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EFFECT OF BAGGING TIME ON FRUIT QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF MANGO (MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CV. LANGRA IN BANGLADESH

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The present experiment titled "pre harvest bagging enhanced quality and shelf life of mango cv. Langra" was conducted during the year 2017 at the mango orchard near Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. The research was carried out in the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mango fruits were bagged at 35, 45 and 55 days after fruit set with different types of bags which constituted various treatments viz.: T1: Transparent polythene bag, T2: White paper single layered bag, T3: Brown paper double layered bag, T4: control (no bagging). In fruit physical parameter result bagged at 35 days after fruit set with white paper and brown paper bag recorded maximum fruit length (97.93 and 103.5 mm), fruit diameter (79.27 and 84.85 mm), fruit weight (311.66 g and 329.2 g), pulp weight (278.9 g and 289.8 g) respectively, and minimum result was found in polythene bag and control. Meanwhile in fruit chemical parameter of total sugar, reducing and non-reducing sugars, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH and β-carotene were improved over control. Brown paper bag changed fruit color. The sensory qualities in fruits of brown and white paper bags were improved over control. Fruits treated with brown paper bag showed shelf life upto 11 days with lowest weight loss and good physical quality as against 6days of unbagged fruits (control). These results specify that fruit bagging can improve fruit quality through diminution in disease and insect-pest infestation and shelf life of mango cv. Langra.
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International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
Vol. 4, No. 04; 2019
ISSN: 2456-8643
www.ijaeb.org Page 279
EFFECT OF BAGGING TIME ON FRUIT QUALITY AND SHELF LIFE OF MANGO
(MANGIFERA INDICA L.) CV. LANGRA IN BANGLADESH
Md.Tariqul Islam1*, Md. Shamsuzzoha2, Md. Shazadur Rahman3, Md. Abdul Bari4, Mst. Moli Akter1, Afifa
khatun5, Roksana Huque5, Md. Sorof Uddin6
1Department of Horticulture, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5200,
Bangladesh
2Departments of Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur 5200,
Bangladesh
3Departments of Agricultural Chemistry, Hajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur
5200, Bangladesh
4Insect Biotechnology Division, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment,
Savar, Dhaka 1349
5Food Technology Division, Institute of Food and Radiation Biology, Atomic Energy Research Establishment,
Savar, Dhaka 1349
6Regional Agricultural Research Station, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Akbarpur, Moulvibazar
http://doi.org/10.35410/IJAEB.2019.4424
ABSTRACT
The present experiment titled “pre harvest bagging enhanced quality and shelf life of mango cv.
Langra” was conducted during the year 2017 at the mango orchard near Hajee Mohammad
Danesh Science and Technology University, Dinajpur, Bangladesh. The research was carried out
in the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Mango fruits were bagged at
35, 45 and 55 days after fruit set with different types of bags which constituted various
treatments viz.: T1: Transparent polythene bag, T2: White paper single layered bag, T3: Brown
paper double layered bag, T4: control (no bagging). In fruit physical parameter result bagged at
35 days after fruit set with white paper and brown paper bag recorded maximum fruit length
(97.93 and 103.5 mm), fruit diameter (79.27 and 84.85 mm), fruit weight (311.66 g and 329.2 g),
pulp weight (278.9 g and 289.8 g) respectively, and minimum result was found in polythene bag
and control. Meanwhile in fruit chemical parameter of total sugar, reducing and non-reducing
sugars, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, pH and β-carotene were improved over control. Brown
paper bag changed fruit color. The sensory qualities in fruits of brown and white paper bags were
improved over control. Fruits treated with brown paper bag showed shelf life upto 11 days with
lowest weight loss and good physical quality as against 6days of unbagged fruits (control). These
results specify that fruit bagging can improve fruit quality through diminution in disease and
insect-pest infestation and shelf life of mango cv. Langra.
Keywords: Bagging time, Fruit quality, Shelf life, Mango.
1. INTRODUCTION
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
Vol. 4, No. 04; 2019
ISSN: 2456-8643
www.ijaeb.org Page 280
Mango (Mangifera indica L.) belonging to the family Anacardiaceae, commonly known as the
“King of fruits”[1], is a popular tropical fruit, especially in Asia. In Bangladesh, it’s one of the
most important commercial fruits and choice fruit for all age’s people. Currently, there are about
41676 hectares of land occupied with mango orchard and produced about 1288315 ton [2]. The
area under mango cultivation is increasing every year but safe and quality mango production not
increased. Mango fruits and trees are subject to several animate and inanimate diseases. The
outbreak of different mango diseases and insect-pest attack reduce the target mango yield every
year. To control these problems farmers are using 15-62 times pesticides in their mango orchard
and it’s increasing as alarming ratio [3]. To prevent the losses caused by biotic and abiotic
factors, several good agricultural practices are becoming popular throughout the World [4].
Furthermore, the development of alternative techniques to improve the appearance and quality of
fruits and to reduce diseases and insect infestations is becoming increasingly important as
consumer anxiety over the use of manmade agro-chemicals and environmental awareness
increases. Thus, more emphasis is being placed on reducing the use of pesticides to ensure
worker safety, consumer health, and environmental protection [4]. An attractive, spotless and
pest free fruits of this variety fetch premium rate in the market. In recent years, the climatic
aberrations such as sudden rise in the temperature and humidity, abnormal rains especially
during fruit development are often experienced. It had not only affected the external appearance
of the fruit but also aggravated the pest such as mealy bugs and physiological disorder like
spongy tissue which further added in the losses. The affected fruits gain poor price in the market
and such fruits are also rejected for processing. It causes serious economic loss to mango
growers.
Among several such alternatives, the pre-harvest bagging technique of fruits has been used
extensively in several fruit crops to improve skin color and to reduce the incidence of diseases,
insect pests, mechanical damages, sunburn of the skin, agrochemical residues on the fruits, and
bird damages [5]-[10]. Therefore, the present research work was undertaken to compare the
effectiveness of different time of bagging in mango fruit (Mangifera indicaL.) cv. Langra
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research work was conducted at different mango orchards in Dinajpur, Bangladesh during
April to July, 2017. Chemical analyses were conducted at the laboratory of Atomic Energy
Commission, Savar, Dhaka and other parameters were evaluated at the Department of
Horticulture, HSTU, Dinajpur. Mango cv. Langra used as test materials. The experiment was
constructed in Randomized Block Design with four treatments replicated three times with a unit
of 10 fruits per treatment per replication. Different types of bags were constituted the treatments
viz.: T1: Transparent polythene bag, T2: White paper single layered bag, T3: Brown paper double
layered bag, T4: Non-bagged (control). Uniformly grown fruits (35, 45 and 55 days after fruit
set) were selected for bagging. The sizes of bags were 25 × 20 cm. Before bagging two
perforations (≤4 mm diameter) was made for proper ventilation at the bottom of polythene bag
and muslin cloth bag. White and brown paper bags were not perforated. The particular bags were
wrapped properly at the stalk of each fruit of respective treatments so that it would not be fall
down as well as there would not be open space. Five fruits were randomly selected per treatment
per replication to record various physical and chemical compositions which were estimated by
the following procedures.
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
Vol. 4, No. 04; 2019
ISSN: 2456-8643
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2.1 Physical parameters
Length and diameter of fruit were measured with the help of digital varner caliper and expressed
in millimeter (mm). Weight of fruit and pulp was recorded by using electronic balance and
expressed in grams (g).
Weight Loss (%): Weight of fruits was recorded with the help of physical balance and weight
loss per cent was calculated by using the following standard procedure mentioned in AOAC
(2000)[11].
Weight loss (%)= ×100
2.2 Chemical composition
2.2.1 Total sugars
Total sugar content of mango pulp was estimated by Anthrone reagent as per the method given
by Hansen and Moller (1975)([12]). D- Glucose at the concentration of 20 to 100 g ml-1 was
used to prepare the standard curve.
2.2.2 Reducing sugars
Total reducing sugar content of the samples was determined according to the classical and
widely used method [13]. Briefly, mango pulps were homogenized with benzoic acid solution
(0.2%). An aliquote of the filtrate was mixed with the copper reagents (a mixture of alkaline
Rochelle salt and acidic CuSO4). After heating in boiling water (15 min) and cooling,
arsenomolybdate color reagent was added. Finally a blue color produced, the absorbance
measured at 520 nm and compared with a set of standard (glucose).
2.2.3 Non-reducing sugar
Non reducing sugar content was determined by subtracting the reducing sugar content from total
sugar content [14]. Non-reducing sugar content was determined by using the following formula.
% Non-reducing sugar= (% Total sugar-% Reducing sugar) × 0.95
2.2.4 Total soluble solid (TSS)
Total soluble solids were found out by using Erma Hand Refract meter (0 to 32°Brix) and
expressed in °Brix [15].
2.2.5 Ascorbic acid (mg/100g of Fruit pulp)
Ascorbic acid was estimated as described by [16] Mango pulp (5g) was mixed with 5 ml of 20%
metaphosphoric acid solution and filtered. The filtrate (5 ml) was put in a small beaker and
shaken with 2 drops of phenolphthalein solution and titrated against 2, 6-indophenol until pink
color developed. Results were expressed on a fresh weight basis as mg ascorbic acid equivalent
per 100 g sample.
Vit C (mg/100 g) = ×100
2.2.6 β-Carotene (μg/100 g of pulp)
β-carotene in mango pulp was determined according to the method of [17]. One gram of pulp
was mixed with 10 ml of acetone: hexane mixture (4: 6) and vortex for 5 minutes. The mixture
was filtered and absorbance was measured at 453nm, 505nm and 663nm.
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
Vol. 4, No. 04; 2019
ISSN: 2456-8643
www.ijaeb.org Page 282
Β–carotene (mg /100ml) = 0.216 A663-0.304 A505+ 0.452 A453
2.2.7 pH of fruit juice
The pH of each sample was determined by digital pH meter (JENWAY 3510). Fruit juice was
made for each sample by homogenizing 10g of sample in a homogenizer. The value was noted
after adjusting and stabilizing the pH meter.
2.2.8 Sensory evaluation
The ripe fruits were also examined for their sensory qualities for assessing color, flavor and
texture by panel of five judges with nine point Hedonic Scale viz. 1-Dislike extremely, 2-Dislike
very much, 3-Dislike moderately, 4-Dislike slightly, 6-Like slightly, 7-Like moderately, 8-Like
very much and 9-Like extremely [18].
2.2.9 Shelf life of fruits (Days)
Mature fruits were harvested at 80-85 percent maturity. Twenty harvested mature fruits of each
treatment were ripened at ambient temperature by using plastic crates with perforation and
traditional paddy straw as ripening material. At the bottom, 2.5 cm layer of paddy straw was
made on which fruits were arranged. Simultaneously, two more layers were kept on the first
layer. After ripening the various observations viz. shelf life (days) and incidence of mealy bug
(%) were recorded. The end of shelf life was noted when the fruits were spoiled.
2.2.10 Disease incidence
Diseases incidence means percentage of fruits infected with disease. This was measured by
calculating the percentage of fruits infected in each replication of each treatment. The diseased
fruits were identified symptomatically. The disease incidence was calculated as follow:
Disease incidence (%) = ×100
2.2.11 Statistical analysis
The data were analysed by partitioning the total variance with the MSTATC programme. The
treatment means were compared using Turkey’s Test.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1 Length of fruit (mm)
The treatment of brown paper bag and white paper bag were gave the maximum fruit length
(103.5mm and 97.93 mm, respectively) at 35 days after fruit set. The treatment of control gave
the fruit length (92.4 mm). However, minimum fruit length was recorded in the treatment of
polythene bag (88.2 mm) at 45 and 55 days after fruit set(Table 1).
Table 1. Effects of pre-harvest bagging on physical parameters of mango cv. Langra at ripe
stage
Treatments
Time
Fruit length
(mm)
Diameter of
fruit (mm)
Fruit
weight (g)
Pulp
weight (g)
Weight loss
(%)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
Vol. 4, No. 04; 2019
ISSN: 2456-8643
www.ijaeb.org Page 283
No bagging
92.40abc
74.13bc
264.9cd
214.9cde
9.260cd
Polythene
bag
35 days
88.20abc
73.40bc
248.6de
207.6def
10.20bcd
45 days
86.20bc
72.13bc
235.2e
195.2f
12.22abc
55 days
84.27c
68.67c
200.4f
164.2g
13.94a
White
paper bag
35 days
97.93abc
79.27ab
311.6b
278.9a
12.69ab
45 days
87.53bc
74.93bc
246.3de
205.1def
14.51a
55 days
87.73abc
72.00bc
238.6e
197.6ef
8.757d
Brown
paper bag
35 days
103.5a
84.85a
329.2a
289.8a
8.270d
45 days
99.47abc
85.13a
280.7c
241.2b
9.980bcd
55 days
101.0ab
79.27ab
273.5c
226.7bc
7.560d
LSD
13.69
7.532
17.52
16.39
2.899
CV%
8.71
5.86
3.93
4.38
16.32
Means followed by the same letter(s) within each column didn’t significantly differ at 5% level.
3.2 Diameter of fruit (mm)
Pre-harvest fruit bagging with brown paper and white paper bag gave the maximum (84.85 mm
and 79.27 mm) fruit diameter over control and polythene bag (74.13 mm and 73.40 mm) at 35
days after fruit set which is statistically similar with 45 days after fruit. The diameter of fruit was
slightly decreased at 45 and 55 days after fruit set (Table 1).
3.3 Weight of fruit (g)
The maximum fruit weight was found in the treatment of brown paper bagat 35 days after fruit
set (329.2 g) and minimum in the polythene bag treatment (248.6 g) (Table1).Bagging increased
fruit weight, size over control fruits[19].
3.4 Pulp weight (g)
The maximum pulp weight was found in the treatment of brown paper bag (289.8 g) which was
statistically similar with the treatment of white paper bag (278.9 g) at 35 days after fruit set.
The minimum was found in the treatment of polythene bag (164.2 g) at 55 days after fruit set
which was also statistically different with the treatment of control (214.9 g) (Table1).
3.5 Weight loss (%)
The maximum weight loss was found in the treatment of white paper bag (14.51%) which was
statistically similar with the treatment of polythene bag with the values 13.94 %. The lowest
weight loss was found in the treatment of brown paper bag (7.56%) at 55 days after fruit set
(Table1). These findings are accordance with some previous reports that the effects of pre-
harvest bagging increased fruit growth, size, and weight [20]-[22],[9],[23],[5]-[6].
3.6 Total sugars (%)
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The total sugars were the highest in the white paper bag treatment (14.82 %) at 45 days after fruit
set (Table 2). It was the lowest in the polythene bag treatment (10.44%). Earlier, Harhash and
Al-obeed (2010)[21]reported that date palm fruit bagged with blue color bag showed the highest
total sugars as compared to control.
Table 2. Effects of pre-harvest bagging on chemical composition of mango cv. Langra at
ripe stage
Treatments
Total
sugars
(%)
Reducing
sugars (%)
Ascorbic
acid
(mg/100g)
TSS(%
Brix)
Pulp pH
β-
carotene
(µg/100
g)
No
bagging
13.91ab
2.90 b
41.19 a
15.34a
5.853a
598.2a
Polythene
bag
13.22 abc
1.95 cd
40.17 a
16.89a
5.210b
608.4a
13.83 ab
1.80 d
38.44 a
17.03a
5.297b
602.0a
10.44 c
2.21 cd
40.21 a
15.49a
5.310b
614.6a
White
paper bag
10.83 bc
1.95 cd
40.21 a
16.22a
5.310b
613.4a
14.82 a
2.73 b
44.74 a
17.11a
5.310b
603.4a
13.50 abc
2.16 cd
39.65 a
16.13a
5.220b
611.4a
Brown
paper bag
12.26 abc
2.25 c
38.67 a
15.36a
5.400b
616.3a
10.84 c
3.28 a
42.57 a
18.78a
5.273b
611.0a
12.76 abc
3.63 a
41.41 a
15.68a
5.403b
611.0a
LSD
2.902
0.3748
6.747
4.028
0.3387
24.83
CV%
13.32
8.68
9.62
14.14
3.69
2.40
Means followed by the same letter(s) within each column didn’t significantly differ at 5% level.
3.7 Reducing sugars (%)
The highest reducing sugars were recorded in brown paper bag (3.63%) at 55 days after fruit set
which is statistically identical with 45 days while the lowest was recorded in the polythene bag
(1.80%) at 45 days after fruit set (Table 2). Similar findings were found in some previous
research [23],[5]. They reported that fruits of newspaper and white paper bag exhibited the
maximum reducing sugars at ripe stage in mango due to pre-harvest bagging treatments.
3.8 Ascorbic acid (mg/100g)
There was no significant different among the treatments (Table2). The highest ascorbic acid
content was recorded in the treatment of white paper bag (44.74 mg/100 g) at 45 days after fruit
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
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set which was found statistically at par with brown paper bag (42.57 mg/100 g)while the lowest
was recorded in the polythene bag (38.44 mg/100 g). The above results are very close to the
findings of [5],[23]-[24] in mango.
3.9 Total soluble solid (% Brix)
There was no significant different among the treatments (Table 2). The fruits of brown paper and
white paper bag showed the highest soluble solids content (18.78 % Brix and 17.11 % Brix,
respectively) while lowest total soluble solids was recorded in control (15.34 % Brix) at 45 days
after fruit set. The findings revealed that percent total soluble solids increased sharply from
harvest to ripe fruits have got support of [25] who mentioned that TSS increase initially and
declined later on. Similar finding was recorded in some previous studies [5],[23].
3.10 Pulp pH
There was no significant difference among the treatments (Table2). The content of pulp pH in
the control treatment (5.85) is higher than the other treatments of fruit bagging with brown paper
bag (5.40), white paper bag (5.31) and polythene bag (5.31) (Table-2).
3.11 β-carotene (µg/100 g)
The treatments were statistically non-significant variation in respect of β-carotene (Table2). The
highest β-carotene content at 35 days after fruit set was recorded in the treatment of brown and
white paper bag (616.3 µg and 614.6 µg, respectively) while the lowest was recorded in the non
bagged control fruits (598.2 µg). These findings are accordance with previous reports that a flesh
lycopene and β-carotene content was increased due to pre-harvest bagging treatments in mango
[26],[23],[5].
3.12 Shelf life and disease incidence
The maximum shelf life was found in the treatment of brown paper bag (11 days) while the
minimum was found in the treatment of polythene bag (5 days) at 35 days after fruit set due to
the early retention of the fruit. Islam et al.(2017a)[5] reported that pre-harvest bagging delayed
ripening resulting in extended shelf life mango. The fruits of brown paper bag and white paper
bag were free from fruit fly infestation at 35 and 45 days after fruit set but at 55 days showed in
less infestation. The maximum incidence of fruit fly (8.62 %) and anthracnose (32.03%) was
recorded in control. The maximum infection of stem end rot was recorded in polythene bag
(39.27%) at 55 days after fruit set. The fruit bagging with brown paper bag at 45 days after fruit
set had the lowest infection (0.40%) of stem end rot which is statistically identical with 35
days.(Table 3).Bagging modified the microenvironment near fruit especially in respect to
temperature and humidity. The longer shelf life of bagged fruits indicated that the effect of
bagging persisted after ripening. Bagging provided physical barrier between fruit and pests. In
mango cv. Keitt white paper bags at approximately 100 days before harvest reduced anthracnose
and stem end rot [27].
Table 3. Effect of pre-harvest bagging on shelf life and different disease incidence of mango
cv. Langra at ripe stage
Treatments
Time
Shelf life
(days)
Stem end rot
(%)
Anthracnose
(%)
Fruit fly
infestation
(%)
International Journal of Agriculture, Environment and Bioresearch
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No bagging
6.00 d
34.27 b
32.03 a
8.62 a
Polythene bag
35 days
5.00 d
27.10 c
4.86 c
1.30 d
45 days
6.33 d
25.43 c
5.43 c
3.60 c
55 days
7.33 cd
39.27 a
5.54 c
9.00 a
White paper bag
35 days
9.00 bc
15.27 d
3.00 cd
0.00 d
45 days
8.00 cd
10.77 e
3.60c
0.00 d
55 days
8.00 cd
15.10 d
4.10 c
5.96 b
Brown paper bag
35 days
11.00 a
1.13 f
0.170 e
0.00 d
45 days
10.66 ab
0.40 f
0.00 e
0.00 d
55 days
10.00 ab
2.17 f
0.77 de
4.88 bc
LSD
1.761
3.54
2.513
1.458
CV%
15.34
10.20
15.81
19.50
Means followed by the same letter(s) within each column didn’t significantly differ at 5% level.
3.13 Sensory evaluation
A way to get better final mango quality traits such as colour, appearance, flavour and overall
expression were significant variation among various bagging treatments while texture and
sweetness were non-significant. Beside, brown paper bag showed less sweetness compared to
unbagged control at different time of bagging after fruit set. It indicated that the organoleptic
qualities of fruits were affected by pre-harvest bagging in mango (Table 4).
Table 4. Effect of pre-harvest fruit bagging on sensory evaluation in fruits of mango cv.
Langra at ripe stage
Treatments
Time
Color
Texture
Appearance
Sweetness
Flavour
Overall
Impression
No bagging
6.330bc
7.000a
5.330c
7.670a
7.000abc
4.330de
Polythene
bag
35 days
4.000e
7.000a
3.000d
7.330a
5.330c
3.330e
45 days
3.000e
7.670a
3.330d
7.330a
6.330bc
5.330cd
55 days
3.297e
7.000a
3.000d
6.670a
5.330c
5.000d
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White paper
bag
35 days
5.703cd
7.000a
7.000ab
7.330a
7.000abc
7.330ab
45 days
7.330abc
7.000a
7.000ab
8.330a
7.000abc
7.670ab
55 days
7.670ab
7.000a
7.000ab
7.670a
7.330abc
6.670bc
Brown
paper bag
35 days
8.430a
7.670a
7.670a
7.000a
8.000ab
8.330a
45 days
7.670ab
7.670a
8.330a
7.000a
8.670a
8.670a
55 days
8.330a
7.670a
7.330a
7.000a
7.670ab
7.670ab
LSD
1.542
1.976
1.300
1.792
1.842
1.398
CV%
14.85
16.16
13.09
14.43
15.99
13.52
Means followed by the same letter(s) within each column didn’t significantly differ at 5% level.
4. CONCLUSION
Thus, it is concluded that the pre-harvest treatment with brown and white paper bagging were
found to be the best to increase the fruits quality in respect of fruits weight, TSS, ascorbic acid,
total sugarsand β-carotene, with minimum weight loss and less diseases incidence in mango
fruits cv. Langra. Among all treatment, brown paper bag at 35 days provided the best
performance for all parameters while without bagging in produced inferior. Therefore, the pre-
harvest treatment of brown and white paper bagging are suggested to the mango traders and
grower of Bangladesh for taking a quality production with prolonged shelf life to obtain a
profitable price of mangoes in domestic and export markets.
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This work was supported by using the research grant of USAID Trust Fund and GoB through
Ministry of Agriculture, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. We would like to
thanks to the World Bank for arranging the grand fund and supervising the CRGs by BARC (ID
444). It is worthwhile to mention the cooperation and quick responses of PIU-BARC, NATP 2,
in respect of field implementation of the sub-project in multiple sites.
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... Likewise, in the present study, wrapping using Taiwan paper bag produced more fruit acceptable for export and less fruit for the local market. White bagging materials are deemed very effective in enhancing fruit quality of mango (Islam et al., 2019) and guava (Hossain et al., 2018). Per factor in a column, means with same letters are not significantly different at 5% level of significance using LSD. ...
... There was an interaction effect between maturity and hot water treatment at 4 and 8 DAS (data not shown). Islam et al. (2019) reported that unbagged fruit showed lower weight loss than bagged 'Langra' mangoes. Also, early bagging of 'Langra' mangoes at 35 days after fruit set showed higher weight loss as was exhibited also in the present study at 8 DAS. ...
... Related to the other parameters, bagged 'Purple Queen' fruits presented relevant reductions of around 37.57% less malic acid content, 10.97% less glucose and 10.21% less fructose. Although it has traditionally been indicated that bagging can increase fruit sugars and organic acid content (Islam et al., 2019;Sarker, Rahman, & Barman, 2009;Zhang et al., 2015), the response to bagging varies according to the fruits considered. In fact, a decrease in sugar and organic acid content has been reported in olives, apples and dates (Al-Obeed & Harhash, 2010; Jing, Feng, Zhao, Wu, & Chen, 2020; Zhou, Zhong, Lin, Xu, & The different letters within the rows for each pomegranate variety indicate significant differences. ...
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The pomegranate tree is cultivated and its fruits consumed since ancient times. This tree is typical of the Mediterranean climate, with high thermal demands to mature properly. The main objective of this work was to study the influence of the fruit bagging technique on the morphometric and biochemical characteristics of the pomegranate fruits of two new varieties that are currently cultivated in the Southeast of Spain. The results indicated that the fruit bagging presented a significant effect on the weight, equatorial diameter, height and shape of the fruit, however, it did not show any influence on the peel thickness. No significant differences have been observed in the number of healthy fruits with and without bagging, however, the number of cracked fruits with Cryptoblabes gnidiella damage was higher for the non-bagged fruits. The fruit bagging presented a significant effect on the total soluble solids, maturity index, glucose, α-punicalagin, α + β-punicalagin and ellagic acid, but it did not show influence on pH, acidity, ABTS, DPPH, FRAP, total phenols, fructose, citric, malic, and quinic acid, β-punicalagin and anthocyanins. The internal fruit color was not affected by the bagging, although it did affect the external color of the fruit, and unevenly depending on the variety. Based on the results, it can be said that bagging can improve the quality of the fruit by reducing damage from pests and pathophysiology, and this benefit compensates or even exceeds the negative effects of bagging on peel color.
... In the current study, fruits enveloped in paper bags showed a 6.15% increase in soluble sugars, while titratable acids were 50% reduced as compared to unbagged fruits ( Figure 4). Sarker et al. [32] and Islam et al. [47] reported an increase in sugar content in bagged mango fruits, while Bently and Viveros [24] registered an improvement of fruit sweetness in Granny Smith apple. Conversely, Zhou et al. [48] reported a decrease in sugar content after bagging of Chinese white olives (Canarium album (Lour.) ...
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Bagging regulates the fruit microenvironment and improves the quality and market value of fruits. It is a safe and ecofriendly technique to protect fruits from insect/pest infestation and multiple biotic and abiotic stresses. In the current study, the influence of fruit bagging was evaluated on the development and quality of loquat fruits. Fruits from a healthy loquat orchard (Cv. Zaozhong No.6), located in Fujian, China, were enveloped in paper (T1), aluminum (T2), and aluminum–polyethylene bags (T3), while unbagged fruits were maintained as control (T0). In general, fruit bagging improved fruit quality in terms of fruit physiological and biochemical attributes and protected fruits from physical damage. In particular, aluminum–polyethylene bagging enhanced fruit weight, length, and width by 1.37-, 1.18-, and 1.13-fold, respectively. Loquat fruits bagged with paper bags exhibited the maximum soluble sugar and lowest titratable acid content. Fruits treated with paper and aluminum–ethylene bags showed twofold higher sugar–acid ratio as compared to control. Aluminum–polyethylene bagging caused 66.67%, 55.56%, and 33.33% reductions in skin burn, fruit rotting, and black spot of loquat. The fruits bagged in aluminum and aluminum–polyethylene did not show insect or bird damage, while unbagged fruits had 14.70% and 17.65% insect and bird damage, respectively. Overall, the results suggest that paper, aluminum, and aluminum–polyethylene bagging improved fruit health by 75%, 131%, and 144%, respectively, as compared to control. To delineate bagging type-dependent effects, principal component analysis was performed. Paper bagging was positively correlated with fruit firmness, rotting, soluble sugars, sugar–acid ratio, and proline content. Aluminum bagging was highly associated with improvements in titratable acids, cystine, and methionine. Aluminum–polyethylene bags were correlated with fruit weight, size, peel thickness, edible rate, and certain amino acids.
... Räusch.), as it was found for apple [45] and also date [38]. Conversely, Sarker et al. [21] and Islam et al. [46] reported an increase in sugar contents in bagged mango fruits, while Bently and Viveros [47] registered an improvement of fruit sweetness in Granny Smith apple. Huang et al. [48] stated that bagging has a non-significant effect on soluble sugars but decreases organic acids in pear fruits. ...
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Fruit quality is certainly influenced by biotic and abiotic factors, and a main quality attribute is the external appearance of the fruit. Various possible agronomical approaches are able to regulate the fruit microenvironment and, consequently, improve fruit quality and market value. Among these, fruit bagging has recently become an integral part of fruits' domestic and export markets in countries such as Japan, China, Korea Australia and the USA because it is a safe and eco-friendly technique to protect fruits from multiple stresses, preserving or improving the overall quality. Despite increasing global importance, the development of suitable bagging materials and, above all, their use in the field is quite laborious, so that serious efforts are required to enhance and standardize bagging material according to the need of the crops/fruits. This review provides information about the effects of bagging technique on the fruit aspect and texture, which are the main determinants of consumer choice.
... Several good agricultural practices are becoming popular throughout the world for preventing the losses of fruits caused by both biotic and abiotic factors [4]. Among several such alternatives, the pre-harvest fruit bagging technique has been adopted widely in several fruit crops to improve skin color in the same time, to reduce the incidence of diseases, insect pests, mechanical damages, sunburn of the skin, agrochemical residues on the fruits, and bird damages [5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13]. Therefore, the present study has been undertaken. ...
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A study was performed during 2016 from January to July for safe mango production by applying the minimum use of pesticides. The mango fruits were bagged at marble stage (45 days after fruit set) with various treatments viz: T0: No bagging (control), T1: Brown paper double-layered bag (BPB); T2: White paper single-layered bag (WPB); T3: Perforated polythene bag (PB) and T4: White cloth bag (WCB). In physical parameters, brown and white paper bag recorded the maximum fruit weight (169.10 g and 147.6 g), fruit length (8.57 and 8.33 cm), fruit diameter (5.63 and 5.87 cm) and pulp weight (124.47 g and 105.60 g) respectively, while minimum result was found in the other treatments and control. Meanwhile, in bagging fruits, chemical parameters of total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, percent of citric acid, reducing sugars and β- carotene were increased over control. Brown paper bag changed fruit color. The sensory qualities in fruits of brown and white paper bags were improved over control. Fruit retention was significantly improved by pre-harvest fruit bagging with a brown paper bag (95.90%), white paper bag (95.50%), and control (90.00%) over polythene bag (80.00%). Fruits with brown paper bags showed shelf life up to 18 days with good physical quality and the lowest weight loss against 15 days of control fruits. The sensory attributes were better in fruits of brown, white paper and white cloth bags over control. Bagging at marble stage also reduced the occurrence of spongy tissue and the incidence of mealy bugs. These results indicate that fruit bagging can improve the quality and the shelf life of mango cv. Amrapali through the reduction of disease and insect-pest attack.
... Among several such alternatives, Pre-harvest paper bagging is a physical protection method which not only improves the visual quality of fruit by promoting skin coloration and reducing blemishes, but can also change the microenvironment for fruit development, which can have several beneficial effects on internal fruit quality. Pre-harvest bagging of fruit can also reduce the incidence of disease, insect pest and/or mechanical damage, sunburn of the skin, fruit cracking, agrochemical residues on the fruit, and bird damage [3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10]. The aim of this study was undertaken to control mango pests and diseases as well as to improve the fruit quality of mango through bagging technology. ...
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Fruits are susceptible to insect pest infestations, bird attack, various pathogens, and mechanical damages, all of which can reduce their commercial value and thereby cause significant yield and economic losses. The objective of this study was to control mango pests and diseases as well as to improve the fruit quality of mango through bagging technology. An investigation was performed during the year 2016 from March to July for safe mango production by applying minimum use of pesticide entitled studies on influence of bagging on physico-chemical properties and shelf life of mango cv. Langra. The mango fruits were bagged at marble stage (40 days from fruit set) with different types of bags which constituted the various treatments viz: T1: Brown paper bag; T2: White paper bag; T3: Polythene bag T4: Muslin cloth bag; T5: No bagging (control). Bagging with brown paper bag and white paper bag improved fruit retention, weight of fruit, diameter of fruit, pulp weight, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, percent of citric acid, reducing sugars and β-carotene at harvest and ripe stage over control. Brown paper bag changed fruit color. In all cases good quality, cleaner, disease and insect free fruits were harvested. The sensory qualities in fruits of brown, white and muslin cloth bags were improved over control. Pre-harvest bagging also reduced occurrence of spongy tissue and the incidence of mealy bugs. These results indicate that fruit bagging can improve fruit quality through reduction in disease and insect-pest attack and shelf life of mango cv. Langra.
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Abstract Bagging of mango fruits prior to harvest is the preeminent alternative to avoid adverse effect by causing physical damage and improve the commercial value of the fruit, namely, improving fruit coloration, reducing splitting mechanical damage, sunburn of the skin etc. An investigation was performed during the year 2016 from March to June for safe mango production by applying minimum use of pesticide entitled influence of bagging on physico-chemical properties and shelf life of mango cv. Mishribhog. The mango fruits were bagged at marble stage with different types of bags which constituted the various treatments viz.: T1: Brown paper bag; T2: White paper bag; T3: Polythene bag; T4: Muslin cloth bag; T5: No bagging (control). Bagging with brown paper bag and white paper bag improved fruit retention, weight of fruit, diameter of fruit, pulp weight, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, percent of citric acid, reducing sugars and β-carotene at harvest and ripe stage over control. Brown paper bag changed fruit color. In all cases good quality, cleaner, disease and insect free fruits were harvested. The sensory qualities in fruits of brown, white and muslin cloth bags were improved over control. Fruit retention was significantly enhanced by pre-harvest bagging with brown paper bag (91.00%) and white paper bag (87.00%) over control (81.33%). The harvesting time was significantly deferred (65.67 days) in brown paper bag over control. Pre-harvest bagging also reduced occurrence of spongy tissue and the incidence of mealy bugs. These results specify that fruit bagging can improve fruit quality through diminution in disease and insect-pest infestation and shelf life of mango cv. Mishribhog. Influence of pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of Mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Mishribhog. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319872200_Influence_of_pre-harvest_bagging_on_fruit_quality_of_Mango_Mangifera_indica_L_cv_Mishribhog.
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An experiment was conducted to study the effect of bagging on growth and development of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Alphonso in the year 2012 from March to June, undertaken in Randomized Block Design. Mango fruits were subjected to six types of bagging treatments with 3 replications at 60 days after fruit set. Results showed that the chemical parameters such as Moisture content, acidity, TSS, reducing, non-reducing sugars and β carotene were not significantly varied due to bagging. Further the total sugars in fruits of muslin cloth and scurting bags were improved at ripe stage over control. The sensory quality in fruits of scurting and muslin cloth bags was improved over control.
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The effect of fruit bagging on the content of carbohydrate, organic acid and carotenoid in ripening mango of cvs. 'Chinhuang', 'Baixiangya', 'Hongyu' and 'Guifei' was investigated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Fruit bagging enhanced the contents of both total carbohydrate and total carotenoid, but reduced the content of total organic acid in fruit of all the tested varieties. The composition of carbohydrate, carotenoid and organic acid were not affected by fruit bagging. Bagged fruits of all the tested varieties had higher content of ascorbic acid, quinin acid, β-carotene, xanthophyll and lycopene and each constituent of carbohydrate than the control fruit. The proportions of ascorbic acid, quinin acid, β-carotene and lycopene were all raised by fruit bagging. Content and/or proportions of other compositions of carbohydrate, organic acid and carotenoid in mango fruit varied with tested cultivars and constituent types. The resulted suggested that fruit bagging can improve the internal quality of mango.
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Preharvest fruit bagging has emerged as a novel technology in practice, which is simple, grower friendly, safe and beneficial for production of quality fruits. An investigation was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 for two consecutive fruiting seasons entitled studies on influence of bagging of fruits at marble stage on quality of mango cv. Alphonso. The fruits were bagged at marble stage (30 days from fruit set) with different types of bags which constituted the various treatments viz: T1: Newspaper bag; T2: Brown paper bag; T3: Scurting bag; T4: Polythene bag; T5: Butter paper bag; T6: Muslin cloth bag; T7: Brown paper bag with polythene coating; T8: control (no bagging). The experiment was conducted in Randomised Block Design with eight treatments replicated three times. The preharvest bagging modified fruit retention, period required for harvesting after bagging, physico-chemical composition of mature and ripe fruit, shelf life, occurrence of spongy tissue and pest incidence. Bagging with newspaper bag and brown paper bag improved fruit retention, weight of fruit, diameter of fruit, pulp weight, total soluble solids and reducing sugars at ripe stage and produced spongy tissue free fruits. The brown paper bag with polythene coating improved fruit retention, weight of fruit, pulp weight and decreased occurrence of spongy tissue and incidence of mealy bag. The butter paper bag, muslin cloth bag and scurting bag improved fruit retention, reduced occurrence of spongy tissue and incidence of mealy bag. Preharvest bagging with different types of bag did not change the sensory qualities of ripe fruits mango cv.Alphonso.
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従来の方法では,トマト果実のクロロフィルとカロテノイド含有量はそれぞれ別の方法で分析されてきた.著者らはトマト色素を同時に定量する簡便な方法を検討した.試料に含まれるすべての色素をアセトンーヘキサン(4:6)で一度に抽出し,上層の663nm, 645nm, 505nm, 453nmの吸光度を分光光度計で同時に測定する.これらの値から著者らの提案した式を用いてクロロフィルa, b,リコペン, β-カロテンの含有量を推定するにとができる.本法を用いて熟度の異なるトマト果実を分析した.また,同じ試料を従来の方法で分析した.その結果,クロロフィル含有量はMACKINNEY法,リコペン含有量は木村らの方法とほぼ同じ値であった.これにより,本法の有効性が確認された.