Article

Analysis of teams’ corner kicks defensive strategies at the FIFA World Cup 2018

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse corner kick defensive strategies during the 2018 FIFA World Cup. A total of 600 corner kicks from all 64 matches in the tournament were obtained from the InStat database and analysed. Data were analysed and reported as frequency counts and percentages. Chi-square test for independence (χ²) used to test associations between key performance indicators. Results showed that 22 goals (3.7% of all corners kicks) were conceded from corner kicks. Teams conceded more goals using a zonal marking strategy (6.0%) compared to a mixed marking strategy (3.7%). There was a significant association between types of corner kicks and defensive outcomes (χ² = 111.30,V = 0.57). Most goals were conceded from inswing corner kicks (4.6%) compared to short (3.3%) and outswing (3.1%) corner kicks. Seventeen (3.9%) goals were conceded from corners when there were no players on the goal line. Most goals came from the centre (7.0%) and the first goalpost (3.5%). These findings highlight potential strategies soccer coaches may employ for an effective defensive set-up against corners, such as employing a mixed marking method, having players positioned on the goalposts and being aware of the attacking threat posed by short corner kicks.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... scoring attempts in women's soccer, it was limited to four teams playing in 20 matches of the tournament. In view of the limited number of teams and games selected (or available) for analysis, it is essential to analyse all matches from the tournament in order to provide a true reflection of GSOs across the whole competition (Kubayi and Larkin, 2019). It should also be noted that Konstadinidou and Tsigilis's study consisted of the data for a tournament played over 20 years ago, and the game of soccer has evolved in terms of rules, the style of play, formations and technological advances (e.g., video assistant referee) (Kubayi and Larkin, 2019;Wallace and Norton, 2014). ...
... In view of the limited number of teams and games selected (or available) for analysis, it is essential to analyse all matches from the tournament in order to provide a true reflection of GSOs across the whole competition (Kubayi and Larkin, 2019). It should also be noted that Konstadinidou and Tsigilis's study consisted of the data for a tournament played over 20 years ago, and the game of soccer has evolved in terms of rules, the style of play, formations and technological advances (e.g., video assistant referee) (Kubayi and Larkin, 2019;Wallace and Norton, 2014). Mara et al. (2012) also investigated attacking strategies leading to GSOs in high-level women's soccer. ...
... The authors further indicated that the better the ranking position, the higher the chances to score first. However, the aforementioned studies were limited to a domestic league competition, and previous studies have demonstrated that the playing styles are different between competitions (e.g., domestic vs. international competitions) (Gómez et al., 2013;Kubayi and Larkin, 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyse how goal-scoring opportunities (GSOs) were created at the 2019 FIFA Women’s World Cup. The sample consisted of 868 GSOs that led to a shot at the goal throughout all 52 games during the tournament. All games were downloaded from the InStat platform. Descriptive statistics, chi-square of association and binary logistic regression analysis were used to analyse the data. Of the 868 GSOs, 81 (9.1%) resulted in goals. A significant association was observed between GSOs and the type of attack (χ ² =6.38, p=0.01, V=0.09), with more goals being scored from a counter-attack (12.7%) than an organised attack (7.5%). Counter-attacks recorded a higher odds ratio in univariate analysis (OR=0.56; 95%CI:0.35–0.88; p=0.01) than in multivariate analysis (OR=0.46; 95%CI:0.28–0.76; p=0.002). The multivariate analysis further indicated a significant probability of scoring when ball possession started in the middle third of the field (OR=0.19; 95%CI:0.44–0.88; p= 0.01). The current study has practical implications for soccer coaches to develop and implement training sessions to improve goal-scoring chances of women’s teams at international competitions.
... Contrastingly, open trajectories (or outswing) were most frequent in other European leagues (Spanish, Portuguese, Italian, German, and French), especially for indirect corners [19]. Some studies [16,17,42] reported that professional teams use more outswing trajectories and bottom level inswing, which is contrary to our results. Caution must be taken when comparing this data with amateur players with studies performed with top level players. ...
... It is interesting to notice that short or indirect corners are less frequent, but some data report this kind of option as the one that has more probability of getting a shot on goal [18,23]. Higher ranked teams favored short corners [17,42], in order to disrupt the opponent defensive structure [42]. ...
... It is interesting to notice that short or indirect corners are less frequent, but some data report this kind of option as the one that has more probability of getting a shot on goal [18,23]. Higher ranked teams favored short corners [17,42], in order to disrupt the opponent defensive structure [42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Set pieces are important for the success of football teams, with the corner kick being one of the most game defining events. The aim of this research was twofold: (1) to analyze the corner kicks of a senior football amateur team, and (2) to compare the corner kicks of successful and unsuccessful teams (of the 2020/21 sporting season). In total, 500 corners were observed using a bespoke notational analysis tool, using a specific observational instrument tool (8 criteria; 25 categories). Out of the 500 corner kicks, 6% resulted in a goal. A greater number of direct corners using inswing trajectories were performed (n = 54%). Corners were delivered to central and front post areas most frequently (n = 79%). Five attackers were most predominantly used for offensive corners (n = 58%), but defenders won the ball more frequently (n = 44%). Attempts at goal occurred following a corner most commonly from outside of the box (n = 7%). Goals were scored most frequently with the foot (n = 16%) and head (n = 15%). Successful teams are more effective at reaching the attackers and score more goals directly from corners. Unsuccessful teams deliver more corner kicks out of play, the first touch is more frequently from the opposition defenders, and fewe goals are scored from corner kicks. The study provides an insight into the determining factors and patterns that influence corner kicks and success in football matches. This information should be used by coaches to prepare teams for both offensive and defensive corner kicks to increase team success and match outcomes.
... The corner kicks, in their turn, assigned to the attacking team when the defending team makes the last ball contact before it leaves the pitch through the bottom line (Luongo, 1996), have been already treated by authors, which associated the corner kick execution with match results (Anderson & Sally, 2013;Rocha-Lima, 2018), league table positions (Gollan et al., 2018;Souza et al., 2019), defending strategies (Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Pulling & Newton, 2017), areas and how to deliver the ball to the area (Beare & Stone, 2019;Pulling, 2015;Strafford et al., 2019), furthermore goal scoring predictions (Anderson & Sally, 2013;Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013;Taylor et al., 2005), which also give support to discuss the data that are going to be presented in this research. ...
... Despite of only 22 goals scored of 600 corners at FIFA World Cup 2018, it is explained that most of the goals scored came from the center of the area and the first post, furthermore through inswing corners and when opponent teams were adopting a zonal marking strategy (Kubayi & Larkin, 2019). As mentioned in the open play crosses results and discussion as well, the failure consists in the excess, in having more quantity of these movescrosses and cornersthan the opponents, but working in order to make these same moves more precise, looking for the most promising areas and ways to deliver the ball and then, to have more chances to score goals, besides defending more properly, can be an useful alternative to be explored, based on the results presented and their discussion accomplished. ...
Article
Full-text available
The technology growth allowing analysis acts to gain more efficiency in football has increased, with performance analysis researches being conducted, since the knowledge of performance indicators that can determine success in football and the need for more predictive analysis to better comprehend them are essential. So, in account of these aspects this research aimed to investigate the influence of crosses, shots, corner kicks and defensive movements in winning Premier League (PL) football matches. The methodology adopted consists of a quantitative, descriptive and documentary research, which the sample is represented by all PL 2015/2016 matches. The analysis acts were made by the utilization of the association technique, present at data mining process, with the support of the software Weka. Results demonstrated the influence of variables in PL victories, suggesting that making a higher number of crosses than opponents was not effective to win PL matches, but that making more shots on goal than opponents was a positive indicative to predict victories, as having more defensive movements and less crosses than opponents as well. About corner kicks, results demonstrated that there is no influence of this component at match results.
... Partridge and Franks (1989a;1989b) analysed a total of 1,427 open-play crosses and concluded that crosses should be played first time, past the near post, behind defenders, without loft and hang time, and should not be delivered from around the corner flag. While this study provided key recommendations, the research was conducted over 30 years ago, and the game of football has since evolved with regards to playing style, team formations, rule changes and the use of technology (Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Wallace & Norton, 2014). Therefore, there is a need to provide more contemporary analyses and suggestions for the use of crossing to create goal-scoring opportunities in football. ...
... An observational instrument adapted from previous studies (Casal et al., 2015;Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Pulling et al., 2018;Pulling, 2013;Pulling, Robins & Rixon, 2013;Tenga et al., 2010a) was used in the current study. The instrument consists of the following 11 dimensions: 1) type of attack (i.e., organized attack, di- a) The possession starts by winning the ball in play or restarting the game. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to investigate open-play crosses at the 2018 FIFA World Cup tournament, with spe- cific reference to the mechanism and match status of the crosses. Descriptive statistics (i.e., frequency counts and percentages) and chi-square tests of association were used to analyse the data. The study observed a total of 949 crosses, resulting in 20 goals scored (2.1%). Descriptive statistics highlighted that offensive teams had more goal-scor- ing attempts when they used counter-attacks (18.6%) compared to organized (18.2%) and direct (10.9%) attacks. A greater number of goal-scoring attempts were observed when teams used out-swinging crosses (17.4%) as opposed to in-swinging (15%) and straight (13.5%) crosses. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between the type of attack and match status. Winning teams preferred to adopt a counter-attacking style of play; losing teams used more direct attacking strategies, and drawing teams utilized more organized attacks. Losing teams took the highest number of crosses from Zones 1 (61.1%) and 2 (56.7%) compared to other zones. These findings provide practical implications for football coaches to tailor match tactics to replicate crossing scenarios at international competitions.
... Furthermore, in view of the available data, these are actions of very low efficacy, although with different efficacy indices depending on the championship analyzed. Thus, higher percentages of shot on goal are found in world cups (FIFA World Cup) [16,17], than in European championships between nations (UEFA ...
... A first interpretation that emerges as a result of the results presented in Table 2 confirms that the offensive and defensive tactical approach to corner kicks has changed over the last three world championships. This shows that high-performance football, and more specifically corner kicks, are not immobile and fixed tactical situations, but rather evolve by adapting according to gender (men's or women's football) [5,13], to the type of defense used and the goalkeepers (Kubayi & Larkin, 2019), the circumstances of the competition [24], the different players [25], as well as depending on the match status [23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Corner kicks are one of the most important set pieces in high-level football. The present study aimed to analyze the evolution of the tactical approach to corner kicks in high-performance football. For this, a total of 1704 corner kicks executed in the 192 matches corresponding to the 2010, 2014 and 2018 FIFA World Cups were analyzed. To achieve the proposed objectives, the observational methodology was used. The results show an evolution in the mode of execution of these actions, but instead the success rate remains low. The log-linear test allowed to find significant relationships between some of the most important categorical variables in these actions: match status, number of intervening attackers and time. The decision tree models show that the number of players involved in these actions is the criterion that presents the greatest information gain. These results corroborate previous multivariate studies, although more research is still needed. Finally, the results of the present study can be used by coaches to create different training situations where success in this type of action can be enhanced.
... From a continental perspective, there is little knowledge of the main performance indicators that may influence the African match results. Therefore, understanding the key match statistics is crucial, as the continent's football structure is relatively less developed and needs more scientific information (Zhou et al., 2018) to potentially inform future tactical decisions and coaching processes (Kubayi and Larkin, 2019). By understanding the current trends in team performance, coaches may be able to devise team tactics to maximize the chances of winning the competitions. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated game-related statistics differentiating the winning and losings teams of matches during the 2019 African Cup of Nations (AFCON) soccer tournament. The sample consisted of 38 games, with the data obtained from the InStat Scout platform. Data were analyzed using mean (M), SD, effect size (ES), structure coefficients (SCs), and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The results showed that the winning teams performed significantly better than the losing teams in terms of shots (M = 12.13, SD = 4.67, Z = −2.26, ES = 0.62), shots on target (M = 5.05, SD = 2.54, Z = −4.22, ES = 1.13), and shots from counterattacks (M = 2.24, SD = 1.42, Z = −2.48, ES = 0.57). Shots on target (SC = 1.22), shots (SC = −0.73), fouls (SC = 0.60), total passes (SC = 0.44), and yellow cards (SC = −0.32) presented the highest discriminatory power. These findings highlight the key match performance variables which influence the game results and may assist coaches in developing and implementing team strategies to improve the likelihood of winning the AFCON championship.
... For this reason, some researchers have analysed corner kicks in detail so as to collect more data to plan better training. Researchers have examined the frequency of corner kicks (Taylor et al., 2004), style of corner kicks (Carling et al., 2005;Page and Robins, 2012), score field (Poon, Douglas, & Hopkins, 2012;Sainz de Baranda & Lopez Riquelme, 2012) their defensive tactics (Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013;Kubayi & Larkin., 2019), and different success models (Maneiro et al., 2019). The current study approaches the issue from a different perspective and the difference of the present study from the others is that it focuses on the first contact with the corner kicks taken. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to analyse the corner kicks taken in the matches played in the FIFA 2018 World Cup. A total of 606 corner kicks that were used in 64 matches in the competitions were analysed. The data were analysed in terms of the parameters of the direction in which the corner kick is taken (right, left), the time interval in which the corner kick is taken (1-15, 16-30, 31-45, 46-60, 61-75, 76-90), the region where the ball falls in the penalty area (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , 6 th .), the player whom the ball meets in the penalty area (goalkeeper, defender, striker), the body part which contacts the ball (head, foot, hand), attack result (goal, out, corner kick, clearing the ball, goalkeeping) and the body part with which the goals are scored (head, foot). The results indicated that in FIFA 2018 World Cup competitions, the right and left corner kicks were almost evenly distributed, but unlike previous matches, the corner kicks were taken from the left between the 16 th and the 30 th minutes, and from the right between the 61 st and the 75 th minutes. Contrary to the previous World Cups, it was found that fewer corner kicks were taken by spreading the game to both wings, the time interval changed in the search for goals from corner kicks, the target area was used predominantly, and the attacking players stood out compared to the defence players, and an equal number of goals were scored with the head and foot.
... For this reason, the second type of information offered by data providers is called "eventing". It essentially covers the technical-tactical actions related to the ball: assists, counterattacks, or set piece actions [13,14]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, the number of technology companies providing data to football teams has multiplied. At first, the provided information focused more on physical fitness parameters, but today, ever more data is being generated on technical-tactical performance. The objective of this study was to review the studies on technical-tactical variables based on the information offered by data providers from every country’s regular elite league championship. The review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards. A total of 31 studies were selected. LaLiga (27.91%) and the Premier League (18.60%) were the most studied competitions. Amisco was the company with the largest number of studies (54.84%). Descriptive studies (58.06%) predominated over comparative (22.58%) and predictive analyses (19.05%). “Style of play”, “contextual variables” (descriptive analysis), and “demarcation” (comparative analysis) were the most used objectives in the 28 studies reviewed.
... Taking short corners was also exposed to increase the odds of promotion significantly by 17%. These results could be explained by the fact that short corners have proven to be a particularly effective corner kick strategy as they ensure possession is retained and ultimately result in more attempts at goal than either the in-swinging or out-swinging corner delivery methods (Kubayi & Larkin, 2019). Conversely, conceding corner kicks were revealed to significantly decrease the odds of promotion by around 7%. ...
Article
Technical performances of teams competing in the professional second divisions of England, Germany and France were analysed over five seasons in order to determine which factors influence the chances of promotion to the elite leagues. A total of 11,032 team-match observations were analysed via a series of logistical regressions. The results revealed that teams with an overworked defensive unit that were frequently asked to make blocks, clearances and goalkeeper saves would have significantly reduced chances of promotion. Conversely, set-plays and in particular taking advantage of penalty kick opportunities significantly increased the odds of promotion by 37%. In addition, scoring goals from corner kicks were also revealed to significantly enhance the odds of promotion by 35%. With regard to open play, creating chances in the form of assists and through balls were revealed to significantly increase the odds of promotion by 28% and 14%, respectively. These results, therefore, indicate that lower league teams with ambitions of achieving promotion to the elite level should adopt a strategy which consists of frequent penetrative passing that leads to chance creation. Furthermore, teams hoping to achieve promotion should look to improve their efficiency from penalty kicks and corner kick set-plays.
... For this reason, some researchers have analysed corner kicks in detail so as to collect more data to plan better training. Researchers have examined the frequency of corner kicks (Taylor et al., 2004), style of corner kicks (Carling et al., 2005;Page and Robins, 2012), score field (Poon, Douglas, & Hopkins, 2012;Sainz de Baranda & Lopez Riquelme, 2012) their defensive tactics (Pulling, Robins, & Rixon, 2013;Kubayi & Larkin., 2019), and different success models (Maneiro et al., 2019). The current study approaches the issue from a different perspective and the difference of the present study from the others is that it focuses on the first contact with the corner kicks taken. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study is to analyse the corner kicks taken in the matches played in the FIFA 2018 World Cup. A total of 606 corner kicks that were used in 64 matches in the competitions were analysed. The data were analysed in terms of the parameters of the direction in which the corner kick is taken (right, left), the time interval in which the corner kick is taken (1-15, 16-30, 31-45, 46-60, 61-75, 76-90), the region where the ball falls in the penalty area (1 st , 2 nd , 3 rd , 4 th , 5 th , 6 th .), the player whom the ball meets in the penalty area (goalkeeper, defender, striker), the body part which contacts the ball (head, foot, hand), attack result (goal, out, corner kick, clearing the ball, goalkeeping) and the body part with which the goals are scored (head, foot). The results indicated that in FIFA 2018 World Cup competitions, the right and left corner kicks were almost evenly distributed, but unlike previous matches, the corner kicks were taken from the left between the 16 th and the 30 th minutes, and from the right between the 61 st and the 75 th minutes. Contrary to the previous World Cups, it was found that fewer corner kicks were taken by spreading the game to both wings, the time interval changed in the search for goals from corner kicks, the target area was used predominantly, and the attacking players stood out compared to the defence players, and an equal number of goals were scored with the head and foot.
... There has been a continued growth of performance analysis research focusing of set plays within men's soccer (e.g. Kubayi & Larkin, 2019;Strafford, Smith, North, & Stone, In Press). Performance analysis research within women's soccer has also increased in recent years, for example, examining attacking strategies leading to goal scoring opportunities (Bergier, Soroka, & Buraczewski, 2008;Mara, Wheeler, & Lyons, 2012), comparing women's soccer performances in international and domestic league games (Andersson, Randers, Heiner-Møller, Krustrup, & Mohr, 2010;Krustrup et al., 2008) and the effects of scoring first on match outcome (Ibáñez, Pérez-Goye, Courel-Ibáñez, & Garcìa-Rubio, 2018). ...
Article
This study describes how corner kicks were taken across the 2017/2018 FA Women’s Super League season and assesses the effectiveness of these attacking corner kick strategies. A total of 824 corner kicks were analysed examining delivery type, delivery area and attack organisation on corner kick outcomes. A total of 38 goals were scored (4.6% of corners taken resulted in a goal) from the corner kicks, accounting for 13.5% of the total 282 goals scored during the 2017/2018 season. Corner delivery type did not affect the outcome of the corner (p > 0.05). However, delivery zone effected both the likelihood of an attempt on target (p = 0.018) and goal being scored (p < 0.001). Attempts on target were increased when the ball was delivered into the central area of the 18-yard box (zone CA2) with 14.7% of corners delivered to CA2 resulting in an attempt on target. Goals were most likely to be scored when the ball was delivered into the central zone but closer to the goal line (zone GA2) with 13.0% of corner kicks delivered to this zone resulting in a goal. These results can aid coaches to enhance the attacking effectiveness of corner kicks within Women’s soccer.
Article
Full-text available
This study analysed the characteristics of 476 corner kicks taken during 52 matches at the FIFA women’s World Cup 2019. The effect of current match status/team quality was examined, and the corner characteristics associated with the 17 goals scored from corners (3.6%) and 93 shots on-target (19.5%) were identified. Goals from corners were more likely from dynamic attacks or with 1–4 defenders for short corners. Shots on-target were more likely from corners delivered into GA3&CA3 and the outer zones, ≥6 attackers were inside the delivery area or involved ≥3 intervening attackers. Match status was significantly associated with number of defenders, attackers for short corners, defenders for short corners and type of marking. Team quality was significantly associated with type of delivery, kicking foot, number of attackers, attackers for short corners, defenders for short corners, defenders on posts, number of intervening attackers and offensive organisation. Team quality was not significantly associated with corner outcomes, perhaps a consequence of higher-quality teams not always favouring corner characteristics which are associated with increased success (goals or shots on-target). These results can assist coaches to understand corner characteristics to expect when winning, drawing, or losing, or against different levels of opposition within women’s international football.
Article
The actions of the set-piece are decisive in the score. The corner is the most effective. The object of the study was to describe, analyse and compare the offence’s corners that were made in the six main European leagues during the 17/18 season (2132 matches). The 351 corners that met the selected criteria were analysed through a descriptive and association analysis with IBM-SPSS v.20.0 with a significance level of p < 0.05. In general, the direct corners were more frequent than the indirect. The common pattern in the direct corners comprised sending the ball with a mid-depth distance and a direct header into the goal. In indirect corners, sending the ball with short-depth, head extension and subsequent shot directly to the goal was a common pattern. There are differences among the European leagues. At the same time, characteristics and transversal patterns have been observed allowing the successful corners sent to the area without defence rejections to be detected.
Article
This study investigated the technical demands on football players, based on their various playing positions, during the qualifying matches for the European Football Championship. Data were obtained from the InStat database. The sample consisted of 314 players grouped into the following five playing positions: central defenders (n = 89), wide defenders (n = 58), central midfielders (n = 85), wide midfielders (n = 51), and forwards (n = 31). The results showed that forwards had a significantly (p < 0.01) greater number of shots than players in other positions. Central midfielders performed a significantly (p < 0.01) greater number of passes than players in other positions, with a large effect when compared to forwards (ES: 1.38). Furthermore, wide midfielders made the highest number of crosses compared to players in other positions, but they showed a trivial difference when compared to wide defenders (ES: 0.10). Forwards’ tendency to lose the ball was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that for other positions, with a very large effect when compared to central defenders (ES: 2.41). These results may assist football coaches in preparing players to meet the game’s technical requirements, thus increasing the likelihood of qualifying for the European Football Championship.
Article
This study explored how the video assistant referee (VAR) has influenced match performance variables at Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup tournaments. Comparative analysis was undertaken of matches played during the FIFA 2018 World Cup ( n = 64) tournament, where VAR was employed, and those played during the 2014 World Cup ( n = 64) tournament, where VAR was not employed. The following performance variables were recorded and analysed for each of the matches played: goals, penalties, corner kicks, yellow cards, red cards, offsides, playing time during the first half, playing time during the second half and total playing time. After the introduction of VAR, there were significant ( p < 0.05) increases in the number of penalties, as well as playing time during the first half, second half and total playing time. In contrast, a significant ( p < 0.05) decline was observed in the number of offsides after VAR was implemented. The current findings have practical implications for improvement of VAR implementation guidelines at FIFA World Cup competitions.
Article
Full-text available
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high- and low-percentage ball possession (HPBP and LPBP) on teams' technical and physical indicators at the 2016 European Football Championship. METHODS: Match performance data were collected from 14 matches using the InStat multiple-camera tracking system. Data were analyzed with an independent samples t-test, effect sizes (ES), and discriminant analysis based on a structural coefficient (SC). RESULTS: The results indicated that there were significant differences between HPBP and LPBP teams in terms of the following technical indicators: total passes (t[26]=4.32, P=0.00, ES=1.63), accurate passes (t[26]=3.84, P=0.00, ES=1.67), and fouls committed (t[26]=-2.09, P=0.04, ES=0.75). The discriminant analysis indicated that technical variables (total passes: SC=0.66; accurate passes: SC=0.59; fouls committed: SC=-0.32) and physical indicators (running distance: SC=0.42; and sprinting distance: SC=0.65) distinguished HPBP and LPBP teams. LPBP teams covered a greater total distance (10,531±360 m) than HPBP teams (10,320±279 m). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide practical implications for football scientists and coaches to design individualized training programs for HPBP and LPBP teams based on technical and physical requirements.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to analyse open play crosses in the FIFA 2014 soccer World Cup. A total of 1332 open play crosses were observed from all 64 games of the FIFA 2014 soccer World Cup. The dominant themes of analysis included delivery side, delivery type, defensive pressure, time of cross and delivery outcome. Chi-squared tests of association were utilised to examine the association between each variable (e.g. delivery type) and each outcome category (e.g. goal-scoring attempts). A total of 42 goals (3.2%) were scored from the 1332 open play crosses analysed. The zone of the outcome of the cross was significantly associated (p < 0.05) with all outcome categories. Delivery type and zone of the crosser were significantly associated with defensive outcomes and attacking outcomes (p < 0.05). Defensive pressure was significantly associated with goal-scoring attempts and attacking outcomes (p < 0.05). Pitch side of the delivery and time of the cross were not significantly associated (p > 0.05) with any of the outcome categories. Coaches should reflect on the variables presented and the impact they have on crossing outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: To analyze the pattern and trends of the goals scored during the 2010 world cup soccer tournament held in South Africa to derive the latest technical and tactical innovations with the hope of applying them at the lower echelons of the game. Methodology: The study was a retrospective one as data were derived from the FIFA (2010) data base. The analysis centered on number of goals; parts of the body used to score; distance from goal; timing of goals in minutes; nature of play preceding a goal; score at half time and winning of the game; open play and set pieces; and the position of the scorers. Data were analyzed and descriptively presented in form of tables and figures. Results: The scoring rate of the world cup was 2.27 goals per match, which is the second lowest in the history of the world cup which was inaugurated in 1930. There were more goals from open play (75.86%) than from set pieces (24.14%); most goals came via shots (108) rather headers (26); strikers scored majority of the goals (53.10%), followed by midfielders (34.48) and defenders (11.04%); more goals were scored in the second half especially in the last 15 minutes of normal regulation time and more goals were scored from within the penalty box than outside. Conclusions: Coaches have to focus on improving the technical and tactical build up into the penalty area; encourage more goal attempts within the penalty box; emphasize and perfect set piece execution; prudently utilize substitution to impact the game in the second half, perfect crossing and headers and to enhance the physical conditioning of the players to enable them play out the entire game without suffering physical deterioration which causes teams to make defensive errors leading to goals in the last 15 minutes of matches.
Article
Full-text available
This study analyzes corner kicks in elite football to determine their efficacy, identify shared characteristics and associated variables, and propose a model for predicting successful outcomes. In total, 1139 kicks taken in 124 matches in the 2010 FIFA World Cup (64 matches), UEFA Euro 2012 (31 matches), and the UEFA Champions League 2010-2011 (29 matches) were studied by univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis. Just 2.2% of the corners ended in goal, but this goal was responsible for the team winning or drawing the match on 76% of occasions. In general, kicks are delivered through the air to the near post, with 1 or 2 intervening attackers; the attack is organized statically and the defense is a combination of zone and man-to-man. The following variables were significantly associated with corner kicks resulting in a goal: time (p=0.04), number of intervening attackers (p=0.001), and offensive organization (p=0.02). The likelihood of a shot on goal or shot could be increased with the intervention of 3 or 4 attackers, a dynamic attack, and indirect delivery of the ball to the far post. This information could be of great interest for football professionals interested in improving corner kick performance.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was twofold: to provide a quantitative analysis of corner kicks during the 2006 World Cup and to examine the effect of match status on corner kicks. Through the elaboration of a category system and following an observational methodology, we performed an analysis of all corner kicks (n = 653) in the 64 matches in the 2006 World Cup held in Germany. Matches were divided into sections according to evolving match status (whether the team was winning, n = 144; losing, n = 171; or drawing, n = 338). Using an observational methodology the following performance indicators were analysed: type of corner kick, scoring area, effectiveness, subsequent play, part of the body used to shoot, goal zone, number of players defending the goalposts, and defence tactics. The results obtained showed that: a) in relation to kick modality, teams perform more short corners and take more short kicks and outswing corner kicks when winning. On the other hand, teams perform more outstep and inswing corner kicks when drawing and losing; b) In relation to the scoring area, teams perform more shots that head toward the semicircle placed by the penalty area or do not use the centre when winning. However, teams head their s'hots toward the first and the second goalpost when drawing and losing; c) In relation to defence, when teams that are winning perform the corner kick, the defending teams tend to have fewer players defending the goal line; d) No significant statistical association was observed for the following performance indicators: effectiveness, subsequent play, part of the body used to shoot, goal zone, and defensive system.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: The aim of the present study was to investigate the factors associated with goal scoring in top class football matches. Methods: 76 goals analyzed from 31 matches from the European football Championship in Poland-Ukraine in 2012. The SportScout performance analysis tool was used to time code when goal scored and the associated behaviors relating to goal scoring. Results: It was presented that 57.9 % of the goals were scored in the second half and most of them in the last 15-min period, while the first goal seems to play an important role in the final result of the match. Most goals were scored during open play (72.4%) but 27.6% scored after a set play, mainly following corner kick and free kick. Concerning initiation zone of the attack, it was presented that 56.6% began from the attacking half. Most goals were scored after a cross (43.7%) while regarding goal scoring area; over 90% of goals were scored inside the penalty area and specifically from the area between penalty spot and goal zone (42.1%). Finally, almost ½ of goals were scored without any pressure from defenders. Conclusions: The present study presented guidelines to coaches in order to design trainings similar to the actual competition and adapt the game style with regard to match status. Moreover, coaches can use this information to establish objectives for players and teams with a special reference to the offensive or defensive play.
Article
Full-text available
Las acciones a balón parado (ABP) en fútbol son todas aquellas situaciones de juego que se inician con un saque desde parado después de una interrupción reglamentaria del mismo. En este trabajo se ha pretendido analizar la eficacia de una de estas acciones, el saque de esquina; identificar las variables más relevantes para conducir al éxito (el remate) a estas acciones y proponer un modelo de saque de esquina exitoso. Después del registro de 554 saques de esquina ejecutados en el Mundial de Sudáfrica 2010 y de realizar análisis a nivel univariado, bivariado y multivariado, los resultados indican una baja eficacia en el remate en este tipo de acciones, la identificación de una serie de variables que presentan una relación estadísticamente significativa y la propuesta de un modelo explicativo, que aunque presenta una capacidad explicativa limitada, ayuda a interpretar de forma práctica la ejecución de estas acciones.
Article
Full-text available
Objective To analyze the corner significance during a soccer game and to know which are the main actions that occur during a corner kick in senior male professional soccer. Methods We analyzed 333 corner kicks executed in 35 games, corresponding to five national team international competitions. For its analysis, 370 possible solutions were categorized based on four levels: Kick side, corner kick deepness; field position at which the ball is thrown and second play actions. Results The number of corners per game was 9.54 ± 1.02 (variance: 11.79; range: 5 – 18). Its behavior follows the Poisson distribution. The key features are the right side kicks (52.4%) vs. left side (47.6%); the long kicks (82.8%) over the short ones (17.2%); the center kicks (53.7%) over the ones sent to the first post (28.2%) or the second post (28.2%). At the end of the play, the number of clearances (182 – 58.9%) and counterattacks (31 – 10.0%) outperformed the number of corner kicks ending in shots on goals (53 – 17.2%) or becoming in goals (5 – 1.6%). Conclusion The corner is a common action used during a soccer match but with a low effectiveness level (1.6/match). We understand that, given the low number of goals scored during a game, the maximum optimization of these tactical actions reaches a relevant value in modern soccer.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: There are relatively few performance analysis studies on field sports investigating how they evolve from a structural or tactical viewpoint. Field sports like soccer involve complex, non-linear dynamical systems yet consistent patterns of play are recognisable over time and among different sports. This study on soccer trends helps build a framework of potential causative mechanisms for these patterns. Design: Retrospective correlational study. Methods: Broadcast footage of World Cup finals between 1966 and 2010 was used to assess patterns of play and stop periods, type and duration of game stoppages, ball speed, player density (congestion) and passing rates. This involved computer-based ball tracking and other notational analyses. These results were analysed using linear regression to track changes across time. Results: Almost every variable assessed changed significantly over time. Play duration decreased while stoppage duration increased, both affecting the work: recovery ratios. Ball (game) speed increased by 15% over the 44-year period. Play structure changed towards a higher player density with a 35% greater passing rate. Conclusions: Increases in soccer ball speed and player density show similarities with other field sports and suggest common evolutionary pressures may be driving play structures. The increased intensity of play is paralleled by longer stoppage breaks which allow greater player recovery and subsequently more intense play. Defensive strategies dominate over time as demonstrated by increased player density and congestion. The long-term pattern formations demonstrate successful coordinated states within team structures are predictable and may have universal causative mechanisms.
Article
Full-text available
Shoulder pain and loss of shoulder function are common complaints reported by a variety of patients. This article suggests that shoulder pain and loss of function are directly proportional to lifestyle choices, including smoking and obesity. To investigate possible relationships between lifestyle choices and shoulder health, the authors conducted an online survey combining the Oxford Shoulder Questionnaire, the Shoulder Rating Questionnaire, and the Subjective Shoulder Rating System. Data were collected from 166 respondents. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. The data show a statistically significant correlation between decreased shoulder function and cigarette smoking and a similar correlation between decreased shoulder function, elevated cholesterol, and obesity.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of playing formation on high-intensity running and technical performance during elite soccer matches. Twenty English FA Premier League games were analysed using a multiple-camera computerized tracking system (n = 153 players). Overall ball possession did not differ (P < 0.05) between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations (50%, s = 7 vs. 49%, s = 8 vs. 44%, s = 6). No differences were observed in high-intensity running between 4-4-2, 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations. Compared with 4-4-2 and 4-3-3 formations, players in a 4-5-1 formation performed less very high-intensity running when their team was in possession (312 m, s = 196 vs. 433 m, s = 261 vs. 410 m, s = 270; P 5 0.05) but more when their team was not in possession (547 m, s = 217 vs. 461 m, s = 156 vs. 459 m, s = 169; P < 0.05). Attackers in a 4-3-3 performed ~30% more (P < 0.05) high-intensity running than attackers in 4-4-2 and 4-5-1 formations. However, the fraction of successful passes was highest in a 4-4-2 (P < 0.05) compared with 4-3-3 and 4-5-1 formations. The results suggest that playing formation does not influence the overall activity profiles of players, except for attackers, but impacts on very high-intensity running activity with and without ball possession and some technical elements of performance.
Article
Full-text available
Full-text of this article is not available in this e-prints service. This article was originally published [following peer-review] in Journal of Sports Sciences, published by and copyright Routledge. The purpose of this multidisciplinary review paper is to critically review evidence from descriptive, efficacy and effectiveness studies concerned with physical activity and older people. Both levels of fitness (aerobic power, strength, flexibility and functional capability) and measures of physical activity involvement decline with age, and the extent to which this is due to a biological ageing processes or disuse (physical inactivity) is critically examined. The review will consider the evidence for a causal relationship between sedentary behaviour/physical activity programmes and cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and psycho-social health, independent living and health-related quality of life into old age. The review also considers the effectiveness of different physical activity interventions for older people and issues relating to cost-effectiveness. The implications for future policy in terms of research, health care services, and education and training are briefly discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Methods that include an assessment of opponent interactions are thought to provide a more valid analysis of team match performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of playing tactics on goal scoring by assessing opponent interactions in Norwegian elite soccer. The sample included 203 team possessions leading to goals (cases) and 1688 random team possessions (control group) from 163 of 182 (90%) matches played in the men's professional league during the 2004 season. Multidimensional qualitative data using ten ordered categorical variables were obtained to characterize each team possession. The proportion of goals scored during counterattacks (52%) was higher than during elaborate attacks (48%), while for the control group the proportion using elaborate attacks (59%) was higher than when using counterattacks (41%) (P = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that, for the main variable "team possession type", counterattacks were more effective than elaborate attacks when playing against an imbalanced defence (OR = 1.64; 95% confidence interval: 1.03 to 2.61; P = 0.038). Assessment of opponent interactions is critical to evaluate the effectiveness of offensive playing tactics on the probability of scoring goals, and improves the validity of team match-performance analysis in soccer.
Article
Full-text available
Over the course of the past century it has become increasingly difficult to find athletes of the size and shape required to compete successfully at the highest level. Sport is Darwinian in that only the 'fittest' reach the highest level of participation. Not every physical characteristic could be expected to play a role in this selection process, but two that are important and for which substantial data assemblies exist, are height and mass. Measurements of elite athlete sizes were obtained from a variety of sources as far back as records allowed. We charted the shift in these anthropometric characteristics of elite sportspeople over time, against a backdrop of secular changes in the general population. Athletes in many sports have been getting taller and more massive over time; the rates of rise outstripping those of the secular trend. In open-ended sports, more massive players have an advantage. Larger players average longer careers and obtain greater financial rewards. In some sports it is equally difficult to find athletes small enough to compete. In contrast, there are sports that demand a narrow range of morphological characteristics. In these sports the size of the most successful athletes over the century has remained constant, despite the drift in the population characteristics from which they are drawn. A number of social factors both drive and are driven by the search for athletes of increasingly rare morphology. These include globalisation and international recruitment, greater financial and social incentives, and the use of special training methods and artificial growth stimuli. In many sports the demand for a specific range in body size reinforces the need to adopt questionable and illegal behaviours to reach the required size and shape to compete at the top level. Future scenarios also include 'gene-farming' through assortative mating and athlete gamete banks.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the use of near-post guard systems when defending corner kicks in the English Premier League during the 2015/2016 season. A total of 750 corner kicks from 79 English Premier League matches were analysed. There were a total of eight different near-post guard systems observed. Only six corner kicks (0.8%) were observed where there was no guard positioned in the near-post area when defending corner kicks. The one-one system only conceded one goal from 148 corner kicks (0.7%) observed, whereas the one-zero system conceded 8 goals from 159 corner kicks (5.0%) observed. However, when all attempts at goal were included, there was no significant association between the different near-post guard systems and the number of attempts at goal (p > 0.05). An important finding was that there were 236 defensive clearances performed by the guards from the 750 corner kicks that were analysed (31.5%), this suggests that these defensive players play an important role in preventing the attacking team from having an attempt at goal from a corner kick. Further research on corner kicks is still required and suggestions have been made for future investigations.
Article
This study investigates the spatial relationship of performance variables for soccer free kicks. In order to suggest ways in which players might optimise their performance, we collected data from free kicks (<35 m to goal line) of two German Bundesliga seasons (2013/14, 2014/15) (n = 1624). In the analysis, we applied the ISO-map approach using colour gradients to visualise the mean values of a variable on a 2D-map of the pitch. Additionally, variograms were used to describe the degree of spatial dependence of the free kick variables. Results show that DENSITY, TYPE OF PLAY, PLAYERS IN WALL, DISTANCE TO WALL and RULE VIOLATION were strongly spatially dependent. Centrality and proximity to the goal increased the variables PLAYERS IN WALL, RULE VIOLATIONS and INTERRUPTION TIME, and the ratio of goals scored increased from 5.9% (central far) to 10.9% (central near). In 70.9% of the shots, players preferred a switched laterality, which did not result in a higher success rate. Furthermore, there was no statistical advantage for the defensive team when DISTANCE TO WALL was below 9.15 m or when there was a RULE VIOLATION. Crosses had a success rate (i.e., first controlled ball contact after the cross) of 20.8%. Played with natural laterality, they were 5% more successful than with switched laterality. Crosses from the right side outside the penalty box were 10% more successful than from the left side. Therefore, it might be worthwhile practising the defence of balls coming from this side.
Article
This study investigated the evolution of game-play manifested via team performance indicator characteristics in the Australian Football League (AFL) from the 2001 to 2015 seasons. Mean values for 18 performance indicators were collated for every AFL team over 15-seasons. A multivariate analysis was used to uncover temporal trends in the dataset. Compared to the 2004 season, the 2005 to 2010 seasons were characterised by large growth in the counts of handballs (d = 0.83; 90% CI = 0.22 – 1.43), disposals (d = 1.24; 90% CI = 0.59 – 1.87), uncontested possessions (d = 1.37; 90% CI = 0.71 – 2.01), clangers (d = 2.14; 90% CI = 1.39 – 2.86), and marks (d = 1.43; 90% CI = 0.76 – 2.07). Conversely, effective disposal percentage declined rapidly during the same period. The number of inside 50 m counts remained stable throughout the 15-season period. The ordination plot of league-wide performance indicator characteristics illustrated a distinct cluster from the 2001 to 2004 seasons, an abrupt shift from the 2005 to 2009 seasons, and an emergent (re)stabilisation from the 2010 to 2015 seasons. Results demonstrate the synchronous league-wide evolution of game-play in the AFL from the 2001 to 2015 seasons. Amongst other constituents, this evolution likely reflects the introduction of modernised coaching strategies, rule changes and changing perceptions of rule interpretations.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate long corner kicks within the English Premier League that entered either the goal area (6-yard box) or the critical area (6-12 yards from the goal-line in the width of the goal area) with the defining outcome occurring after the first contact. A total of 328 corner kicks from 65 English Premier League games were analysed. There were nine goals scored from the first contact (2.7%) where the ball was delivered into either the goal area or the critical area. There was a significant association between the area the ball was delivered to and the number of attempts at goal (p<.03), and the area the ball was delivered to and the number of defending outcomes (p<.01). The results suggest that the area where a long corner kick is delivered to will influence how many attempts at goal can be achieved by the attacking team and how many defensive outcomes can be conducted by the defensive team. There was no significant association between the type of delivery and the number of attempts at goal from the critical area (p>.05). It appears as though the area of delivery is more important than the type of delivery for achieving attempts at goal from long corner kicks; however, out of the nine goals observed within this study, seven came from an inswinging delivery. From an attacking perspective, coaches should reflect on what determines a successful corner kick. © 2015, University of Zagreb - Faculty of Kinesiology. All rights reserved.
Article
Modern techniques of sports performance analysis enable the sport scientist, coach and athlete to objectively assess, and therefore improve upon, sporting performance. They are an important tool for any serious practitioner in sport and, as a result, performance analysis has become a key component of degree programmes in sport science and sports coaching. Research Methods for Sports Performance Analysis explains how to undertake a research project in performance analysis including: selection and specification of a research topic the research proposal gaining ethical approval for a study developing a performance analysis system testing a system for reliability analysing and discussing data writing up results. Covering the full research cycle and clearly introducing the key themes and issues in contemporary performance analysis, this is the only book that sports students will need to support a research project in performance analysis, from undergraduate dissertation to doctoral thesis. Including case studies, examples and data throughout, this book is essential reading for any student or practitioner with an interest in performance analysis, sports coaching or applied sport science.
Article
The aim of this study was to explore tactical behaviour when defending corner kicks within the English Premier League. Specifically, the types of marking and defensive players positioned at the goalposts were investigated. A total of 436 corner kicks from 50 English Premier League games were analysed. The most commonly used marking system was one-to-one marking (90.1% of total corners), with zonal marking being used less often (9.9% of total corners). There was no significant association between the marking set-up and the number of attempts at goal conceded when defending corner kicks (p>0.05). However, teams who applied zonal marking conceded fewer goals and fewer attempts at goal than teams who used one-to-one marking. The most common set-up for defenders positioned at the goalposts was having a defender positioned only on the far post (47.3% of total corners). There was no significant association between the positioning of defensive players at goalposts and the number of attempts at goal conceded when defending corner kicks. A further detailed analysis of defending corner kicks is still required and suggestions have been made for future studies.
Book
Performance analysis techniques help coaches, athletes and sport science support officers to develop a better understanding of sport performance and therefore to devise more effective methods for improving that performance. Performance Analysis of Sport IX is the latest in a series of volumes that showcase the very latest scientific research into performance analysis, helping to bridge the gap between theory and practice in sport. http://www.routledge.com/books/details/9780415643399/
Article
DESCRIPTION This book addresses and appropriately explains the soccer match analysis, looks at the very latest in match analysis research, and at the innovative technologies used by professional clubs. This handbook is also bridging the gap between research, theory and practice. The methods in it can be used by coaches, sport scientists and fitness coaches to improve: styles of play, technical ability and physical fitness; objective feedback to players; the development of specific training routines; use of available notation software, video analysis and manual systems; and understanding of current academic research in soccer notational analysis. PURPOSE The aim is to provide a prepared manual on soccer match analysis in general for coaches and sport scientists. Thus, the professionals in this field would gather objective data on the players and the team, which in turn could be used by coaches and players to learn more about performance as a whole and gain a competitive advantage as a result. The book efficiently meets these objectives. AUDIENCE The book is targeted the athlete, the coach, the sports scientist professional or any sport conscious person who wishes to analyze relevant soccer performance. The editors and the contributors are authorities in their respective fields and this handbook depend on their extensive experience and knowledge accumulated over the years. FEATURES The book demonstrates how a notation system can be established to produce data to analyze and improve performance in soccer. It is composed of 9 chapters which present the information in an order that is considered logical and progressive as in most texts. Chapter headings are: 1. Introduction to Soccer Match Analysis, 2. Developing a Manual Notation System, 3. Video and Computerized Match Analysis Technology, 4. General Advice on Analyzing Match Performance, 5. Analysis and Presentation of the Results, 6. Motion Analysis and Consequences for Training, 7. What Match Analysis Tells Us about Successful Strategy and Tactics in Soccer, 8. From Technical and Tactical Performance Analysis to Training Drills, 9. The Future of Soccer Match Analysis. ASSESSMENT The authors have assembled an essential reading for all who are interested in understanding and doing better coaching and improving the performance in soccer. To this purpose, there is a strong practical approach in the book by giving plenty of examples along with a satisfactory scientific analysis of the subject area. It is concise and well organized in its presentation, creating an effective textbook. I believe, therefore, the book will serve as a first-rate teaching tool and reference for coaches, athletes and professionals in the human performance sciences.
Article
Early research into how goals were scored in association football (Reep and Benjamin, 196814. Reep , C and Benjamin , B . 1968. Skill and chance in association football. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A, 131: 581–585. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references) may have shaped the tactics of British football. Most coaches have been affected, to a greater or lesser extent, by the tactics referred to as the “long-ball game” or “direct play”, which was a tactic employed as a consequence of this research. Data from these studies, published in the late 1960s, have been reconfirmed by analyses of different FIFA World Cup tournaments by several different research groups. In the present study, the number of passes that led to goals scored in two FIFA World Cup finals were analysed. The results conform to that of previous research, but when these data were normalized with respect to the frequency of the respective lengths of passing sequences, there were more goals scored from longer passing sequences than from shorter passing sequences. Teams produced significantly more shots per possession for these longer passing sequences, but the strike ratio of goals from shots is better for “direct play” than for “possession play”. Finally, an analysis of the shooting data for successful and unsuccessful teams for different lengths of passing sequences in the 1990 FIFA World Cup finals indicated that, for successful teams, longer passing sequences produced more goals per possession than shorter passing sequences. For unsuccessful teams, neither tactic had a clear advantage. It was further concluded that the original work of Reep and Benjamin (196814. Reep , C and Benjamin , B . 1968. Skill and chance in association football. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A, 131: 581–585. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®]View all references), although a key landmark in football analysis, led only to a partial understanding of the phenomenon that was investigated.
Handbook of sports performance analysis
  • M A Gómez
  • C Lago-Peñas
  • R Pollard
Gómez, M. A., Lago-Peñas, C., & Pollard, R. (2013). Situational variables. In T. McGarry, P. O'Donoghue, & J. Sampaio (Eds.), Handbook of sports performance analysis (pp. 259-269). Oxon: Routledge.
The football association coaching book of soccer tactics and skills
  • C Hughes
Hughes, C. (1996). The football association coaching book of soccer tactics and skills. Harpenden: Queen Anne Press.
A corner kick analysis of a league one professional football team
  • R Page
  • M Robins
Page, R., & Robins, M. (2012). A corner kick analysis of a league one professional football team. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 12(3), 793.
Notational analysis of long corner kicks in an international youth football tournament
  • S Poon
  • A Douglas
  • W G Hopkins
Poon, S., Douglas, A., & Hopkins, W. G. (2012). Notational analysis of long corner kicks in an international youth football tournament. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 12(3), 692.
Criterios de eficacia ofensiva del saque de esquina en el Mundial de Alemania 2006: Aplicación al entrenamiento
  • P Sainz De Baranda
  • D López-Riquelme
  • E Ortega
Sainz de Baranda, P., López-Riquelme, D., & Ortega, E. (2011). Criterios de eficacia ofensiva del saque de esquina en el Mundial de Alemania 2006: Aplicación al entrenamiento. [Criteria of offensive effectiveness of the corner kick in the World Cup in Germany 2006: applications to training].
Notational analysis of corner kicks in English Premier League soccer
  • J B Taylor
  • N James
  • S D Mellalieu
Taylor, J. B., James, N., & Mellalieu, S. D. (2005). Notational analysis of corner kicks in English Premier League soccer. In T. Reilly, J. Cabri, & D. Aranjo (Eds.), Science and football V: The proceedings of the fifth world congress on football (pp. 229-234). Abingdon: Routledge.