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IS KNOWLEDGE OF A NON!DOMINANT L2 ACTIVATED BY BILINGUALS USING THEIR DOMINANT L1? INSIGHTS FROM AN ON!LINE PSYCHOLINGUISTIC STUDY

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Abstract

L1 influences on L2 learning and use are phenomena vastlydocumented in L2 learning research (ODLIN, 1989; JARVIS & PAVLEN-KO, 2007). However, approaches to the inversed phenomenon, i.e.: L2 influences on L1, are more recent (COOK, 2003). Studies of L2 e" ectson the L1 tend to examine bilinguals living in the linguistic environmentsof the L2. In the present study, we report the results of a psycholinguis-tic study that suggests that bilinguals who probably have their L1 as thedominant language may nonetheless activate L2 semantics-syntax inter-face representations over the course of sentence processing. We discussour results with respect to their implications for the cognitive architectureof bilinguals’ language representations, as well as what they might signifyfor language contact situations.

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... Essas diferenças estruturais para configurações semânticas similares ou, até mesmo, iguais têm sido alvo de alguns trabalhos que abordam os processos cognitivos de um usuário de L2 (JUFFS, 1998;KLEIN,1999;COOK et al., 2003;ZARA, 2009;SOUZA, 2011;SOUZA & OLIVEIRA, 2011;GUIMARAES, 2012). Esses estudos sugerem que, da mesma forma como acontece no nível lexical, as duas línguas presentes no sistema linguístico do usuário de L2 apresentam uma conexão no nível sintático. ...
... Esses estudos sugerem que, da mesma forma como acontece no nível lexical, as duas línguas presentes no sistema linguístico do usuário de L2 apresentam uma conexão no nível sintático. Tais sugestões advêm do fato de os dados empíricos apontarem para uma possível influência de L1 em L2 (JUFFS, 1998;KLEIN, 1999;ZARA;2009;SOUZA, 2011;GUIMARÃES, 2012), e para uma possível influência de L2 em L1 (COOK et al, 2003;SOUZA & OLIVEIRA;. ...
... L1 e insegurança. SegundoSouza & Oliveira (2011), os estudos sobre erosão linguística, normalmente, investigam dados provenientes de bilíngues cujo perfil linguístico e o contexto em que se encontram sugerem uma inversão de dominância. Ou seja, trata-se de bilíngues cuja menor exposição a L1 e intensa utilização da L2 fazem da última a língua dominante. ...
... Tal possibilidade parece estar relacionada às estratégias empregadas pelos bilíngues para processar as sentenças em inglês, pois, em vez de utilizarem estratégias próprias da L2, eles parecem ter utilizado estratégias peculiares à L1. O estudo de Souza (2011), através de tarefas de julgamento de aceitabilidade, demonstra que bilíngues do par linguístico PB e inglês com menor proficiência apresentam baixa aceitabilidade para sentenças que instanciam a alternância de movimento induzido. Os dados parecem indicar que esses bilíngues subrepresentam tal construção por utilizarem estratégias de mapeamento sintático-semântico de suas L1, língua na qual tal construção é ilícita. ...
... No caso específico de nossas observações, podemos conjecturar que o conhecimento e o uso da construção resultativa preposicionada em uma das línguas do bilíngue tem o potencial de torná-la ao menos parcialmente generalizável para ambas as línguas desses sujeitos. Pesquisas sobre a influência de L2 sobre a L1 demonstram ter grande potencial no entendimento da mente bilíngue e, por isso, espera-se que este estudo tenha contribuído com outros que propuseram a investigação de tal tema ( VAN HELL, DIJKSTRA, 2002;COOK, 2003;SOUZA, OLIVEIRA, 2011;SOUZA et al., 2014) Além de colaborar com a pesquisa sobre a representação bilíngue, o presente trabalho também traz dados que podem ajudar a iluminar o conhecimento sobre a construção resultativa e a aquisição da mesma por bilíngues do par linguístico PB e inglês. Tal construção tem ganhado foco nos últimos anos (OLIVEIRA, 2012;WECHSLER, 2012;BERTUCCI, 2014, MARCELINO, 2014OLIVEIRA;MARCELINO, 2014;OLIVEIRA, 2014), deixando de ser uma construção obscura e se revelando uma ótima ferramenta para pesquisas linguísticas e psicolinguísticas. ...
... For a trilingual, during lexical access of the L3, there can be influence of both L1 and L2 (HAMMARBERG, 2001;VINNITSKAYA;FLYNN;FOLEY, 2002;LEUNG, 2005;HARTSUIKER et al., 2016). There is also evidence of the influence of a foreign language (L2) in the processing of the native language (L1) (SOUZA; OLIVEIRA, 2011;SOUZA, 2012). ...
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We report an experiment using a picture-naming task within the masked priming paradigm to examine lexical access in English as a third language. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: a control group, consisting of native speakers of English, and two experimental groups, one consisting of speakers of English as L2 and the other consisting of speakers of German as L2 and English as L3. Participants of the two experimental groups were native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. All participants performed a picture-naming task in English in which pictures were preceded by a masked prime word in the target language (English), in the native language (Brazilian Portuguese) or in the second language (German). The results indicate some interference from the participants’ second language in the production of their third language (English), favoring the view that lexical access of multilinguals is qualitatively different from that of bilinguals and monolinguals.---Article in English. ---DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22409/gragoata.2018n46a1133
... For a trilingual, during lexical access of the L3, there can be influence of both L1 and L2 (HAMMARBERG, 2001;VINNITSKAYA;FLYNN;FOLEY, 2002;LEUNG, 2005;HARTSUIKER et al., 2016). There is also evidence of the influence of a foreign language (L2) in the processing of the native language (L1) (SOUZA; OLIVEIRA, 2011;SOUZA, 2012). ...
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We report an experiment using a picture-naming task within the masked priming paradigm to examine lexical access in English as a third language. Participants were assigned to one of three groups: a control group, consisting of native speakers of English, and two experimental groups, one consisting of speakers of English as L2 and the other consisting of speakers of German as L2 and English as L3. Participants of the two experimental groups were native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. All participants performed a picture-naming task in English in which pictures were preceded by a masked prime word in the target language (English), in the native language (Brazilian Portuguese) or in the second language (German). The results indicate some interference from the participants’ second language in the production of their third language (English), favoring the view that lexical access of multilinguals is qualitatively different from that of bilinguals and monolinguals. --- Article in English. --- DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22409/gragoata.2018n46a1133
... Apenas mais recentemente vem-se desenvolvendo uma linha de pesquisa que se dedica a compreender o processamento da linguagem por indivíduos bilíngues considerando a influência que a língua estrangeira poderia (e parece) ter sobre a percepção da língua materna. A psicolinguística, e suas técnicas experimentais, vem dando suporte a esse tipo de investigação, ajudando a registrar, com medidas mais precisas, o que a observação subjetiva já tinha permitido observar ou supor: a língua estrangeira é capaz de alterar a percepção dos falantes sobre a língua materna (SOUZA; OLIVEIRA, 2011;SOUZA, 2012;BROWN;GULLBERG, 2012). ...
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... The results are interpreted as evidence of access to the L2 during linguistic processing in the L1. Similar results are also discussed in (SOUZA;OLIVEIRA, 2011) 117. The trainer jumped the lion through the hoop. ...
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BILINGUAL SENTENCE PROCESSING: RELATIVE CLAUSE ATTACHMENT IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH. Eva M. Fernández. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 2003. Pp. xx + 292. $118.00 cloth. The purpose of this dissertation monograph is “to determine whether bilinguals, with proficiencies in each of their languages sufficient to support responsible fluency, process linguistic input by employing the routines that are followed by monolinguals of each of their languages” (p. 211). In other words, the question is whether the sentence processing of bilinguals is dependent on the language of the sentence (language dependence) or on the dominant language of the bilingual (called language independence). The study first identifies a sentence type with crosslinguistic processing differences and then seeks to determine whether monolinguals and bilinguals process those sentences differently in online (early phase) and offline (postsyntactic) tests.
Métodos experimentais em linguística
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