB rays. These block
the rays from penetrating the skin. Some of the ingredients
found in sunblock are octocrylene, octyl salicylate, and
octyl methoxycinnamate. The chemical type of protective
lotions can be broadly referred to as sunscreens. This
lotion permeates through the skin and absorbs the UVA
rays before they can reach and damage the dermal layer.
Zinc oxide and titanium dioxide constitute the sunscreen.
Ecamsule is one of the ingredients present in sunscreen.
This compound shields the skin from the photoaging UVA
rays. A formulation which constitutes both sunscreen and
sunblock ingredients serves as a protective agent against
both UVB and UVA rays, and a combination of these two
is more efficient in the protection of the skin than using
them alone.51
When sunscreen is applied as recommended, it tends to
reduce only 55% of the free radical formation. However,
antioxidants in sunscreen are capable of reducing greater
amount of free radicals than the use of sunscreen alone.52
Formulation of sunscreen containing antioxidant faces
certain challenges such as ensuring the stability of
antioxidants in the final formulation. A challenging task
in the formulation of these products is that the antioxidant
needs to penetrate into the epidermis whereas the UV
filters need to remain on the surface of the skin to exert
its effect. Hence, a careful modulation of the formulation
is essential to maintain a balance between both the
properties of the product. Even though our body has an
internal antioxidant defense mechanism to neutralize
reactive oxygen species, this defense mechanism might get
depleted during excessive oxidative stress. Here the topical
administration of the antioxidants might help to reduce
the reactive oxygen species. So these antioxidants provide
additional benefits to the sunscreen formulations and skin
care products.53
Anti-aging and sunscreens
Broad spectrum sunscreens protect the skin from aging
as well as harmful UV rays. Some products also claim
protection against free radicals.54 Some of the products
Anti-aging and sunscreens
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3 353
that show both properties are listed in Table 1.
There has been a lot of research conducted on anti-aging
and sunscreen products to enhance its efficacy, stability,
safety and be more favorable to consumers. Some of the
literatures available are discussed below.
Lewicka et al63 isolated TiO2 and ZnO particles by several
extraction processes and examined its shape, dimension,
crystal phase, surface area, and elemental composition.
These TiO2 and ZnO pigments exhibited two different
sizes and forms. TiO2 pigment showed needle or nearly
spherical shape and was smaller whereas ZnO pigment
showed rod-like shape appearance and was much larger.
The surface area of ZnO was found to be less than TiO2.
The dimension of TiO2 was about 25 nm, and ZnO had
short axis less than 40 nm and longer dimension greater
than 100 nm. TEM helped to isolate and determine the
primary pigment dimensions. This study compared the
characters of the extracted sunscreen pigments with the
commercially available nanomaterials, and two sources
(T-Eco and Z-Cote) were identified which were similar
to commercially obtained sunscreen materials. Elemental
analysis showed that the sunscreen pigments contained
aluminium and silicon and were similar to T-Eco and
Z-Cote which had no additional inorganic elements.
These aluminium and silicon were used as coating
materials on TiO2 to reduce its UV photoactivity and
restrict the reactive oxygen species production. This data
would be helpful in studying the impact of engineered
nanomaterials in sunscreen on the health of individuals
and the environment.
Yenilmez et al64 formulated vitamin E incorporated
chitosan (CS) microspheres for cosmetic purposes. This
vitamin E incorporated CS microspheres were prepared
and evaluated for various characteristics such as particle
size, size distribution, zeta potential, and polymeric
lattice structure. Vitamin E as such is not used widely in
the cosmetic preparations because of its low stability, but
vitamin E in CS microspheres proved to be relatively stable.
When vitamin E was incorporated in CS microspheres, it
showed enhanced cationic character of particles which
resulted in enhanced topical penetration. The polymeric
lattice of pure CS was in amorphous state and even after
incorporation of vitamin E there was no change in the
structure of particles. Incorporation efficiency of the
vitamin E in CS microspheres was found to be 78.40 ±
2.41% (w/w). In vitro studies showed that vitamin E
release from CS microsphere was 89.1% at the end of 6
hours. DPPH tests showed that this formulation had an
antioxidant effect. In vivo efficiency tests of vitamin E
formulation showed an increase in skin elasticity and
moisture without a change in skin pH and sebum values,
proving to be an effective anti-aging product.
Topical peptides have also been explored as a possible
anti-aging strategy. Lim et al studied the enhanced
penetration of Argireline®, a synthetic acetyl hexapeptide
as a plausible compound for reducing the wrinkles
associated with aging. Four peptide analogs which were
chemically modified were investigated for its increased
penetration ability. The wrinkle reducing effect of the
peptides were also compared using human dental pulp
stem cells. The peptides were dissolved in propylene
glycol and water mixture to evaluate its permeation.
The modified peptides were found to show an enhanced
penetration and anti-wrinkling potential as compared to
the parent compound.65,66
The effect of modulation of gene expression instigated
by Aframomum angustifolium seed extract was evaluated
as a possible anti-aging strategy by Talbourdet et al. The
efficacy of the extracts was evaluated on normal human
keratinocytes (NHKs) and human fibroblasts (NHFs). The
expressions of antioxidant genes namely metallothionein
1, metallothionein 2, and thioredoxin were increased in
NHKs, while expressions of glutathione peroxidase were
increased in NHFs. On evaluating the efficacy of the skin
care product containing the seed extract, a significant
improvement in the homogeneity of the skin was
observed. This suggests the potential of the seed extract as
a possible gene expression modulator and its effect on the
skin rejuvenation as a promising anti-wrinkling agent.67
Increasing age is often associated with a decrease in the
stem cell production. They form the building blocks for
regeneration. Presence of stem cells will help in repairing
Table 1. List of some marketed products with both anti-aging and sunscreen properties
Product name SPF Claims References
Clinique 30 Mineral sunscreen fluid for face, high-quality sun care product 55
Kiehl’s activated sun protector 50 Water resistant facial sun cream that protects from UVB 56
La Roche Posay Anthelios XL 50 The ultra-light fluid that’s scent-free and won’t clog pores 57
Nivea 50 An anti-age face cream that helps reducing wrinkles and fine lines and also highly moisturizing
and protects from UV rays 58
Clarins 15, 30 Sun wrinkle control cream for face. It provides sun protection and contains anti-aging properties 59
Ultrasun face 30 Anti-aging formula, this sunscreen fights against free radicals 60
Alpha H 50 It is a multipurpose beauty product. It is a moisturizer which protects the skin from UV rays, free
radical damage and photo aging 61
Frezyderm 30 It provides protection against UVB and it also helps prevent photoaging 62
Shanbhag et al
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3
354
damaged areas by secretion of growth factors which can
act as a potential strategy for skin therapeutics.68 Sych et al
evaluated the potential for the use of fetal stem cells (FSCs)
as an anti-aging strategy. Studies were conducted on 126
subjects which revealed that FSCs were found to be safe
and efficacious for rejuvenation therapy.69 These results
proved that stem cells could be a promising alternative to
the currently available anti-aging products.
Fu et al. conducted a randomized trial on 196 women
to evaluate the efficacy of a cosmetic product containing
5% niacinamide, peptides and 0.3 % retinyl propionate
in comparison to the commercially available tretinoin
as a potential anti-wrinkling agent. The results revealed
a remarkable improvement in the fine lines and wrinkle
appearance after 8 weeks when compared to that of
prescription product, tretinoin.70
Nanoparticles in anti-aging and sunscreens
Nanoparticles have been explored for its use in delivering
a variety of cosmeceuticals. Conventional delivery systems
have been replaced with novel nanocarriers like liposomes,
niosomes, nanostructured lipid carriers, nanoemulsion,
etc. Their stability, high entrapment efficiency, controlled
release of the actives and enhanced skin penetration
make it advantageous over the conventional counterparts.
A plethora of literature is available on the use of
nanoparticles as a delivery system for anti-aging and
sunscreen effects. Heydari et al prepared nanoethosomal
delivery system of gamma oryzanol for dermal delivery to
prevent skin aging. The effect of the formulation on the
skin wrinkle improvement was studied by dermoscopic
and histological examination on healthy humans and
rats. The results of histopathological studies revealed
an improved antioxidant activity of the nanoethosomal
formulation as compared to the plain gel. Positive results
with respect to its photo protective effect were confirmed
from dermoscopic studies.71
The photoprotective and antioxidant effects of
naringenin were studied by formulating them into
polymeric nanoparticles. The in vitro skin permeation
studies revealed an increased deposition of naringenin
in the skin rather than permeation into the deeper layers.
The formulation also exhibited significant antioxidant
effect with limited dermal toxicity. This suggests that the
nanoparticulate formulation may behave as a potential
antioxidant and sunscreen agent.72
Transferosomes loaded with epigallocatechin-3-gallate
(EGCG) and hyaluronic acid were developed by Avadhani
et al to enhance their sun protective activity along with
their antioxidant and anti-aging effects. The developed
nanoparticles showed promising free-radical scavenging
and were able to suppress ROS and MDA levels when
evaluated in human keratinocytes. An enhanced
penetration and deposition of EGCG were found in
the skin when given with hyaluronic acid.73 Shetty et al
developed a novel sunscreen formulation containing
morin which showed positive in vitro free radical
scavenging properties. The nanoparticles were further
incorporated into creams containing zinc oxide and nano
titanium dioxide which showed optimum sun protection
factor of ~40. In vivo studies on UV exposed rats revealed
excellent antioxidant effects with least toxicity.6
To reduce irritation potential and to prolong the
duration of action and increase the loading capacity of
tretinoin (a vitamin A derivative), Ghate et al formulated
nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The NLCs were then
incorporated into carbopol gel for the ease of application.
On evaluating it’s in vitro release profile, a sustained
release pattern was observed when compared to the
marketed product. In vivo skin irritation studies showed
minimal skin irritation with the developed formulations
in comparison to marketed tretinoin gel.74
Ammar et al developed folic acid loaded nanostructured
carriers to enable its controlled delivery for an anti-aging
effect. The NLCs were fabricated using the hot high-
pressure homogenization technique. The optimized
nanoparticles were evaluated for their in vitro release, ex
vivo skin permeation and antioxidant properties. About
95% of folic acid was found to be encapsulated within the
lipid matrix. On determining its skin deposition ability,
the results showed a promising accumulation within the
skin revealing a depot effect. The developed formulations
also showed a significant hydration and free radical
scavenging potential suggesting the possibility of using
this formulation as a potential anti-aging formulation.75
The protective effect of rice bran oil against UVB
induced skin injury in mice when encapsulated within
a lipid core nanocapsule was evaluated by Rigo et al.
Nanocapsules were prepared using poly(ε-caprolactone)
and span 60 which were later incorporated into hydrogels
made of carbopol as gel base. The efficacy of the
formulation was tested in UVB induced skin injury in
mice. The in vivo results showed a promising protective
and antioxidant effect of rice bran oil when encapsulated
within nanocapsules as compared to rice bran oil alone.
This technology suggests the critical role of nanoparticles
as delivery carriers for the treatment of skin injuries
triggered by UV radiations.76
Patents on anti-aging and sunscreens
Due to the widespread market value of the anti-aging and
sunscreen products, constant developments are being
made to come out with new formulations for the same.
Many patents have been filed by researchers, a few of
which have been compiled in this section.
Gershon et al77 formulated sunscreen preparation
containing zinc oxide (ZnO) particles. The particle size of
ZnO was tailored in such a way that they were within the
maximum threshold of 80 nm and a minimum threshold
of 30 nm. ZnO has the ability to absorb UV radiation and
protect the skin from further damage. These particles
were further coated with the optical coating material and
Anti-aging and sunscreens
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3 355
suspended in a suitable media which was selected based
on its refractive index. Two or more media were combined
together to achieve the desired refractive index between
1 and 2. Integration of the multiple zinc oxide particles
was performed by dispersing it in the first medium and
applying the second medium on the top. The multiple
manipulated zinc oxide particles were optically coated
which contains silicon dioxide. Each of these optically
coated multiple zinc oxide particles undergoes aggregation
and forms one or more clusters of size greater than 200
nm. In these clusters, the multiple zinc oxide particles
create optical separation. The aggregates comprise one or
more binding agent with one or more nanospheres.
Alexiades-Armenakas78 developed cosmetic preparation
containing active ingredients to fight various signs of skin
aging such as wrinkles, age spots, reduction in redness,
acne, and rosacea. This single anti-aging skin care
formulation contained 37 different microencapsulated
ingredients which are protected from surrounding
ingredients and also penetrates deeper strata of skin.
The cream consisted of multiple ingredients along with
a polymer base. The ingredients were selected based on
their safety and efficacy, and belonged to the following
categories, viz, DNA and cellular repair, anti-wrinkle,
anti-redness and anti-pigmentation, antioxidant, anti
UV damage, barrier repair, moisturizer, pro-collagen
and an ingredient which prevents abnormal skin lesions.
The ingredients having DNA repair and anti UV damage
properties, procollagen were encapsulated in liposomes
which contained soy lecithin to target epidermis. Cationic
liposomes were chosen to ensure intercellular delivery
of antioxidants including vitamin C and E for deeper
penetration into the dermis layer. The liposomes consisted
of an edge activator, sodium deoxycholate which helps in
barrier repair and acts as an emollient.
Armand79 formulated an anti-aging cream containing
equal mixture high molecular weight hyaluronic
acid (HA) and low molecular weight hyaluronic
acid oligosaccharides. Water-based hyaluronan was
prepared to repair and prevent skin aging by preventing
transepidermal water loss, damage to skin elastic fibers.
This mixture of hyaluronan helps in the production
of new collagen, skin keratinocytes, and extracellular
matrix components. Low molecular weight hyaluronic
acid oligosaccharides were prepared by hydrolyzing
high molecular weight hyaluronic acid with testicular
hyaluronidase, followed by its purification using ion-
exchange resins. The obtained oligosaccharides were
chemically deacetylated and mixed with an equal
amount of high molecular weight hyaluronan in the final
formulation. The penetrability of the formulation into the
dermis was assessed using artificial skin and nude mice
using isothiocyanatofluorescein coupled hyaluronan
oligosaccharides.
Zahner80 formulated a topical sunscreen lotion
containing ingredients in its natural state. This natural
sunscreen with an aqueous phase had the composition
as follows: melanin, green tea extract with a polyphenol,
mineral pigments of titanium dioxide or zinc oxide. This
all natural sunscreen lotion was formulated with the
active ingredients such that it would provide desired SPF,
protection of cell from free radicals and level of water
resistance. The green tea polyphenols possess synergistic
photoprotective effects on skin when combined with
TiO2and ZnO and are effective in reducing erythema.
Melanin present in the formulation is a superior free radical
trap, and it is also capable of regenerating the neutralized
polyphenols of green tea. The mineral pigments, TiO2 and
ZnO, are said to be active UVA/UVB reflecting sunscreen
ingredients which provide UVB protection of 75% for
SPF 4, 88% for SPF 8 and 93% for SPF 15. These mineral
sunscreens are left untreated such that this sunscreen
composition remains in all natural state.
Toxicity aspects
There are certain ingredients in the sunscreen that might
cause hormonal changes in the body. Oxybenzone is an
organic filter which absorbs UV radiations especially UVB
radiation, and it is systemically absorbed and excreted
in urine and feces.81 Oxybenzone is one such ingredient
which affects the estrogenic levels in the body, and it
has the highest rate of photoallergy among other UV
filters.45 However, it was speculated that this effect could
only be seen in individuals who would use the product
continuously for a longer period for about 35-277 years.54
Nanoparticles can also cause local and systemic toxicity.
Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are reduced to nanosized
particles so there is a great concern that these particles
would penetrate the skin and produce UV induced free
radicals.81 Continuous use of the sunscreen will prevent t he
exposure of the skin to UVB radiations thus there would
be insufficient vitamin D synthesis in our body. Thus the
individuals might not acquire the normal vitamin D levels
which are required by the body. The dietary supplement
would help to maintain the normal vitamin D levels in
our body.45 Some chemical ingredients in sunscreen might
cause edema, erythema, and irritation.82 To increase the
patient compliance, several sunscreens have preservatives,
fragrances, and other excipients which might induce
allergic reactions in sensitive individuals. Patients with
photodermatitis are likely to develop photo contact
dermatitis to sunscreen.83 Sunscreens containing p-amino
benzoic acid (PABA) help to protect from UVB rays and is
said to be water resistant.42 But in vitro studies have shown
that PABA interacts with DNA followed by UV radiations
and might cause photocarcinogenesis.48 Hence a careful
selection of sunscreen is vital to reap its benefits.
Regulatory requirements/guidelines
As per the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laws,
cosmetics products do not require pre-market approval
from FDA. Nevertheless, these products are regulated
Shanbhag et al
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3
356
by certain laws put forth by FDA.84 However, if these
cosmetics contain any ingredients which may alter the
body function, these are categorized as ‘drug’ as per Food,
Drug and Cosmetic Act (FD&C). It is the responsibility
of the company which manufactures these products to
ensure the safety of such products.85
Labeling information on sunscreen products
Some of the points which have to be displayed on the
sunscreen label along with its explanation have been
detailed below:
Broad spectrum: The label should specify if the
sunscreen is a broad spectrum one. Sunscreens which are
labeled as broad-spectrum protect our skin from both
UVB and UVA rays. For a sunscreen to be broad spectrum
it has to pass FDA broad spectrum test that measures the
transmittance or absorbance of ultraviolet radiations
across both UVA and UVB regions of the spectrum.86
SPF: SPF is an important claim to be specified on
the sunscreen products. SPF gives a measure of UVB
rays involved in burning and not UVA rays involved in
ageing.21 An SPF of 15 is expected to protect the skin from
harmful UV rays for about 150 minutes.87 The levels of
protection from different SPF rates are: SPF15 provides
93% of protection from UVB rays, SPF30 provides 97%
of protection from UVB rays, and SPF50 provides 98% of
protection from UVB rays (Figure 2).88,89
Thus we can conclude that SPF30 gives only 4% more
protection and SPF50, about 5% more protection than
SPF15.88 So it is a misapprehension that higher SPF can
give more protection than that with a lower one.90
Water resistance: The sunscreen that claims to be water
resistant should be reapplied for every 40 to 80 minutes
which helps to provide protection while swimming and
sweating.91
Shelf life: According to FDA, the shelf life of the
sunscreen should be at least three years. The sunscreen
products which does not have an expiry date mentioned
on it clearly indicates that the shelf life of the product is
three years.86 However, storage conditions can render the
product unstable. Extreme temperatures also make the
sunscreens less effective despite its expiration date.51
Conclusion and future prospects
Although the sun is beneficial and essential for life,
exposing ourselves too much to sunlight might lead to
detrimental health effects such as skin cancer. Studies
and research have been conducted to introduce sunscreen
in the form of pills for oral administration instead of
reapplying the topical sunscreen repeatedly. Research and
development are constantly underway to ensure that the
sunscreen products are more effective and lessen the risk
of adverse effects. Nanotechnology platforms have proved
to be a major part of the cosmeceutical market owing to
its better anti-aging and sunscreen potential which also
renders a better skin deposition property and stability to
the formulations. There has been ongoing research for
the use of photosynthetic microorganisms in sunscreens
especially cyanobacteria which has great potential in
protecting our skin from damaging UV radiation and
intense sunlight. Such biological compounds have many
potential advantages over current synthetically derived
sunscreens. The synthetic compounds are being gradually
replaced with natural compounds as the new source of
protective agents owing to their better efficacy and safety.
Ethical Issues
Not applicable.
Conflict of Interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest in this study.
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
120%
SPF 2 SPF 4 SPF 8 SPF 10 SPF 15 SPF 30 SPF 50
Protection Against UVB Rays
Figure 2. Protection rate of sunscreens with sun protection factor (SPF) from ultraviolet B (UVB) rays.
Anti-aging and sunscreens
Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2019, Volume 9, Issue 3 357
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... Environmental stressors, such as ultraviolet light, humidity, and heat can have adverse effects on skin health [1,[5][6][7]. Ultraviolet exposure can result in the production of 2 of 9 reactive oxygen species, the degradation of extracellular matrix components, and inflammation [8]. The consequences can include wrinkle formation, skin dryness, erythema, and hyperpigmentation [5,6,9]. ...
... Ultraviolet exposure can result in the production of 2 of 9 reactive oxygen species, the degradation of extracellular matrix components, and inflammation [8]. The consequences can include wrinkle formation, skin dryness, erythema, and hyperpigmentation [5,6,9]. Additionally, environmental conditions have been associated with self-perceived sensitive skin. ...
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External and internal stressors have been found to adversely affect skin health and overall wellness. There is growing interest in the use of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant plant-derived ingredients, such as ashwagandha, saffron, l-theanine, and tocopherol, to mitigate the impact of these stressors. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of oral and topical products (InnerCalm and SuperCalm, respectively) that contain naturally derived ingredients on skin redness, skin pigmentation, sleep, and mood in healthy females with Fitzpatrick skin type 1–4 and self-perceived sensitive skin. Subjects were randomized to an oral (oral group), a topical (topical group), or a combination of both the oral and topical interventions (combined group). Standardized photography-based image analysis was used to assess skin redness and pigment. Self-assessments of mood and sleep were measured with the abbreviated profile of mood states (POMS) questionnaire, and the Pittsburgh sleep-quality index (PSQI), respectively. Assessments were made at the baseline, 1-week, 4-weeks, and 8-weeks of the intervention. The average facial redness decreased in the topical group at 8-weeks (p < 0.001) and in the combined group at 4-weeks (p < 0.05) and 8-weeks (p < 0.001), relative to the baseline. The average facial pigmentation decreased in the oral (p < 0.05) and combined (p < 0.05) cohorts at 8-weeks, relative to the baseline. The oral group exhibited an improvement in sleep quality at 1-week relative to the baseline (p < 0.05) and at 8-weeks relative to the baseline (p < 0.05). Finally, the combined group demonstrated improvement in fatigue (p < 0.01) and confusion (p < 0.05) at 8-weeks relative to the baseline, though total mood disturbance increased in all 3 groups over the course of the study. Measured outcomes relating to mood may be confounded with the timing of the study, which ran during the COVID pandemic. Overall, we demonstrate the role of oral and topical herbs and of nutraceuticals for skin health and wellness. Further research will be needed to elucidate synergistic effects in oral and topical combination regimens.
... As photoprotective agents, these molecules have broad-spectrum UV absorption that includes regions between 290 nm and 400 nm. UV radiation is a dangerous environmental agent that causes molecular alterations and several harmful responses in skin cells [21][22][23][24][25]. This radiation range downregulates ROS elimination pathways, thereby promoting their production in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis [17]. ...
... UVB radiation induces the overproduction of ROS, which can react with lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins, causing oxidative stress and damage to cells [15,19]. Both UVA and UVB radiations produce DNA damage [22], mainly cyclobutene pyrimidine dimers, which are considered the main mutagenesis cause [23,27], causing skin cancer [28]. In keratinocyte cells, ROS generate apoptosis through the stimulation of the caspase-mediated signaling pathway [29]. ...
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Photoprotective agents obtained from plants provide benefits for the health of the skin. The present study aims to assess the total phenolic content (TPC) and in vitro UV-protective properties of twelve essential oils (EOs) from plants grown in Colombia and to evaluate the antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of two species identified as photoprotective potentials: Cymbopogon flexuosus and Tagetes lucida. The composition of EOs was studied by GC/MS. The cytotoxicity of both EOs was examined using an MTT assay, and an H2-DCFDA probe was employed to estimate the intracellular production of ROS in HepG2 and Calu-1 cells. Major constituents (≥10%) were neral, geranial, geranyl acetate in C. flexuosus and estragole in T. lucida. The TPC for C. flexuosus and T. lucida EOs were ≥10 mg GAE/g byproduct. Both EOs showed photoprotective properties (SPFin vitro: 13–14), and long-wavelength UVA protection (λc > 370 nm). HepG2 and Calu-1 cells exposed to C. flexuosus exhibited antiproliferative activity (˂50%) at 125 µg/mL, while T. lucida was at 250 and 500 µg/mL. The IC50 values for C. flexuosus were 75 and 100 µg/mL in HepG2 and Calu-1 cells, respectively, whereas those for T. lucida were >250 µg/mL. These EOs achieved significant inhibitory effects (between 15.6 and 40.4%) against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The results showed that EO compounds recognized as antioxidants could counteract the effects elicited by H2O2.
... Through the use of anti-aging products or treatments, collagen production can be boosted, or its natural loss slowed. Anti-aging treatments are also necessary to reduce fine lines, wrinkles, and acne, and it also helps to firm up the skin [158]. ...
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The global cosmetics market reached US$500 billion in 2017 and is expected to exceed US$800 billion by 2023, at around a 7% annual growth rate. The cosmetics industry is emerging as one of the fastest-growing industries of the past decade. Data shows that the Chinese cosmetics market was US$60 billion in 2021. It is expected to be the world's number one consumer cosmetics market by 2050, with a size of approximately US$450 billion. The influence of social media and the internet has raised awareness of the risks associated with the usage of many chemicals in cosmetics and the health benefits of natural products derived from plants and other natural resources. As a result, the cosmetic industry is now paying more attention to natural products. The present review focus on the possible applications of natural products from various biological sources in skin care cosmetics, including topical care products, fragrances, moisturizers, UV protective, and anti-wrinkle products. In addition, the mechanisms of targets for evaluation of active ingredients in cosmetics and the possible benefits of these bioactive compounds in rejuvenation and health, and their potential role in cosmetics are also discussed.
... Elastosis is another prototypical feature generated in damaged skin due to actinic keratosis, which turns into an amorphous mass on severe long-term photoaging [39]. Therefore, several studies have opined on the use of sunscreens daily to provide protection from skin aging due to UV exposure [40,41]. ...
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Ultraviolet radiation serve as a principal carter to dermatoheliosis, also professed as extrinsic aging or photoaging that encompasses premature skin vicissitudes secondary to damage instigated by chronic sun exposure. The present literature study embarks on the fundamental understanding of molecular/pathophysiological mechanisms and signal transduction pathways convoluted in the process of photoaging. Special impetus have also been laid to the morphological, biological and histological aspects highlighting the impact of age, gender, type of skin, intensity of radiation exposure and cellular biomarkers. Further, this review examines the state-of-the-art practices or experimental models (such as in vitro cell lines/in vivo animal models/ex vivo skin models) employed for the physicochemical and toxicological characterization of nanobiomaterials in photoaging research. Efforts have been made to recapitulate the potential application of phytoprotectants based nanotherapies or approaches in the efficacious management of photoaging. Furthermore, the study aims to disseminate the recent advances (in terms of patented compositions, novel nanotechnologies and commercial nanoformulations (having diverse anti-aging and photo-protective product portfolio) available in the clinical settings or in the cosmaceutical sector for improvising the aesthetic performance) underlining the tremendous growth in the nutracosmaceutical sector. The authors firmly believe that the current review shall not only capture the interest of readers towards the process of dermatoheliosis but, could also rekindle the attention of scientific community for inclusive assimilation of nanotechnology with nutraceuticals that may aid as a barrier against exogenous or endogenous toxic substances currently in practice to treat a variety of skin disorders.
... The ROS produced not only age the skin but also act as a toxic agent in the development of cancer, inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and a variety of skin disorders. 37 According to the literature, flavonoids-enriched herbal cosmetics were shown to be non-irritating to the skin. ...
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Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is one of the components of licorice roots ( Glycyrrhiza glabra L.). GA is a triterpenoid saponin can be used as a medicinal plant with its antiallergic, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, hepatoprotective, anticancer, anti-oxidation activities and several other therapeutic properties. The aim of this study is to develop an anti-aging formulation for topical application containing GA. In this context, GA-loaded Poly (D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared using the double emulsion method, and were characterized by various spectroscopic methods. The efficacy of GA-PLGA NPs was evaluated with i n vitro and in silico methods. The encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were calculated. The in vitro release study was conducted, and the GA release profile was determined. The genotoxic activity of GA and GA-PLGA NPs was evaluated by the Ames test using TA98 and TA100 mutant strains of Salmonella typhimurium . The cytotoxic potential of GA-PLGA NPs was evaluated on the HaCaT cell line using the MTT assay. According to the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity results, it was found that the GA-PLGA NP formulation did not exhibit genotoxic and cytotoxic effects. Moreover, the efficacy of GA in preventing UVB-induced photo-aging in HaCaT cells and the clarification of the molecular mechanism of GA binding to MMPs were revealed by molecular docking analysis. In addition, through molecular dynamics (MD) analysis, the binding interaction of GA with MMPs in a dynamic system, and protein-ligand stability were predicted as a result of 50 ns MD simulation studies considering various analysis parameters. Finally, it was evaluated that GA-PLGA nanoformulation might be used as an alternative anti-aging skin care product candidate via topical application.
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Introducción. Un factor fundamental en el envejecimiento de la piel es la exposición acumulativa a la luz solar. Al avanzar el proceso de fotoenvejecimiento, el colágeno y las fibras elásticas experimentan mayores daños, generando patologías asociadas a cáncer. Se plantea como objetivo de esta revisión, analizar la evidencia que existe en relación a las diferentes situaciones del fotoenvejecimiento cutáneo y su asociación con el cáncer de piel. Metodología. Se elaboró una revisión sistemática, exploratoria, a través de una búsqueda bibliográfica en gestores de bases de datos en salud. Se seleccionaron 18 artículos completos entre los años 2019 y 2020. Resultados. Se agruparon los hallazgos de los artículos en dos matrices de información, la primera que indica los temas principales del fotoenvejecimiento y la relación con los factores asociados a cáncer de piel, y una segunda matriz que presenta la interrelación de la asociación con la conclusión más relevante del artículo. Conclusiones. El fotoenvejecimiento es un problema que crece día a día impactando en la vida del ser humano, creando repercusiones a nivel físico y mental que afectan la calidad de vida. Es necesario crear conciencia acerca de los mecanismos de fotoprotección, como el uso de bloqueadores solares, antioxidantes, evitar la luz solar y uso de lentes solares, entre otros; y, en los casos que ya exista algún daño por fotoenvejecimiento, elegir la mejor alternativa e individualizar cada paciente según su tipo de piel y enfermedades asociadas con la edad, para un mejor enfoque de tratamiento, y así impactar de manera positiva en el crecimiento exponencial que existe hoy en día en diversos tipos de cáncer de piel y lesiones precancerosas.
Chapter
Nanotechnology is usually measured to be the prospect of the beauty industry and contemporary antiaging program. The metallic nanoparticles (MNPs) are employed as an important agent in cosmetic and beauty preparations. MNPs are mainly synthesized through three approaches—physical, chemical, and biological. Because of certain disadvantages and limitations of physically and chemically synthesized nanoparticles (NPs), there was a growing need for a toxic-free, high-yield, energy-saving, green origin, biocompatible, and environmental-friendly method. Green biosynthesized NPs are the unconventional method, which is hydrophilic, biocompatible, and toxic less. Consequently, biologically synthesized MNPs are superlative components for nanomedicine and nanocosmeceuticals. Nowadays peoples are highly concerned and worried about the adverse effects of cosmeceutical preparations and the incorporation of nanomaterials (NMs) in the composition of products. As the people's demand for herbal cosmeceuticals is in demand, the incorporation of biosynthesized NMs in cosmetic products might lead to a new dimension. In this review, the process of biosynthesis of MNPs and types used in cosmetics preparations is presented. The major nanocosmetic formulations, NMs safety assessment process, the toxicity of biosynthesized nanocosmeceuticals, followed by the recent advances regarding nanoproduct regulations. Several nanostructures are being experienced in cosmetics, and the rapid proliferation and commercialization of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals have encouraged enormous technical and economic hopes; on the contrary, it has also raised numerous concerns in respect of safety and public health in case of prolonged applications. Thus, it is highly recommended that the biosynthesized MNPs-based cosmetic products should be made following safety regulations and used in such a way that abuser and environmental safety are abundantly confined. In present days, the biosynthesized colloidal MNPs are ideal components for various preparations mainly in cosmetics under their anticipated biocompatibility or even absolute lack of toxicity.
Chapter
Cosmeceuticals are contemplated as the fastest growing segment of the personal care industry, and the market for personal care is increasing enormously. Cosmeceutical products have appreciable therapeutic efficacy on the skin and other parts of the human body, as drugs and formulations for the treatment of various conditions like wrinkles, photoaging, skin dryness, dark spots, hair damage, hyperpigmentation, and so on. Despite the enormous benefits of cosmeceuticals and substantial progress made by the cosmeceutical industry in the development and incorporation of new and effective actives in their products, the skin barrier function, larger in size, poor skin permeability, or penetrability remains a major limiting factor in the penetration as well as absorption of these actives inside the skin layers. To overcome these associated drawbacks of traditional cosmeceutical products, the application of nanotechnology is escalating in the area of cosmeceuticals and holds an extraordinary place. Nanotechnology in the cosmetic industry involves making products with nanomaterials. Currently, a plethora of nanostructured materials are used in the delivery of cosmeceutical formulations including nanocapsules, dendrimers, nanoemulsions, liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, niosomes, ethosomes, cubosomes, silver or gold nanoparticles, and fullerenes. These nanosized materials can significantly improve the solubility of poorly aqueous soluble compounds, facilitate skin permeation, and increase their stability against external environments mostly light and temperature. However, the increased use of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals has raised concern about the possible penetration of nanoparticles through the skin, and potential hazards to consumer health must be encountered for the design of safer nano-based cosmeceutical products. This chapter highlights the recent advancement and potential of nanotechnology in cosmeceuticals as well as their possible challenges for successful skin delivery and clinical translation.
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Wrinkles can have a negative effect on quality of life and Botox is one of the most effective and common treatments. Argireline (Arg0), a mimetic of Botox, has been found to be safer than Botox and effective in reducing wrinkles, with efficacies up to 48% upon 4 weeks of twice daily treatment. However, the skin permeation of Arg0 is poor, due to its large molecular weight and hydrophilicity. Arg0 exists in zwitterionic form and this charged state hindered its skin permeation. Chemical modification of the peptide structure to reduce the formation of zwitterions may result in increased skin permeability. We investigated a total of 4 peptide analogues (Arg0, Arg1, Arg2, Arg3), in terms of skin permeation and wrinkle reduction. The 4 peptides were dissolved in various propylene glycol and water co-solvents. Enhanced human skin permeation was demonstrated by both Arg2 and Arg3 in vitro. On the other hand, the abilities of the 4 analogues to reduce wrinkle formation were also compared using primary human dental pulp stem cells derived neurons. By measuring the inhibition of glutamate release from the neurons in vitro, it was shown that Arg3 was the most effective, followed by Arg1, Arg0 and Arg2.
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Aging impacts diseases and lifespan. With current knowledge of stem cells, it is feasible to design and test interventions that delay aging and improve both health and lifespan. Stem cells, together with anti-aging genes such as Klotho, play a crucial role in delaying the aging process. Stem cells in combination with anti-aging genes make a complex and protective shield, which stand against the eroding effects of aging. Increased wear and tear of the stem cells, as well as Klotho deficiency, is expected to heavily increase cellular damage and accelerate the process of aging. Stem cells in conjugation with anti-aging genes probably receive and neutralize most of the devastating signaling effects which are known to cause premature aging. The shield of stem cells combined with anti-aging genes is a primary target for absorbing the shock of aging. If this shield neutralizes the shocks, it could lead to a youthful state, but if not it will accelerate the aging journey. In this review, we concisely discuss the neutralizing ability, operated and regulated by stem cells and other life-extension factors. We suggest that stem cell interventions that increase rejuvenation and keep in balance the expression of anti-aging genes could delay the aging phenotypes and result in prolonged lifespan.
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The present work attempts to develop and statistically optimize transfersomes containing EGCG and hyaluronic acid to synergize the UV radiation-protective ability of both compounds, along with imparting antioxidant and anti-aging effects. Transfersomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique, using soy phosphatidylcholine and sodium cholate, combined with high-pressure homogenization. They were characterized with respect to size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, morphology, entrapment efficiency, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), in vitro antioxidant activity and ex vivo skin permeation studies. Cell viability, lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS levels and expression of MMPs (2 and 9) were determined in human keratinocyte cell lines (HaCaT). The composition of the transfersomes was statistically optimized by Design of Experiments using Box–Behnken design with four factors at three levels. The optimized transfersome formulation showed vesicle size, polydispersity index and zeta potential of 101.2 ± 6.0 nm, 0.245 ± 0.069 and −44.8 ± 5.24 mV, respectively. FTIR and DSC showed no interaction between EGCG and the selected excipients. XRD results revealed no form conversion of EGCG in its transfersomal form. The optimized transfersomes were found to increase the cell viability and reduce the lipid peroxidation, intracellular ROS and expression of MMPs in HaCaT cells. The optimized transfersomal formulation of EGCG and HA exhibited considerably higher skin permeation and deposition of EGCG than that observed with plain EGCG. The results underline the potential application of the developed transfersomes in sunscreen cream/lotions for improvement of UV radiation-protection along with deriving antioxidant and anti-aging effects.
Article
Objectives: Our goal was to refine upon the methods of treatment and rejuvenation by way of combination including classical treatment and fetal stem cells (FSCs) administered in suspensions containing fetal liver cells, cells of fetal brain as well as fetal connective tissue.Materials and methods: 126 persons were involved into our study divided into 2 groups: the patients of the 1st group (67 persons including 40 women of average age 42.35 ± 0.78 and 27 men of mean age 44.16 ± 0.69 years) were administered FSCs during 3 days. Suspensions of fetal liver were administered (2 to 5 mL per 200.0 mL saline solution) for 60 min on treatment day 1. Treatment day 2 suggested use of suspensions of FSCs extracted from placenta from 4 to 6 mL s.c. injected to the anterior abdominal wall. Suspensions containing connective tissue cells administered in the anterior abdominal wall (2.5 to 4 mL). The patients of the 2nd group (59 persons under study, including 28 women of average age 43.21 ± 0.81 years and 31 men of mean age by 42.21 ± 0.72 years) were additionally performed cosmetology procedures in the region of face and décolleté with application of chorion extract onto provisionally prepared facial skin in volume of 2 mL, followed by plotting with special thermo-mask on the face.Results: The authors proved effectiveness and safety of treatment by FSCs in persons undergoing therapy for rejuvenation. Significant improvement of hormonal status and levels of electrolytes was recorded under this study. In the 2nd group esthetician noticed a significant improvement of skin in the region of face and décolleté already over 3 months after FSCs administration.Conclusion: FSCs use in complex treatment of patients as antiaging and rejuvenation strategies improves hormonal background and skin general appearance in the region of face and décolleté.
Article
Background: The aim of this study was to develop sunscreen creams containing polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) of naringenin for photo-protective and antioxidant effects. Methods: Polymeric NPs of naringenin were prepared and optimized. The NPs were incorporated into sunscreen creams and evaluated for in vitro and in vivo skin retention. Results: The optimized naringenin NPs showed a size of 131.2 nm, zeta potential -25.4 mV and entrapment efficiency 32.45%. Absence of drug-excipient interaction was confirmed by FTIR and DSC. XRD analysis demonstrated the amorphization of naringenin in nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy showed the sphericity of the NPs with size of <200 nm. Cytotoxicity assessment in HaCaT cells indicated non-toxic nature of naringenin NPs. In vitro skin permeation studies demonstrated that higher amount of naringenin permeated at the end of 12h (Q12h =184.03±3.37 μg/cm(2) ) and deposited in the skin (10.38±0.48 μg/cm(2) ) from NPs as compared to plain naringenin. Sunscreen creams (SC1-SC5) containing plain naringenin or NPs with/without nano-zinc oxide and nano-titanium dioxide were prepared and evaluated. Optimized cream (SC5) containing naringenin NPs showed highest SPF value and enhanced skin retention of naringenin in comparison with NPs in suspension form and other cream formulations. Conclusion: Optimized nanoparticulate sunscreen cream exhibited highest skin retention and negligible skin permeation of naringenin besides showing excellent SPF value. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Sunscreens have been widely used by the general public for their photoprotective properties, including prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging and management of photodermatoses. It is important to emphasize to consumers the necessity of broad-spectrum protection, with coverage of both ultraviolet A (320-400 nm) and ultraviolet B (290-320 nm) radiation. This review discusses the benefits of sunscreen, different ultraviolet filters, sunscreen regulations and controversies, the importance of broad-spectrum protection, issues of photostability and formulation, and patient education and compliance.
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Background: Free radical scavengers and antioxidants, with the main focus on enhanced targeting to the skin layers, can provide protection against skin ageing. Objective: The aim of the present study was to prepare nanoethosomal formulation of gammaoryzanol (GO), a water insoluble antioxidant, for its dermal delivery to prevent skin aging. Methods: Nanoethosomal formulation was prepared by a modified ethanol injection method and characterized by using laser light scattering, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The effects of formulation parameters on nanoparticle size, encapsulation efficiency percent (EE%) and loading capacity percent (LC%) were investigated. Antioxidant activity of GO-loaded formulation was investigated in vitro using normal African green monkey kidney fibroblast cells (Vero). The effect of control and GO-loaded nanoethosomal formulation on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content of rat skin was also probed. Furthermore, the effect of GO-loaded nanoethosomes on skin wrinkle improvement was studied by dermoscopic and histological examination on healthy humans and UV-irradiated rats, respectively. Results: The optimized nanoethosomal formulation showed promising characteristics including narrow size distribution 0.17 ± 0.02, mean diameter of 98.9 ± 0.05 nm, EE% of 97.12 ± 3.62%, LC% of 13.87 ± 1.36% and zeta potential value of –15.1 ± 0.9 mV. The XRD results confirmed uniform drug dispersion in the nanoethosomes structure. In vitro and in vivo antioxidant studies confirmed the superior antioxidant effect of GO-loaded nanoethosomal formulation compared with control groups (blank nanoethosomes and GO suspension). Conclusions: Nanoethosomes was a promising carrier for dermal delivery of GO and consequently had superior anti-aging effect.
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<<VERSION OF RECORD ON-LINE: 05 SEPTEMBER 2016>>..... Although the sun is very beneficial and essential for life, exposing ourselves too much to sunlight might lead to detrimental health effects such as skin cancer. Eight percent of the total different electromagnetic radiation that regularly irradiates the earth is classified as ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The ozone layer absorbs the most energetic UV rays; consequently, UV-A and UV-B reach the earth surface. UV-A rays heavily contribute to both premature skin aging and skin cancer, while UV-B rays cause sunburn. Hence, the use of sunscreen is strongly encouraged by many healthcare practitioners in order to minimize or possibly eradicate the harmful effects of UV rays on our skin, keeping in mind, that about 90% of all skin cancers are associated with exposure to the sun's harmful radiation. Unfortunately, inaccurate information is currently roaming the media and the Internet regarding the safety, toxicity, and acute side effects of the active ingredients currently used in sunscreens, therefore discouraging people from using sunscreens. In this review article, it is concluded based on the scientific published literature that the sunscreen ingredients are safe and there are no related potential hazardous health risks associated with their use. In addition, at present, sunscreens are very useful in preventing sunburn and probably skin cancer and photoaging and their regular use can have a positive and a significant impact on public health as means or instruments implemented to reduce exposure to UV radiation.
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Cosmetic skin care products currently in the market demonstrate an increasing trend towards antiaging products. Selection of the right formulation approach is the key to successful consumer acceptance. Nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) for dermal application can render added benefits to the formulation. Tretinoin a derivative of vitamin A, is a retinoid with anti-aging and anti-acne potential. The present study was aimed at formulating NLCs of tretinoin for reducing the skin irritation potential, increasing the drug loading capacity and prolonging the duration of action. The NLCs were optimized using the response surface methodology based on the particle size. Preliminary study, suggested the use of stearic acid, oleic acid, Tween 80 and Span 60 as solid lipid, liquid lipid and surfactants respectively formed a stable dispersion. NLCs of tretinoin were prepared by hot melt microemulsion and hot melt probe sonication methods. The properties of the optimized NLCs such as morphology, size, Zeta potential, stability and in vitro drug release were investigated. Tretinoin loaded NLCs in carbopol gel showed a sustained release pattern with isopropyl alcohol as the receptor fluid compared to the marketed gel using Franz diffusion cells. Eight prepared gel formulations tested were found to follow the Higuchi model of drug release. Stability studies indicated that the formulations stored at refrigeration and room temperature showed no noticeable differences in the drug content and release profiles in vitro, after a period of 4 weeks. In vivo skin irritation test on male Wister rats indicated no irritation or erythema after application of the NLCs loaded gel repeated for a period of 7 days compared to the application of marketed tretinoin gel which showed irritation and slight erythema within 3 days. The results showed that the irritation potential of tretinoin was reduced, the drug loading was increased and the drug release was prolonged by the incorporation into the NLCs.