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Efficacy of a cosmetic product mimicking PRP in androgenetic alopecia

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Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair loss disorder. Recently, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have emerged as alternative cell-based therapies for the treatment of AGA. Its efficacy is strictly linked to the release of growth factors (GFs) via alpha-granules degranulation. Among their well-known activity, more recently, GFs are acquiring importance as regards their involvement in the regulation of hair growth cycle. Thanks to the advent of modern biotechnology synthetic polypeptides mimicking growth factors have been developed opening to new therapeutic approaches also in the dermatological field, including hair growth disorder. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cosmetic product (TR-M-PRP plus) mimicking PRP composition by means of biomimetic peptides in subjects affected by AGA. Materials and methods: 60 AGA subjects were treated for three months end evaluated, at the end of the study and after one month of follow-up, as regards hair growth by evaluating total and anagen hair count, anagen/telogen ratio, % of miniaturization, Hair Mass Index (HMI), and hair shaft diameter. Results: TR-M-PRP plus treatment produced a statistically significant (p < 0.001) clinical improvement compared with PLACEBO in total and anagen hair counts. The treatment with TR-M-PRP plus resulted in a time- increased improvement in the anagen/telogen ratio, reduction of 5 of miniaturization and increasing of HMI and Hair shaft diameter. Conclusions: Our study confirms, for the first time, the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product containing biomimetics peptides (TR-M-PRP plus) mimicking autologous PRP for the treatment of AGA.
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Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION
Efficacy of a cosmetic product mimicking PRP in Androgenetic Alopecia
Rinaldi Fabio
1*
,Marzani Barbara
1
, Pinto Daniela
1
, Sorbellini Elisabetta
1
1
International Hair Research Foundation, Milan, Italy
* Correspondence: fabio.rinaldi@studiorinaldi.com; Tel.: +39-2-76006089
Summary:
Introduction: Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common hair loss disorder. Recently,
platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections have emerged as alternative cell-based therapies for the
treatment of AGA. Its efficacy is strictly linked to the release of growth factors (GFs) via
alpha-granules degranulation. Among their well-known activity, more recently, GFs are
acquiring importance as regards their involvement in the regulation of hair growth cycle.
Thanks to the advent of modern biotechnology synthetic polypeptides mimicking growth
factors have been developed opening to new therapeutic approaches also in the dermatological
field, including hair growth disorder.
Objective:
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of
a cosmetic product
(TR-M-PRP plus) mimicking PRP composition by means of biomimetic peptides in subjects
affected by AGA.
Materials and Methods: 60 AGA subjects were treated for three months end evaluated, at the
end of the study and after one month of follow-up, as regards hair growth by evaluating total
and anagen hair count, anagen/telogen ratio, % of miniaturization, Hair Mass Index (HMI), and
hair shaft diameter.
Results: TR-M-PRP plus treatment produced a statistically significant (p < 0.001) clinical
improvement compared with PLACEBO in total and anagen hair counts. The treatment with
TR-M-PRP plus resulted in a time- increased improvement in the anagen/telogen ratio,
reduction of 5 of miniaturization and increasing of HMI and Hair shaft diameter.
Conclusions: Our study confirms, for the first time, the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product
containing biomimetics peptides (
TR-M-PRP plus)
mimicking autologous PRP for the
treatment of AGA.
2
Keywords: PRP- Biomimetic Peptides – hair loss – AGA
1. Introduction
Hair loss disorders show high rates of occurrence in men and women. Androgenetic alopecia
(AGA) is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting up to 80% of men and 50% of women
in the course of their life
1-3
.AGA is characterized by a progressive reduction in the hair shaft
diameter, length, and pigmentation (miniaturization process). The pathogenesis of AGA is
complex with genetic, hormonal, inflammatory, and vascular factors thought to contribute to
the onset and progression
1,4-7
.
The prevalence of hair loss in the population and its impact on self-esteem and depression
8,9
,
therapies target to reduce the appearance of thinning by delaying, arresting, or reversing the
underlying pathology are highly desirable. Nowadays, the currently approved
pharmacotherapies are limited to oral Finasteride, a selective 5-α-reductase inhibitor, and 2%
or 5% topical Minoxidil solutions or foams
10
neither of which without side effects and
inevitably relapse in hair loss when the treatment is halted.
Alternative cell-based therapies for the treatment of AGA have emerged, of which,
platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections appear particularly effective
11,12
.
PRP is an autologous product obtained by centrifugation from patients own venous blood with
no risk of disease transmission and with a concentration of platelets 4-7 time more than
baseline values
13
.
The autologous PRP was first used in 1987 by Ferrari et al.
14
to avoid excessive transfusion of
homologous blood products after open heart surgery. Since that time, the application of
autologous PRP has been safely used and documented in many application fields, such as
orthopedics and sports medicine, dentistry, neurosurgery, ophthalmology, urology, and wound
healing
15,16
.
The rationale of PRP therapy is that an injection of concentrated PRP at sites of injury may
affect tissue healing via growth factors released after platelets degranulation
17
. Most abundant
growth factors (GFs) are platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth
3
factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), basic fibroblast growth factor (BFGF),
epidermal growth factor (EGF), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF). GFs have an important
role in cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation
17
.
The meta-analysis by Giordano et al.
18
encompassing a total of 194 patients (6 studies)
provides compelling evidence about PRP treatment for hair restoration in investigated for
AA
11,19,20
even if the majority of research targeted AGA
21,22
.
A significantly increased number of hairs per cm
2
was observed after treatment with PRP.
Furthermore, although the limited number of patients, they found interesting results also in hair
cross-section thickness and other secondary outcomes which showed a trend toward benefit.
Anyway, because there is no standardized method for PRP preparation, some differences in
product composition might be present. This fact may lead to an altered PRP function, which
might explain the controversy found in the literature. Furthermore, differences in PRP
composition result from differences in the samples retrieved from person to person. The used
end product may vary also by the used volume and the number of injections administered, as
well as platelet count, the number or absence of leukocytes, and its protein content
18
.
Lately, the use of cosmetic formulation containing biological active ingredients, such as
biomimetic peptides, has started to spread not only in consumer skin care but also in the
dermatological field.
The aim of this double-blind clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cosmetic product
(TR-M-PRP plus)
23
mimicking PRP composition and GFs concentration by means of
biomimetic peptides in subjects affected by AGA.
2. Materials and methods
2.1 Subjects
A total of 60 subjects were enrolled in this a monocentric randomized study 2 arms of 2 parallel
groups (1:1 / 1:1 each) double-blinded placebo-controlled study. The study was conducted
under the approval of the Ethical Independent Committee for Clinical, not pharmacological
investigation in Genoa (Italy) and in accordance with the ethical standards of the 1964
Declaration of Helsinki.
4
2.2 Inclusion and exclusion criteria
Before inclusion, subjects were asked to sign an informed consent form indicating that they are
aware of the investigational nature of the study.
Participants to the study were healthy male and female subjects aged 18–60 years suffering
from AGA (II-IV Hamilton scale for men and I-II Ludwig scale for women) accepting to not
receive any drugs/cosmetics treatment able to interfere with the study results, no participation
in a similar study actually or during the previous 6 months.
Exclusion criteria included: known sensitivity to any compound of the Investigational product,
pregnant or breastfeeding females or planning a pregnancy, serious intercurrent infection or
other active disease up to three months prior to study entry, history of concurrent malignancy,
significant concurrent medical disorders that may impair the subject’s ability to participate
over the whole one year of the study.
2.3 Test product
Subjects were randomized to receive the study product (TR-M-PRP plus, Giuliani SpA, Milan)
containing biomimetic peptides - octapeptide-2, copper tripeptide-1, Oligopeptide-20, acetyl
decapeptide-3 -; lactoferrin; lactoglobulin; melatonin; humectant; preservative; viscosity
control) or PLACEBO (same formulation without biomimetic peptides, lactoferrin,
lactoglobulin, and melatonin).
Subjects were asked to apply 15 ml of TR-M-PRP plus /week (application time at least 5 h) or
PLACEBO for 3 months.
2.4 Evaluations
Evaluations were performed at the Baseline Visit (T0) and at the End of Treatment Visit (T1),
and at the Follow Up Visit (T2). The TrichoScan software (Trichology GmbH, Freiburg,
Germany) was employed for the analysis of following hair measurements: total hair count (in a
1cm2 area), anagen hair count and anagen/telogen ratio and miniaturization. Hair Mass Index
5
(HMI) was assessed by HairCheck® measuring system (Divi International Co., Miami, FL,
USA)
24,25
.
The Hair check cartridge was first calibrated and then placed in the J-slot and HMI measured.
Epiluminescence microscopy (Molemax HD, DermaInstrument, Vienna, Austria) was used for
determination of hair shaft diameter (mm). At the end of the study (T1) and at the Follow Up
Visit (T2), each subject was asked to fill a questionnaire regarding the efficacy of the study
treatment on daily hair loss, volume, on hair general aspect (hair thicker and stronger), on hair
growth speed and the product tolerance (score: negative, medium, good, excellent).
2.5 Statistical analysis
Comparisons between two individual visits were performed by means of two-sample-t-test.
P-values less than 0.05 were considered clinically significant.
3. Results
A total of 60 subjects (32 men and 28 women; women) were enrolled and received treatment
(Table 1).
Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects randomized
TR-M-PRP plus (n=30) PLACEBO (n=30)
Age (mean±SE) 39.42±3.96 31.84±1.80
Baseline hair count (mean±SD)
a
Total hair count 194.27±4.0 199.25±3.00
Anagen 129.2±5.0 120.85±2.95
% Anagen 66.51±4.0 60.65±4.75
Anagen/telogen ratio 1.98±0.2 1.54±0.15
Miniaturization (%) 48.34±3.0 50.97±3.13
Hair Mass Index (HMI) 1.98±0.2 1.54±0.15
Hair shaft diameter (mm) 0.51±0.1 0.57±0.06
a
Measured in a 1-
cm2
circle.
6
The two groups were generally similar in terms of baseline characteristics.
As determined by Trichoscan digital image analysis, after 3 months of treatment (T1)
TR-M-PRP plus produced a mean increase of 15.3 hairs (T0 TR-M-PRP plus vs T1 TR-M-PRP
plus: p<0,0001), while PLACEBO produced a decrease of 11.1 hairs (Table 2).
Table 2 Hair count data (mean±SD)
a
Telogen hair count= (Total hair count)-(Anagen hair count).
b
Anagen/telogen ratio=mean (anagen hair
count/telogen hair count).
TR-M-PRP plus efficacy was more evident at follow-up examination (+25.2; T0 TR-M-PRP
plus vs T2 TR-M-PRP plus: p<0,0001); no significative changes between T1 and T2 were
reported in the PLACEBO group.
TR-M-PRP plus treatment also led to a progressive increase in mean anagen hair count over 3
months (p<0,0001, Table 2). A further significative increase was also reported at the follow-up
examination (p<0,0001, Table 2). On the contrary treatment with PLACEBO led to a decrease
in mean anagen hair count (p<0,0001, Table 2).
TR-M-PRP plus treatment led to a statistically significant improvement of anagen/telogen ratio
after 3 months of treatment which resulted in further incremented at follow-up examination
(p<0,0001, Table 2). Also in this evaluation, a decrease was reported in the PLACEBO group
(p<0,00)
TR-M-PRP plus (n=30) PLACEBO (n=30)
Baseline
(T0)
T1 T2 Baseline
(T0)
T1
T2
Total hair count
194.3±4.0
204.2±3.2
219.5±3.3
199.3±3.0
188.3±3.3
187.30±3.4
Anagen hair
129.2±5.0
142.5±2.8
162.6±2.9
120.8±2.9
110.3±3.9
116.5±3.55
Telogen hair
a
65.1±4.45
61.6±2.6 56.8±2.5 78.4±3.8 77.9±3.9 70.80±3.45
Anagen/telogen
ratio
b
1.9±0.2 2.3±0.24 2.9±0.2 1.5±0.1 1.4±0.3 1.64±0.16
7
FIGURE 1 % of hair miniaturization as measured by TrichoScan software. Data
(miniaturization %) are expressed as mean ± SD of 30 subjects for the group, at baseline (T0),
after 3 months of treatment (T1) and at follow-up (T2). **= p<0.01; ****= p<0.001.
Figure 1 reported data on the percentage of miniaturization for TR-M-PRP plus and
PLACEBO group, respectively. We noticed a significative decrease in hair miniaturization %
in TR-M-PRP plus after 3 months of treatment compared to the PLACEBO group (40.40±1.85
vs 49.58±2.74) (p<0,0001). The effect derived from TR-M-PRP plus treatment is more evident
at follow-up examination (23.61±1.85 vs 49.27±2.72) (p<0,0001).
8
FIGURE 2 Hair Mass Index (HMI) as measured by HairCheck® measuring system. Data
(density score) are expressed as mean ± SD of 30 subjects for the group, at baseline (T0), after
3 months of treatment (T1) and at follow-up (T2). ****= p<0.001.
Following treatment with TR-M-PRP plus (Figure 2) HMI was significantly increased (162.27
± 4.57 to 187.90 ± 6.07; p<0.0001) and the effect maintained at follow up (198.17 ± 6.05; T2 vs
T1: p<0.0001) (Figure 2). This increase was statistically significant when compared with
PLACEBO group (T1 TR-M-PRP plus vs T1 PLACEBO: p<0,0001; T2 TR-M-PRP plus vs T2
PLACEBO: p<0,0001). In PLACEBO group no significative change was reported.
4. Discussion
AGA is the most reported form of hair loss
26
which main symptoms include miniaturization of
the hair follicle
27,28
. Also, hair growth cycle is altered in AGA subjects
29
. Current research is
highlighting the regulatory role of many substances, especially growth factors, on the hair
follicle cycle
30
.
Growing interest is focused on polypeptide growth factors. They can target many physiological
processes such as cell proliferation, protein synthesis, inflammation and pigmentation
31
.
More recently, polypeptide growth factors involved in the regulation of hair growth cycle have
been established
32,33
. Thanks to the advent of modern biotechnology polypeptides mimicking
growth factors have been developed
34
, opening to new therapeutic approaches also in the
dermatological field, including hair growth disorder.
The aim of the present work was to show the efficacy of TR-M-PRP plus, a cosmetic product
mimicking autologous PRP composition in term of growth factors on subjects affected by
AGA.
Efficacy of treatment with autologous PRP has largely been demonstrated both in AA
11,19
(and
AGA
21,22
subjects. More recently we published a work on the efficacy of TR-M-PRP plus in
the treatment of AA
23
.
9
In the present work, we tested the same cosmetic formulation on AGA subjects. The results
show significant changes in the objective parameters which were tested to evaluate the
effectiveness of the treatment.
TR-M-PRP plus treatment increased the amount and percentage of anagen hair progressively
from baseline over 3 months of treatments and at follow-up examination. Also, a progressive
increase of anagen/telogen ratio has been reported. On the opposite, in PLACEBO-treated
group anagen hair diminished during the study, consistent with follicular miniaturization.
The efficacy of the treatment on the promotion of anagen phase was further validated by a
significant decrease of follicular miniaturization and the increase both of HMI and Hair shaft
diameter. Therefore, all investigated subjects reported a good tolerance of the treatment and no
side effects. This is in line with recent evidence on the stability and safety of biomimetic
polypeptides
38
.
The above-reported efficacy of TR-M-PRP plus could be ascribed to the effect of biomimetic
peptides used (octapeptide-2, copper tripeptide-1, Oligopeptide-20, acetyl decapeptide-3) on
cell proliferation stimulation. Treatment efficacy is further enhanced by the anti-inflammatory
effect exerted by lactoferrin
35
, enhancing of cellular energy by lactoglobulin
36
and
clock-regulatory activity of melatonin
37
.
Taking together, our data strongly suggest that the treatment with a cosmetic product
mimicking autologous PRP, via biomimetic polypeptides, actively increases growing anagen
hair.
Conclusion
In conclusion, our study confirms, for the first time, the clinical efficacy of a cosmetic product
containing biomimetics peptides (TR-M-PRP plus) mimicking autologous PRP for the
treatment of AGA. Treatment result has well tolerated and no adverse events were reported.
Disclosure statement
10
R.F. and S.E. serve as a consultant for Giuliani S.p.A. P.D. and M.B. are employed by Giuliani
S.p.A.
Funding
This study was supported by the Giuliani SpA.
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... To overcome these limitations, researchers have turned to the use of bioactive peptides obtained through the application of modern biotechnology techniques. These peptides mimic the activities of platelet growth factors, have an efficacy similar to PRP treatment and can be easily included in a topical [16,17] or, in the near future, injectable formulation. More recently, the involvement of microbiota has been reported in hair growth disorders, in AA in particular [18][19][20], and the usefulness of microbial metabolites, referred to as postbiotics, has been suggested [21]. ...
... Of the 160 subjects enrolled in the study, a significant improvement in hair regrowth was recorded in the majority of the 80 subjects treated with the active product. These results are in line with those from our previous studies in which we demonstrated the efficacy of a pool of peptides derived by biotechnology that mimic platelet growth factors in AA [16] and AGA [17]. These peptides include copper tripeptide-1, oligopeptide-20, acetyl decapeptide-3 and octapeptide-2. ...
Article
IntroductionAlopecia areata (AA), also known as ‘area Celsi’, is the second most common form of hair loss affecting the scalp. Newly proposed treatments for AA include low-level light therapy, biologics such as Janus kinase inhibitors and autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP), which is a well-known “elixir” for hair growth. Bioactive peptides developed through biotechnological applications have been used to overcome the limitations of PRP. More recently, the involvement of microbiota in hair growth disorders, in AA in particular, has been reported, and the usefulness of microbial metabolites, i.e. postbiotics, has been suggested.Methods This study was a randomized double-blinded parallel-group study in which 160 persons of both sexes affected by AA and aged between 18 and 60 years were enrolled. The subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group (group 1), receiving the TR-PRP plus-Celsi cosmetic product, and a placebo group (group 2). The SALT (Severity of Alopecia Tool) score was determined in both groups at baseline and after 2 and 3 months of treatment, and the results compared between groups.ResultsThe subjects in group 1 showed a significant change from baseline in SALT score at 2 months of treatment (61.04% ± 3.45%; p < 0.0001), with a further improvement at the end of treatment (3 months) (69.56% ± 4.32%; p < 0.0001). No significant changes from baseline were reported for the subjects in group 2 (T1: 26.45% ± 3.64%; T3: 27.63% ± 7.61%).Conclusions The results of this study provide further proof of the efficacy of bioactive peptides that mimick the growth factors present in PRP in subjects affected by AA. They also add to our knowledge of the link between microbiota and hair growth disorders, emphasizing the importance of studies on the microbial community and microbial metabolites as a novel therapeutic approach.
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Background Alopecia areata (AA) is a non-scarring auto-immune hair disorder. Recent researches explained the role of growth factors (GFs) in hair follicle cycling. The main reservoir of GFs are alpha-granules of platelets and novel procedures have been implemented aimed at collecting platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP has been safely implemented in many medical application and has also been successfully used as alternative cell-based therapies for the treatment of hair growth disorder, among which also AA. Objectives By mean of a randomized double-blinded, placebo and active-controlled, parallel group study we have studied the efficacy of a cosmetic product (named TR-M-PRP plus) comprising biomimetic peptides specific for hair growth mimicking PRP composition for the treatment of AA. Subjects were treated for three months end evaluated, at the end of the study and after one month of follow-up, as regards hair growth using SALT score. Results PRP-like topic produced a statistically significant (p < 0.001) clinical improvement in SALT score after 3 month of therapy, compared to baseline. Hair growth resulted further improved after 1 month of follow-up. Conclusions This clinical investigation suggest that the biotechnological designed PRP-like cosmetic could represent a valid and safer alternative to autologous PRP for the treatment of AA.
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Objective: Hair loss generates severe psychosocial implications. To date, exploring the prognostic factors of possible clinical benefit of autologous blood concentrate platelet rich plasma (PRP) was failed. The aim of our pilot study was to explore the correlation between the individual inflammation genetic profile and PRP efficacy in the treatment of hair follicle regeneration. Patients and methods: 41 volunteers (25 men, 16 women) took part in this retrospective study. All the patients were scheduled for 4 sessions of PRP application with intervals of 40-60 days. All the patients were checked up at 6 weekly intervals for 6 months and, then, at the end of the first year. A panel of 5 polymorphisms on 4 genes (IL-1a, IL-1b, IL-6, and IL-10) implicated in the individual genetic inflammation profile were performed. Results: A significant increase rate in hair density was noticed after the third month of treatment in 32/41 (78%) of the subjects. We found an interesting association between the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α polymorphism C>A (rs17561) and responders to PRP treatment. The cases carrying C/C genotype (coding for Ser114) were 21 (66%) in responders and only 2 (22%) in non-responders (p<0.05). In addition, about IL-1a, the frequency of G/G genotype in responder patients was over two times lower in responder (31%) than in non-responder patients (78%). Conclusions: Our pilot study demonstrated a correlation between the individual genetic inflammatory profile and the efficacy of the PRP treatment in males. On the contrary, in females, it showed a negative correlation. IL-1a could be used as a prognostic value for PRP efficacy. Also, these results provide preliminary evidence that may encourage the design of controlled clinical trials to properly test this modus operandi on a large number of subjects.
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Background: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) injections have emerged as a promising regenerative therapy for androgenetic alopecia. To date, injections of both autologous native and activated PRP have been administered to hair loss patients, and positive results have been observed. However, little to no work has yet to be seen wherein PRP treatments are combined with hair restoration surgeries. Furthermore, the PRP activation protocol in the hair restoration setting employs compounds with potentially deleterious side effects, namely thrombin or calcium gluconate. Therefore, the objectives of this work are to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet and platelet-derived products as augmented graft therapies in hair restoration surgeries and to compare the follicular regeneration rate of follicles transplanted in the presence of platelet lysate (PL) versus activated PRP (AA–PRP). Methods: PL was administered to the frontal scalp of three male AGA patients. Three treatment zones measuring 4 cm-2 were mapped in the midline scalp region of each patient and equal number of follicular grafts were placed in each box along with PL, AA–PRP, or normal saline. The transplanted follicular grafts of a fourth patient were placed solely with PL. Hair checks in which the surface area of hair coverage was quantified were performed at follow-up appointments ranging from 3.5 months to 7 months post-surgery. In these appointments, the number of follicular units with hairs measuring 50 mm or more were counted to determine the percentage of graft hair regeneration. Growth factor concentrations (VEGF, TGF-1, PDGF-BB, IGF-1) in PL and AA–PRP were also measured for an independent subject set. Results: Follicular regeneration in transplanted grafts was found to be superior for those placed with PL rather than AA–PRP or saline at all follow-up dates. Specifically, at 3.5 moths post-op, 89±9%, 74±7%, and 57±10% of follicular units had regenerated hair in the PL, AA–PRP, and saline treatment zones, respectively. At 4 months post-op, 99%, 75%, and 71% of follicle regeneration had occurred in the PL, AA–PRP, and saline treatment areas, respectively. Impressively, when PLwas injected alone , the patient experienced a 50% increase in follicular unit density and a 122% increase in hair density 7 months post-injection. When growth factor concentrations were measured, PL generated from a 30 min sonication of PRP was found to have significantly higher levels of VEGF, PDGF-BB, and TGF-1 than AA–PRP. Conclusions: PRP remains a promising hair loss therapy and should be evaluated further for use not only as an independent therapeutic tool, but also as a treatment to augment surgical procedures. PL in particular affords an effective and efficacious therapeutic product given that the lysate may be obtained by mechanical rather than chemical means. Ultrasonic waves provide sufficient energy to rupture platelet cell walls, and centrifugation may be used to separate the lysate from cell fragments prior to delivery.
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Background: Biomimetic peptides are synthetic compounds that are identical to amino acid sequence synthesized by an organism and can interact with growth factor receptors and provide antiaging clinical effects. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of biomimetic peptides on the repair processes in the dermis using a model of cell cultures and in vivo. Patients and methods: Five female volunteers were subjected to the injection of biomimetic peptides 1 month prior to the abdominoplasty procedure. Cell culture, immunocytochemistry, and confocal microscopy methods were used in this study. Results: Biomimetic peptides regulate the synthesis of proteins Ki-67, type I procollagen, AP-1, and SIRT6 in cell cultures of human fibroblasts. They contribute to the activation of regeneration processes and initiation of mechanisms that prevent aging. Intradermal administration of complex of biomimetic peptides produces a more dense arrangement of collagen fibers in the dermis and increased size of the fibers after 2 weeks. The complex of biomimetic peptides was effective in the in vivo experiments, where an increase in the proliferative and synthetic activities of fibroblasts was observed. Conclusion: This investigation showed that the studied peptides have biological effects, testifying the stimulation of reparative processes in the skin under their control.
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β -Lactoglobulin (LG) is suspected to enhance or modulate human immune responses. Moreover, LG is also hypothesized to increase human cell proliferation. However, these potential functions of LG have not been directly or thoroughly addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that LG is a potent stimulator of cell proliferation using a hybridoma cell (a splenocyte fused with a myeloma cell) model. LG’s ability to promote cell proliferation was lost when the protein is denatured. To further investigate the influence of LG’s conformation on cell proliferation, we chemically modified LG by either carboxymethylation (CM) or acetylation and observed significantly reduced cell proliferation when the protein structure was altered. Furthermore, we proved that LG enhances cell proliferation via receptor-mediated membrane IgM receptor. These data indicated that nondenatured LG is the major component in milk that modulates cell proliferation. Collectively, our study showed that LG plays a key role in enhancing immune responses by promoting cell proliferation through IgM receptor.
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Background: Considering the importance of hair in our modern society and the impact of hair loss, the efforts of researchers are addressed to better understand the mechanisms behind the hair cycle regulation and dysregulation. Because hair loss is multifactorial, differenced and new approaches are required. In particular we addressed our attention to two recently identified targets in hair cycling and growth control: olfactory receptor and autophagy. The aim of the study was to evaluate: the possible pro-autophagic effect of N1-methylspermidine (a spermidine analogue) in vitro and, in a double blind clinical trial, the safety and efficacy of topical daily application of a lotion containing N1-methylspermidine and Sandalore®. Methods: Autophagic modulation by N1-methylspermidine was monitored in vitro by LC3 and p62 fluorescent signal cell line. Topical daily application of the lotion was tested in 60 male and female subjects with chronic telogen effluvium by means of non-invasive objective evaluation. Results: The results obtained by in vitro tests showed the capacity of N1-methylspermidine to increase autophagic process while the clinical trials performed confirmed the safety and anti hair loss efficacy of the lotion reporting a reduction of hair loss (modified wash test) and hair growth stimulation as evaluated by hair density, hair shaft diameter, % of anagen hair and Hair Mass Index increase after 3 months of treatment. The lotion efficacy remained statistically significant for the above-mentioned parameters, with the exception of hair lost during wash, also 3 months after the end of treatment. Conclusions: Based on the obtained results, the daily use of the N1-methylspermidine and Sandalore®-based lotion is efficient to counteract hair loss and increase hair growth by a multifunctional targeting approach.
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Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment has gained popularity among different surgical specialities for improving various conditions. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common disorder, with possible psychosocial implications. Plastic surgeons have increased the practice of PRP injections for hair restoration. A meta-analysis on this topic was performed comparing local injection of PRP versus control to investigate the efficacy of local PRP injections in AGA. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search. The increase in number of hairs was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were the increase of hair thickness and the percentage increase in hair number and thickness. Results: Seven studies involving 194 patients were retrieved and included in the present analysis. A significantly locally increased hair number per cm2was observed after PRP injections versus control (mean difference [MD] 14.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.38-22.38,P< 0.001). Similarly, a significantly increased hair thickness cross-section per 10-4mm2(MD 0.22, 95% CI 0.07-0.38,P= 0.005) favoring PRP group. The pooled results did not show a significant percentage increase in hair number (MD 18.79%, 95% CI - 8.50-46.08,P= 0.18), neither hair thickness (MD 32.63%, 95% CI - 16.23-81.48,P= 0.19) among patients treated with PRP. Conclusion: Local injection of PRP for androgenic alopecia might be associated with an increased number of hairs in the treated areas with minimal morbidity, but there is clearly a lack of scientific evidence on this treatment modality. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of PRP for AGA.
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Hair loss is often distressing and can have a significant effect on the patient's quality of life. Patients may present to their family physician first with diffuse or patchy hair loss. Scarring alopecia is best evaluated by a dermatologist. Nonscarring alopecias can be readily diagnosed and treated in the family physician's office. Androgenetic alopecia can be diagnosed clinically and treated with minoxidil. Alopecia areata is diagnosed by typical patches of hair loss and is self-limited. Tinea capitis causes patches of alopecia that may be erythematous and scaly and must be treated systemically. Telogen effluvium is a nonscarring, noninflammatory alopecia of relatively sudden onset caused by physiologic or emotional stress. Once the precipitating cause is removed, the hair typically will regrow. Trichotillomania is an impulse-control disorder; treatment is aimed at controlling the underlying psychiatric condition. Trichorrhexis nodosa occurs when hairs break secondary to trauma and is often a result of hair styling or overuse of hair products. Anagen effluvium is the abnormal diffuse loss of hair during the growth phase caused by an event that impairs the mitotic activity of the hair follicle, most commonly chemotherapy. Physician support is especially important for patients in this situation.
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Background: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed as an effective treatment in different diseases. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of PRP in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Material and methods: In this study, 19 men with androgenetic alopecia were recruited among whom 17 persons completed the trial. At the beginning, 2 square-shaped areas of 2.5 x 2.5 centimeters in size, at least 3 cm apart from each other were selected on the scalp of each patient as case and control sites. Then, the 1.5 ml PRP was injected in the case site while in the control site, the same amount of normal saline was injected. These injections were done in 2 sessions, 1 month apart. The terminal and vellus hairs were counted in each square at the beginning of the study, then 1, 3, and 6 months after the first injection. Results: In the case squares, the mean number of terminal and vellus hairs was 87 and 43 at the beginning and 85 and 42 respectively at the end of 6 months. Conclusions: Our study showed that the PRP was not effective in treating grade 4 to 6 androgenetic alopecia.
Article
Background: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was identified as having a beneficial effect in alopecia and has been postulated as a new therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Objective: To assess the efficacy of PRP for the treatment of AGA. Materials and methods: This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in 25 patients with AGA. Platelet-rich plasma was injected in half-head and the other half-head with placebo. Each patient received a total of 3 treatments of PRP, 1 month apart. Results: Six months after the first treatment with PRP, significant differences were seen in mean anagen hairs (67.6 ± 13.1), telogen hairs (32.4 ± 13.1), hair density (179.9 ± 62.7), and terminal hair density (165.8 ± 56.8) when compared with baseline (p < .05). Platelet-rich plasma was also found to increase hair density when comparing with the control side (p < .05). For the first time, the authors found a correlation between anagen hairs and patients >40 years and beginning of AGA ≥25 years old (p < .05) and hair density and male sex, age ≤40 years, positive family history of AGA and >10 years of duration of the disease (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Application of PRP showed a positive effect on AGA and could be regarded as an adjuvant therapy for AGA.