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Morphological Characterization in Vanda species

Authors:
  • ICAR-NRC for Orchids
  • Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur

Abstract

Vanda consists of more than 70 species of monopodial epiphytic orchids distributed in India, China, The Hima-layas, Sri Lanka, Philippines and throughout South East Asia. These commercial orchids are grown in Thailand, Singapore, Malayasia and Hawai. All orchids having the same characteristics as the Vanda genus is called as a vandaceous orchid and they grouped together to form the Vanda Alliance. Genera like Vandas, Aerides, Ascocentrum, Renanthera, Rhyncostylis, Aranda, Mokara, Kaga-wara are included in the Vanda Alliance. Many of orchids under this group are called as 'Scorpion Orchids' or 'Spider Orchids'. They are ideal for hanging baskets, pots or tree logs. In the present investigation, 11 Vanda species viz. Vanda alpina, V. cristata, V. coerulea, V. parviflora, V. coerulescens, V. stangeana, Papilionanthe (Vanda) teres, V. bicolor, V. tassellata, V. pumila, and V. parishii were studied for development of morphological descriptors based upon UPOV guidelines and accordingly total 65 morphological descriptors of Vanda were developed.
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Botany
L.C. De NRC for Orchids, Sikkim
P.K. Rajeevan Ex-Professor, Department of Pomology and Floriculture, College of Horticulture, Kerala
Agricultural University, Vellanikkara, Trichur;
A.N. Rao Centre for Orchid Gene Conservation of Eastern Himalayan Region, Senapati District,
Manipur State
Manoj Srivastava PPV & FRA, NASC Complex, New Delhi
Geetamani Chhetri NRC for Orchids, Sikkim
Morphological Characterization in Vanda
species
KEYWORDS : Vanda, morphological
descriptors, orchids
ABSTRACT Vanda consists of more than 70 species of monopodial epiphytic orchids distributed in India, China, e Hima-
layas, Sri Lanka, Philippines and throughout South East Asia. ese commercial orchids are grown in ailand,
Singapore, Malayasia and Hawai. All orchids having the same characteristics as the Vanda genus is called as a vandaceous orchid and they
grouped together to form the Vanda Alliance. Genera like Vandas, Aerides, Ascocentrum, Renanthera, Rhyncostylis, Aranda, Mokara, Kaga-
wara are included in the Vanda Alliance. Many of orchids under this group are called as ‘Scorpion Orchids’ or ‘Spider Orchids’. ey are ideal
for hanging baskets, pots or tree logs. In the present investigation, 11 Vanda species viz. Vanda alpina, V. cristata, V. coerulea, V. parviora,
V. coerulescens, V. stangeana, Papilionanthe (Vanda) teres, V. bicolor, V. tassellata, V. pumila, and V. parishii were studied for development
of morphological descriptors based upon UPOV guidelines and accordingly total 65 morphological descriptors of Vanda were developed .
Introduction
Orchids belong to family Orchidaceae, one of the largest family
of owering plants with both terrestrial and epiphytic members
(Karasawa, 1996). Taxonomically, they represent the most highly
evolved family among monocotyledons with more than 25,000
species and account for nearly 8% of the total species of ow-
ering plant. More than 2,00,000 natural and manmade hybrids
are on record and these include several multi generics involving
three, four, ve and even six genera. Vand a consists of more than
70 species of monopodial epiphytic orchids distributed in India,
China, e Himalayas, Sri Lanka, Philippines and throughout
South East Asia. ese commercial orchids are grown in ai-
land, Singapore, Malayasia and Hawai. e Vanda orchids are
totally tropical and are easy to grow. Some species can be ex-
posed to full sun. ey are cross compatible with other genera
like Ascocentrum, Aerides, Rhyncostylis, Neonetia, Renanthera
and even Phalaenopsis. All orchids having the same character-
istics as the Van da genus is called as a vandaceous orchid and
they grouped together to form the Vanda Alliance. Genera like
Vandas, Aerides, Ascocentrum, Renanthera, Rhyncostylis, Aranda,
Mokara, Kagawara are included in the Vanda Alliance. Many
of orchids under this group are called as ‘Scorpion Orchids’ or
‘Spider Orchids’. ey are ideal for hanging baskets, pots or tree
logs. ey are diversied in vegetative and reproductive growth.
Based on leaf characters they grouped into four categories, e.g.,
strap shaped, terete, semi-terete and channeled. e lip of strap
shaped leaves is very irregular while the terete leaves are of pen-
cil thickness. e inorescence arise from the axil of the leaves
in strap leaved orchids whereas in case of terete leaved orchids
inorescence emerge from on the side of the stem of opposite
leaf. e inorescence is axillary, erect, and simple. e owers
are small to large, few to many , eshy, heavy textured , long last-
ing and yellow, brown, purple, magenta, blue, lavender in colour.
e ower size varies from 2.5 to 10 cm (De et al, 2014). Being of
high socio-economic and cultural importance, e Plant Author-
ity of India on March 27, 2010 notied three genera Cymbidium
Sw., Dendrobium Sw. and Vanda Jones ex R. Br. for registration of
their varieties and hybrids (Rao et al, 2011).
Materials and Methods
e morphological characterizations were done used for all veg-
etatively propagated species of Van da of the family Orchidaceae.
Plant Material Required
For all species, two to three years old 20 full grown ower
bearing plants of each of 11 species viz. Vanda alpina, V. crista-
ta, V. coerulea, V. parviora, V. coerulescens, V. stangeana, Papilio-
nanthe (Vanda) teres, V. bicolor, V. tassellata, V. pumila, and V. pa-
rishii were studied for development of morphological descriptors
based upon UPOV guidelines. Usually, healthy and insect pest
and disease free plants are required for testing for taking mor-
phological observations without any chemical and bio-physical
treatment.
Conduct of Test
e test was conducted for two similar owering seasons at two
dierent places. e species was considered for further exami-
nation at another appropriate test site or under special test proto-
col on request of the applicant if any essential characteristic of the
variety is not expressed for visual observations at these places. It
is always advised to test with at least 10 plants under greenhouse
conditions ensuring satisfactory growth for the expression of the
relevant characteristics of the variety and for the conduct of the
examination. All observations were taken by measuring or count-
ing made on 10 plants or parts taken from each of 10 plants. Ad-
ditional tests for special purposes may be carried out. Normally,
growth regulators are not applied.
Methods and Observations
e characteristics described in the Table of Characteristics (Ta-
ble 1) were used for the characterization of species. All obser-
vations were taken from 10 plants or parts taken from each of 10
plants. For the assessment of Uniformity, a population standard
of 1% and an acceptance probability of at least 95% was applied.
In the case of a sample size of 10 plants, the maximum permis-
sible number of o-types was considered 1. Characteristics indi-
cated with (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e) in the rst coloumn of the Ta-
ble 1 of characteristics should be examined as indicated below:
(a) Observations on the leaf, pseudobulb and internode length
should be made on the owering pseudobulb.
(b) Observations on the inorescence and the ower should be
made at the time when 50% of the owers on the inorescence
have opened, on the most recently fully opened ower on the in-
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orescence before the color starts to fade.
(c) Observations on the length and width of the ower and parts
of the ower should be made on the extended organ.
(d) Observations on the color of the sepal, the petal and the lip
should be made on the outer side and inner side at apex, mid
and base portion.
(e) Observations on the colour of column should be made on the
outer side and inner side at apex, mid and basal region.
For the assessment of colour characteristics, the Royal Horticul-
tural Society (RHS) colour chart was used.
Characteristics and Symbols
A table of characteristics was used to assess the morphological
characteristics and their states. Notes 1-9 (numbers) were used
to explain the state of each character for the purpose of elec-
tronic data processing. (*) Characteristics that shall be observed
during every growing season for all species, and shall always be
included in the description of the species, except when the state
of expression of any of these characters is rendered impossible
by a preceding phenological characteristic or by the environ-
ment conditions of the testing region. Under such exceptional
situation, adequate explanation shall be provided. (+) See expla-
nations on the Table of Characteristics
Characteristics denoted with symbols QL, QN and PQ in the
rst column of the Table of Characteristics were described as
Qualitative characteristic, Quantitative characteristic and Pseu-
do-qualitative characteristic, respectively. Type of assessment of
characteristics indicated in column six of the Table of Character-
istics were estimated by a single observation of a group of plants
or parts of plants (MG), measurement of a number of individual
plants or parts of plants (MS), visual assessment by a single ob-
servation of a group of plants or parts of plants (VG) and visual
assessment by observations of individual plants or parts of plant
(VS).
Results and Discussion
A variant can be registered if it essentially fulls the criteria of
Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability (DUS) which means
that the candidate variety must be distinguishable by at least
one essential characteristic from a variety which is suciently
uniform in expression of its essential characteristics which
should remain xed even after repeated multiplication. e
variety should also have a single and distinct denomination
(Henke, 2008). In the present investigation, 11 Vand a species
viz. Vanda alpina, V. cristata, V. coerulea, V. parviora, V. coerule-
scens, V. stangeana, Papilionanthe (Vanda) teres, V. bicolor, V. tes-
sellata, V. pumila, and V. parishii were studied for development
of morphological descriptors based upon UPOV guidelines and
accordingly total 65 morphological descriptors of Cymbidium
were developed and those are plant type, internode length
(cm), stem diameter (cm), root location, leaf type, leaf breadth
(cm), leaf length(cm), leaf apex, leaf orientation, leaf colour, leaf
sheath pigmentation, number of spikes/plant at a time, number
of spikes /plant/year, inoresence length (cm), peduncle length
(cm), inorescence orientation, inorescence nature, number of
owers/inorescence, orientation of owers, ower length (cm),
ower width (cm), ower fragrance, ower longevity on plants,
ower predominant colour, dorsal sepal size (cm), dorsal sepal
shape, dorsal sepal curvature, dorsal sepal apex, lateral sepal
size (cm), lateral sepal shape, lateral sepal curvature, lateral
sepal apex, inside sepal colour, outside sepal colour, colour or-
namentation in sepals, petal size, petal shape, petal curvature,
petal apex, petal margin, inside petal colour, outside petal col-
our, inside petal ornamentation, outside petal ornamentation,
lip length (cm), lip width (cm), lip mid lobe shape, lip lateral lobe
shape, lip curvature, lip apex, keels no.s, inside lip colour, out-
side lip colour, inside lip ornamentation, outside lip ornamenta-
tion, column length (cm), inside coloumn colour, outside coloum
colour, inside column ornamentation, outside column ornamen-
tation, pedicellate ovary length (cm), spur type, spur length (cm)
and owering season and out of 65 descriptors, Leaf type , In-
orescence length, Flower number, Flower predominant colour,
Sepal ornamentation, Petal ornamentation, Lip mid lobe shape,
Lip main colour, Lip ornamentation, Spur length and Flowering
season were used for grouping characteristics of species (Table
1). e Van d a species which contributed for production of useful
and showy hybrids are amnesiana, batemanni, coerulea, coerules-
cens, dearci, denisoniana, hookeriana, insignis, lamellata, loatica,
limbata, liouvillei, luzonica, marvillii, parviora, roeblingiana,
rozburghii, sanderiana, spathulata, stuavis, sumatrana, teres and
tricolor.
e rst Vanda hybrid ‘Miss Joaquim’ which developed from a
cross between V. t e res and V. hookeriana (Teoh Eng Soon, 1998).
An albino form of Van da ‘Miss Joaquim’ was produced by cross-
ing the alba varieties of both the parents. Van d a ‘Miss Joaquim’
is said to have taken the form of V. hookeriana and the colour of
V. t e r e s (Tim Wing Yam, 2001). Fuchs (1997) reported that Van da
sanderiana and V. coerulea are the two important vandal species
found in the background of most of the vandaceous hybrids. V.
sanderiana gives full form, whereas V. coerulea imparts the rich
blue violet colouration, lobely tessellation as well as the long in-
orescence. e genus Van da is cross compatible with other al-
lied groups like Aerides, Arachnis, Ascocentrum, Doritis, Neone-
tia, Phalaenopsis, Renanthera, Trichoglottis and Vandopsis. Some
of the important hybrids of Vanda which contributed as parent
plant for production of many more hybrids are “Amoene’, ‘Betsy
Summer’, ‘Bull Sutton’, ‘Eisenhower’, ‘Ellen Noa’, ‘Emily Notley ’,
‘ Ernest’, Fujinaga’, ‘Frank Crook’, ‘Haledena’, ‘Helen Reynolds’,
‘Hilo Blue’, ‘Honolulu’, ‘Jennie Hashimoto’, ‘Josephine Van Bero’,
‘Kapolio’, ‘Manila’, ‘Manisaki’, ‘Miss Joaquim’, Noel’, ‘Nora Potter’,
‘Norbert Alphanso’, Onomea’, ‘Poepoe’, ‘Rubella’, ‘Ruby Prince’, ‘
Tan Chay Yan’, ‘Tatzeri’, ‘Trimerrill’, ‘Trisher’, ‘Venus’ and ‘Wai-
puna’ (De and Bhattachrjee, 2011).
Table 1. Grouping characteristics in Vand a
S .
No.
Characteristics States Notes Example species
Type of
Assessment
1.
*
(+)
PQ
(a)
Leaf type
Terete
1
Van d a t ere s
VG
Semi -terete
3
Channelled
5
Strap 7
Vanda alpina, Vanda coerulea, Vanda cristata, Vanda parviora, Vanda
coerulescens, Vanda tassellata, V. stangeana, Vanda alpina
2.
*
QN
(b)
Inorescence
length
Short (<15cm) 3
Vanda teres, Vanda cristata, Vanda parviora, Vanda tassellata, Vanda
alpina
MS
Medium
(15cm-30cm)
5
Long (>30cm) 7Vanda coerulea, Vanda coerulescens, Vanda alpina, Vanda stangeana
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3.
QN
(b)
No. of
owers /
inorescence
Few (<5) 1Vanda tassellata, Vanda teres, Vanda alpina, Vanda pumila,
VG
Medium (5-10)
3
Vanda parviora, Vanda bicolor, Vanda parishi, Vanda stangeana,
Many (>10) 5Vanda coerulea, Vanda cristata, , Vanda coerulescens, V. stangeana
4.
*
QL
(b)
Flower
predominant
colour
(as per RHS
colour chart)
White 1Vanda pumila
VS
Pink 2
Yellow
3
Vanda cristata, Vanda stangeana, Vanda parviora, Vanda tassellata
Green
4
Vanda alpina, Vanda cristata, Vanda stangeana, Vanda tassellata
Red 5
Blue 6Vanda coerulea, Vanda coerulescens, Vanda parishi
Violet 7
Purple 8Vand a te res
5.
*
QL
(d)
Colour
ornamentation in
sepals
Uniform 1
VS
Spot 3Vanda cristata, Vanda coerulescence,
Blotch 5Vanda parviora,
Streak/Stripe/
shaded
7Vanda cristata, Vanda coerulescens, Vanda alpina, Vanda teres,
Tessellated /
Netted 9
Vanda coerulea,
Vanda coerulescens, Vanda stangeana, Vanda
tassellata, Vanda cristata
,
Deexed with
incurved apex
9
6.
*
QL
(d)
Inside petal
ornamentation
(As per RHS
colour chart)
Uniform 1Vanda cristata, Vanda parviora, Vanda alpina, Vanda teres
VG
Spotted
2
Blotch 3
Streaked/Striped
4
Tassellated
5
Vanda coerulescens (yellow green), Vanda tassellata (grey brown)
Netted 6V. stangeana (red purple),
7.
QL
(d)
Outside petal
ornamentation
Uniform 1
Vanda coerulescens, , Va n da c r ist ata, Vanda parviora, Va nda
tassellata
VG
Spotted
1
Blotch
3
Streaked/Striped/
shaded
5Vanda alpina (purple shaded), Vanda teres (purple shaded)
Tassellated
7
Vanda stangeana
Netted
9
8.
*
(+)
PQ
(c)
Lip: mid- lobe
shape
Ovate
1
Vanda alpina, Vanda pumila
VG
Oblong-lanceolate 3Vanda coerulea, Vanda parviora, , Vanda coerulescens,
Sub-orbicular
5
others 7Vanda cristata, Vanda stangeana, Vanda teres, Vanda tassellata
9.
QL
(d)
Inside lip colour
Base 1
Vanda coerulescens, Vanda stangeana, Vanda cristata, (white), Va nda
parviora (Yellow orange), Vanda alpina (purple), Vanda teres
(yellow),
Vanda tassellata (white yellow)
VG
Middle 3
Vanda coerulescens, Vanda cristata (yellow), Vanda parviora ( Ye l l o w
orange), Vanda alpina (purple), Vanda teres (yellow),
Vanda tassellata
(white violet)
Apex 5
Vanda coerulescens (white), Vanda stangeana (grey orange), Va nda
cristata (yellow), , Vanda parviora (red purple),
Vanda alpina
(purple), Vanda teres (red purple), Vanda tassellata (white violet)
10.
QL
(d) Outside lip colour
Base 1
Vanda coerulescens, Vanda stangeana (white), Vanda cristata
(yellow
green), Vanda parviora (yellow orange), Vanda alpina (green), Vand a
teres (red purple), Vanda tassellata (white)
VG
Middle 3
Vanda coerulescens (violet), Vanda cristata, (purple), Vanda stangeana
(grey orange) Vanda parviora (yellow orange), Vanda alpina
(purple),
Vanda teres (red purple), Vanda tassellata (white)
Apex 5
Vanda coerulescens (violet), Vanda stangeana (grey orange), Vand a
cristata (yellow), Vanda parviora (Red purple), Vanda alpina
(purple),
Vanda teres (red purple), Vanda tassellata (white)
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11.
*
QL
(d)
Inside lip
ornamentation (As
per RHS colour
chart)
Uniform 1
VG
Spotted 2Vanda parviora(Red purple), Vanda teres (red purple)
Blotch
3
Vanda cristata(red purple),
Streaked/Striped 4
Vanda alpina, , Vanda cristata (red purple) Vanda coerulescens (white),
Vanda alpina (green), Vanda teres (red purple),
Tassellated 5Vanda tassellata (purple violet)
Netted 6
12.
QL
(d)
Outside lip
ornamentation (As
per RHS colour
chart)
Absent 1Vanda coerulescens, Vanda stangeana, Vanda alpina
VG
Spotted
2
Vanda parviora (Red purple)
Blotch 3Vanda cristata,
Streaked/Striped 4Vanda cristata (red purple), V. Vanda teres (red purple),
Tassellated 5Vanda tassellata (purple violet)
Netted 6
13.
QN
(c) Spur length
Short (<0.5cm) 3
MS
Medium (0.5-
1.0cm)
5
Vanda coerulea, Vanda cristata, Vanda pumila, Vanda tassellata, ,
Vanda stangeana, Vanda coerulescens, Vanda parviora
Long (>1.0cm) 7Van da ter e s
14.
*
PQ Flowering season
Winter season
(Nov-January)
1Vanda coerulea
VG
Spring season
(February-April) 3Vanda coerulescens, Vanda bicolor, Vanda cristata, Vanda stangeana
Summer season
(May-July) 5
Vanda teres, Vanda cristata, Vanda parishi, Vanda stangeana, Vanda
pumila, Vanda parviora, , Vanda alpina, Vanda tassellata
Rainy season
(August-Oct ) 7
Vanda alpina, Vanda coerulescens, Vanda parishi, Vanda stangeana,
Vanda tassellata
Explanations for individual characteristics
Fig.1 Leaf type
Fig. 2 Apexes for leaf, dorsal sepal, lateral sepal, petal and lip
Fig.3 Sepal shape
Fig.4 Petal shape
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Fig.5 Petal margin
Fig.6. Lip shape
Fig.7. Spur type
Digitalization in some Vanda species
Vanda coerulea
General appearance
of ower
Color & shape of dor-
sal & lateral sepals
Color & shape of
petal
Color & shape of Lip Column color &
anther cap
Flower size : 7.0 x 7.6 cm.
Sepal size & color :Dorsal sepal: 3.8 x 1.7 cm; Lateral sepals: 4.0 x 2.3 cm; Inside: violet-blue (RHS- 91C) at base, (RHS- 91A) at apex
and (RHS- 90B) at margins; Outside: violet-blue (RHS- 91C) at base, violet (RHS- N 87A) at apex and violet-blue (RHS- 91C) at mar-
gins with violet-blue (RHS- 91A) netted at both sides.
Petal size & color : 3.8 x 2.0 cm; Inside: violet-blue (RHS- 91D) at base, (RHS- 91B) at apex and (RHS- 91A) at margins with violet blue
(RHS- 91A) netted; Outside: violet-blue (RHS- 91C) at base, violet (RHS- N87C) at apex and violet-blue (RHS- 91C) at margins with
violet blue (RHS- 92A) netted & violet (RHS- N 87A) stripe.
Lip size & color : 1.9 x 0.8 cm; Inside: violet (RHS- N 87A) at base, apex of apical lobe violet (RHS- N 87A) &
apex of lateral lobes violet (RHS – 91D); and margin of apical lobe violet (RHS- N 87C) &
margin of lateral lobes violet (RHS – 91D) and base violet-blue (RHS- 91D).
Lip callus : present (3)
Column length & color : 0.7 cm; Inside: white; Outside: violet (RHS- N 87D) at base and white at apex & margins.
Mentum/spur length : 5.5 cm.
Vanda bicolor
General appear-
ance of ower
Color & shape of dor-
sal & lateral sepals
Color & shape of
petal
Color & shape of Lip Column color &
anther cap
Flower size : 5.1cmX4.5cm
Sepal size & color :2.4cmX1.4cm (dorsal) &2.6cmX1.5cm (lateral),grayed yellow (RHS-160B) &tasseled color of ( RHS-166C) grayed
orange
Petal size & color : 2.2cmX1.2 cm,grayed yellow (RHS-160B) &tasseled color of ( RHS-166B) grayed orange
Lip size & color : 1.3cmX0.7cm,purple violet (RHS-N82A), white shaded( RHS155D)& red purple striped (RHS60A) & white (RHS155D)
Lip callus : present
Column size : 0.7cm
Mentum/spur size: 0.7cm
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Vanda stangeana
General appearance
of ower
Color & shape of dor-
sal & lateral sepals
Color & shape of
petal
Color & shape of Lip Column color &
anther cap
Flower size : 4.7 x 4.8 cm.
Sepal size & color : Dorsal sepal: 2.1 x 1.9 cm; Lateral sepals: 2.3 x 1.8 cm; Inside: red-purple (RHS-59A) at base
and yellow-green (RHS- 153C) at apex and margins with red purple (RHS- 59A) netted pattern
throughout. Outside: green-yellow (RHS 1D) at base and yellow-green (RHS- 153A at apex & 153D) at margins.
Petal size & color : 2.2 x 1.5 cm; Inside: red-purple (RHS- 59A) at base, yellow-green(RHS- 153C at apex and 153D
at margins with red purple (RHS- 59A) netted pattern throughout. Outside: green-yellow(RHS-1D)
at base and yellow-green (RHS- 153B at apex and 153D at margins).
Lip size & color : 2.3 x 1.5 cm; white (RHS-155B) at base, greyed-purple (RHS- 163C) at apex. Margins white
towards base and greyed-orange (RHS- N 170C) towards apex.
Lip callus : Present (3)
Column length & color : 0.7 cm; white.
Mentum/spur length : 0.6 cm.
Vanda testacea (V. parviora)
General appear-
ance of ower
Color & shape of dor-
sal & lateral sepals
Color & shape of
petal
Color & shape of Lip Column color &
anther cap
Flower size : 1.6 x 2.0 cm.
Sepal size & color : Dorsal sepal: 1.1 x 0.5 cm; Lateral sepals: 1.0 x 0.5 cm; Yellow-orange (RHS- 18B) at base and
margins and red purple (RHS- 72B) at apex.
Petal size & color : 1.0 x 0.4 cm; yellow orange (RHS- 18B) at base and margins and (RHS- 18A) at apex.
Lip size & color : 0.6 x 0.5 cm; Inside: yellow-orange (RHS 18B) at base and margins and red-purple (RHS- 72B)
at apex; Outside: yellow-orange (RHS 18A) at base and margins and red-purple (RHS- 72B) at apex.
Lip callus : Present (3).
Column length & color : 0.2 cm; Inside: yellow-orange (RHS- 18C); Outside: yellow-orange (RHS- 18B).
Mentum/spur length: 0.2 cm.
Mentum/spur length: 0.2 cm. Mentum/spur length: 0.2 cm.
Vanda tessellata
General appearance
of ower
Color & shape of
dorsal & lateral
sepals
Color & shape of
petals
Color & shape of Lip Column color &
anther cap
Flower size : 4.0 x 4.5 cm.
Sepal size & color : Dorsal sepal: 2.3 x 1.2 cm; Lateral sepals: 2.3 x 1.5 cm; Inside: white at base, grey-brown (RHS- N
199 A) at apex and green-white (RHS- 157A) at margins with grey-brown (RHS- N199A)
tessellation throughout; Outside: green-white (RHS- 157D at base & RHS- 157A at apex) and grey-
brown (RHS- N199A) at margins.
Petal size & color : 2.2 x 1.2 cm; Inside: white at base, grey-brown (RHS- N 199 A) at apex and green-white (RHS-
157A) at Margins with grey-brown (RHS- N199A) tessellation throughout; Outside: green-white
32 IJSR - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Volume : 4 | Issue : 1 | January 2015 • ISSN No 2277 - 8179 Research Paper
(RHS- 157D at base & RHS- 157A at apex) and grey-brown (RHS- N199C) at margins.
Lip size & color : 1.9 x 1.0 cm; Inside: white with yellow (RHS16A) shade at base, apex white (lateral lobe) violet
(RHS- 86B)(mid lobe) and margins white (lateral lobe) violet (RHS- N 87D) mid lobe: Outside: white
at base, apex of lateral lobe white & apex of mid lobe violet (RHS- 86D) and margins of lateral lobe
white and margins of mid lobe white at base and violet (RHS- N87D) at apex.
Lip callus : Present ( 2)
Column length & color : 0.9 cm; white.
Mentum/spur length : 1.0 cm.
REFERENCE
De, L. C. & Bhattacharjee, S.K. 2011. ‘Ornamental Crop Breeding’, Pp. 438, Published by Aavishkar Publishers & Distributors, Jaipur , Rajasthan.
| L.C. De, R.G. Devadas, Geetamani Chhetri, Manoj Srivastava and R.P. Medhi 2014. Morphological characterization in Vanda spp. Technical Bul-
letin No. 19. Pp. 31, NRC for Orchids, Pakyong, Sikkim. | Fuchs, R.F. 1997. Fabulous Vandaceous intergenerics. Orchids, 66: 350-357. | Henke de Greef 2008. Details about D.U.S. Testing
for Plant Breeders Rights in Orchids in Europe. Abstracted in Taiwan International Orchid Symposium. | Karasawa, K. 1996. Orchids, pp.510-538. Yama to Keikokusha, Tohyo, Japan
(Japanese). | Rao, A.N., P.K. Rajeevan, S.K. Sood, L.C. De and G.S Rawat (2011). Guidelines for the Conduct of Test for Distinctiveness, Uniformity and Stability on Orchid Cymbidium,
Dendrobium and Vanda orchids, Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmers Rights Authority, NASC Complex, New Delhi-110012. Plant Variety Journal of India , 5 (10): 5-83. | Teoh Eng
Soon 1998. A joy forever, Vanda ‘Miss Joaquim’, Singapore’s National Flower, Times Edition. | Tim Wing Yam 2001. Vanda ‘Miss Joaquim’, the rst FCC/ RHS Vanda hybrid. Orchid
Review, 109 (1237): 25-27. |
... Las flores son carnosas, de textura pesada, duraderas y poder haber de pocas a muchas por planta. El tamaño de la flor varía de 2,5 a 10 cm y presentan colores como amarillo, marrón, morado, magenta, azul y lavanda (De et al., 2015). ...
... En la tabla 1 se proponen variables cuantitativas y cualitativas para evaluar variabilidad según caracteres morfológicos en orquídeas del género Vanda. (De et al., 2015). Table 1. ...
... Table 1. Quantitative and qualitative characters to evaluate morphological variability in orchids of the genus Vanda (De et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Orchids of the Vanda genus have great value in the ornamental market due to the showiness of their flowers. Genetic improvement in this genus, is mostly carried out through conventional methods, but the high demand of the current market for new cultivars makes it necessary to include molecular and biotechnological techniques in genetic improvement. The aim of this review is to analyze the usefulness of different molecular and biotechnological tools for the development of a breeding program in Vanda, through the interrelation with reproductive biology and conventional breeding in the genus. A total of 95 articles published in scientific journals were consulted in this review. As a result, a compilation of information is provided that can serve as reference material for technicians, professionals and researchers related to this subject.
... Las flores son carnosas, de textura pesada, duraderas y poder haber de pocas a muchas por planta. El tamaño de la flor varía de 2,5 a 10 cm y presentan colores como amarillo, marrón, morado, magenta, azul y lavanda (De et al., 2015). ...
... En la tabla 1 se proponen variables cuantitativas y cualitativas para evaluar variabilidad según caracteres morfológicos en orquídeas del género Vanda. (De et al., 2015). Table 1. ...
... Table 1. Quantitative and qualitative characters to evaluate morphological variability in orchids of the genus Vanda (De et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Las orquídeas del género Vanda tienen gran valor en el mercado ornamental por la vistosidad de sus flores. El mejoramiento genético en vandas es mayormente realizado a través de métodos convencionales, pero la alta demanda del mercado actual sobre nuevos cultivares hace necesaria la inclusión de técnicas moleculares y biotecnológicas en la mejora genética. El objetivo de esta revisión, es analizar la utilidad de diferentes herramientas moleculares y biotecnológicas para el desarrollo de un programa de mejoramiento genético en Vanda, mediante la interrelación con biología reproductiva y mejoramiento convencional en el género. En esta revisión se consultaron un total de 95 artículos publicados en revistas científicas. Como resultado se brinda una compilación de información de utilidad como material de consulta para técnicos, profesionales e investigadores relacionados con esta temática.
... accessed on December 17, 2020). They are grouped into four categories on the basis of their leaf character, e.g., strap shaped, terete, semiterete, and channeled [12]. Inflorescence is axillary, erect, and simple with often brightly colored, sometimes fragrant, flowers. ...
... It was also isolated and identified from the roots of V. tessellata [32]. Few other phenolic compounds are isolated such as tetracosylferulate (9), parishin (10), 4-(β-Dglucopyranosyloxy) benzyl alcohol (11), 2,5-dimethoxy-6,8-dihydroxy isoflavone (12), and gallic acid (13) from various Vanda species (Table 1, Fig. 6). Anthocyanins such as delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were reported from the flowers of various Vanda hybrids [33][34][35]. ...
Chapter
The genus Vanda comprises of about 74 species, mainly distributed in South and Southeast Asia. Many Vanda species are being used in traditional medicines in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and other south Asian countries. Among these species, only very few species are studied in detail for their bioactive chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and are considered for commercial product development as medicines and cosmetics. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview about the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of various important Vanda species along with their conservation and cultivation practices and commercial importance.
... accessed on December 17, 2020). They are grouped into four categories on the basis of their leaf character, e.g., strap shaped, terete, semiterete, and channeled [12]. Inflorescence is axillary, erect, and simple with often brightly colored, sometimes fragrant, flowers. ...
... It was also isolated and identified from the roots of V. tessellata [32]. Few other phenolic compounds are isolated such as tetracosylferulate (9), parishin (10), 4-(β-Dglucopyranosyloxy) benzyl alcohol (11), 2,5-dimethoxy-6,8-dihydroxy isoflavone (12), and gallic acid (13) from various Vanda species (Table 1, Fig. 6). Anthocyanins such as delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were reported from the flowers of various Vanda hybrids [33][34][35]. ...
Chapter
The genus Vanda comprises of about 74 species, mainly distributed in South and Southeast Asia. Many Vanda species are being used in traditional medicines in India, Nepal, Bangladesh, and other south Asian countries. Among these species, only very few species are studied in detail for their bioactive chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and are considered for commercial product development as medicines and cosmetics. In this chapter, we aim to provide an overview about the traditional uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological activities of various important Vanda species along with their conservation and cultivation practices and commercial importance.
... Vanda is a genus with magnificent flowers in the family Orchidaceae (Tanee et al. 2012) and has been widely used in commercial production. There are more than 70 species orchids in the Vanda genus (De et al. 2015;Zou et al. 2016). Vanda coerulescens is a high-value ornamental orchid and often used as a parent in breeding (Wang et al. 2013;Cao et al. 2014). ...
... Vanda coerulescens is found in the forest of Assam India, eastern Himalayas, Yunnan China, Myanamar and Thailand at elevations of 300-1600 m, and it grows on tree trunks (Chen and Alexandra 2009). There are many researches on the phylogenetic relationship and species identification of Vanda genus by using morphological observations and molecular phylogenetic analyses (Gardiner et al. 2013;De et al. 2015;Zou et al. 2016). Complete chloroplast (cp) genome information provide a valuable date for phylogenetic analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Though the chloroplast genomes of several Vanda species have been sequenced, there is little information about the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Vanda coerulescens. Herein, we established the cp genome of V. coerulescens. The chloroplast genome circle was 149,410 bp in length, with the structure of an 85,954 bp large single-copy (LSC) region and a 11,526 bp small single-copy (SSC) region, which separated by two inverted repeat (IRs) regions of 25,965 bp. It encoded 130 genes, including 74 protein-coding genes, 38 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. The overall GC-content of the whole plastome is 36.7%, whereas the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions ranged from 28.2% to 43.1%. In addition, the phylogenetic analysis base on 20 chloroplast genomes of Orchidaceae indicates that V. brunnea is closely related to V. coerulescens. This announcement of the complete V. coerulescens cp genome sequence could provide valuable information for further genetic modification and phylogenetic study in Vanda genus.
... Moreover, the characterization results can be used as analytical data for various needs in hybridization, reproduction, germplasm protection, and genetic change (Indraloka et al. 2019 Aprilianti et al. (2021) researched Dendrobium seed morphology. Some researchers have studied the morphological characterization of other orchids genera, such as Phalaenopsis (Fauziah et al. 2014;Pangestu et al. 2014), Vanda (De et al. 2015b), Dendrobium (Hidayati et al. 2016), and Phaius (Hartati et al. 2021a). Therefore, this research aims to characterize the morphology of five species of Dendrobium native to Indonesia in order to assess the potential parental candidates for crosses. ...
Article
Full-text available
Hartati S, Samanhudi, Cahyono O. 2022. Short Communication: Morphological characterization of five species of Dendrobium native to Indonesia for parent selection. Biodiversitas 23: 2648-2654. As one of the most plentiful orchid genera, Dendrobium has a potential genetic resource for crossing programs. Morphological characterization is an important step in determining genetic relationships among orchid species in the same genus. The research aims to identify the morphological characteristics of five species of Indonesian Dendrobium in order to assess the potential cross elder candidates. The materials used in this study were D. mirbelianum Gaudich., D. lamellatum (Blume) Lindl., and D. anosmum obtained from Bogor Botanic Gardens; and D.bracteosum Rchb.f. and D. purpureum obtained from Klaten Speci Gardens. This study recorded 30 morphological characters of Dendrobium studied. There were 23 out of the 30 identified morphological characters (76.67%) that showed varying characters in flowers, leaves, pseudobulbs, and roots. Based on the cluster analysis, five species of Dendrobium are separated into two clusters and cluster division does not correlate with the section of Dendrobium. The species with the highest similarity coefficient has the potential to be used as parental in crosses. Dendrobium lamellatum and D. anosmum have the highest similarity coefficient of 0.80 and are the most potential as parental species for crossing, followed by D. bracteosum and D. purpureum with a similarity coefficient of 0.70.
... Several studies on morphological characterization of orchids have been carried out. One of them is a study to analyze the grouping and genetic relationship of 30 species of Dendrobium spp. in India by De et al. (2015). Nevertheless, the literature presenting the results of the study of the orchid population is still very low (Bhattacharyya, 2015). ...
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ABSTRACT Orchid is one of the ornamental plant that has a high aesthetic value. Efforts to increase the quality of orchids can be done by genetic improvement through crossing. The first step to success in orchid crossing requires information on morphological characters of the prospective parents. This study aims to determine the similarity of six species of natural Coelogyne spp based on qualitative morphological characters. Morphological characterization of 6 orchids was carried out based on 30 characters including stem, leaf, flower, pseudobulb, and rooting type. Cluster analysis was carried out with the NTSYSpc program version 2.02i with the UPGMA SimQual function method. The results showed that there were morphological diversities among the six Coelogyne spp on the character of the stem, pseudobulb, leaves, flowers and type of roots. Based on the dendrogram on 73% similarity, three major groups were obtained. The first group consisted of Coelogyne pandurata and Coelogyne rumphii, the second group was C. massangeana, C. mayeriana and C asperata, the third group was C. celebensis. Based on the morphological similarity of 87% there are two pairs of parents that have most successful chance to be crossed, C. pandurata with C. rumphii and C. mayeriana with C. asperata.
Chapter
Fungal endophytes inhabit the internal tissues of healthy plants asymptomatically. They are known to produce a wide array of natural compounds and bioactive secondary metabolites. These valuable compounds are anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and growth-promoting in nature. Their association with host plants is typically mutualistic symbiotic, which explains the symptomless nature of their infection of the host plants. Endophytes and their host plant association are inclined to benefit the host plant, with enhanced plant growth and development, as well as improving tolerance towards biotic and abiotic stresses. Of the many plant species in the world, the members of Orchidaceae are discussed here. Orchidaceae, as a large and highly diverse family of flowering plants, are well known not just for their beautiful flowers, but also for their valuable use in traditional medicine to treat many diseases. It is hypothesized that the abundance of phytochemicals in Orchidaceae contributes to their medicinal properties. And this also ignites the interest to discover the endophytes they host and the metabolites they produce. As such, endophytes from Orchidaceae are explored for their beneficial plant-growth promoting properties, as well as for their bioactive compounds. As reservoirs of natural metabolites that are still relatively untapped, fungal endophytes have massive potential to be employed in medicinal, agricultural and industrial sectors owing to their valuable attributes. This chapter reviews the diversity of fungal endophytes from the Orchidaceae family and their application in various fields attributed to the plethora of secondary metabolites and bioactive compounds produced.
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The phenotypic diversity of the Iranian orchids has sharply decreased during the last 15 years and is currently threatened with local extinction and global climatic changes. Harvest of tuberous orchids has recently been raised in Iran owing to the high prices of orchid's tubers and international demand from neighboring countries. This has caused competition among orchid harvesters in the country so that the orchids are not even allowed to produce seeds. The present study was done aimed at protecting and identifying the phenotypic diversity within Orchis mascula genotypes in Abr forest, which is a natural habitat of Orchis mascula in Shahrood area, Northeast Iran. The morphological variability of 101 collected samples of early purple orchids was analyzed based on a total of 57 morphological traits. In terms of the quantitative traits, the highest and lowest coefficients of variation (CV%) were observed in the number of side tubers (200%) and petal length (14.43%), respectively. When it comes to the qualitative traits, the highest and lowest CVs were observed in lip color (70.90%) and the flower form on the stem (0%), respectively. Among the studied traits, 11 attributes showed a CV value of less than 20%. The highest positive correlations were observed between tuber fresh weight and tuber dry weight (r = 0.908). Applying principal component analysis (PCA) indicated three main components that explained 45.81% of the total variance. The clusters number four and seven could arguably be suitable sources of parents in breeding crosses for tuber fresh and dry weight traits. In summary, this study confirmed that Abr forest would be one of the rich diversity areas for Orchis mascula and our findings might be satisfactorily applied for breeding, conservation, domestication and development of new traits depending on different breeding purposes.
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