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The Baclayon Church (Bohol) Debris of Mortar: A Geomaterial Dimension of Philippine Cultural-Historical Church

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Heritage is the totality of tangible and intangible inherited identity in a society. Different churches are tangible ancestral heritage with its unique architectural framework and artistic elegance. Baclayon church as heritage is one of the earliest historical-cultural structures by the Spanish conquistadores with its unique baroque architectural design. Structural materials include adobe, coral stone, bricks and limestone with organic adhesive additive like eggs, oil and viscous plant extracts. In October 15, 2013 a 7.2 earthquake devastated the province of Bohol with Baclayon as one of the most affected. This research explores the Baclayon church: the historical-cultural testimony and mineralogical components of its mortar. The methodology used is a complementary study on narrative from archival data files and geomaterial characterization of different fragments. From the debris, samples with code BCB1, BCB2 and BCB3 are analyzed for its chemical components using Shimadzu FT-IR and ED-XRF. From this analysis, the major mineralogical bulk is calcite. Based from FT-IR spectra, the adsorption peaks are located in the calcite range point and in complement with the ED-XRF. The greater volume of calcite is 95.139 % (BCB1), 95.131 % (BCB2) and 94.190 % (BCB3). Aggregate materials like silicates are limited to a minimal proportion. Mineralogical constituents include strontium, silicon, potassium, iron, sulfur, zinc, copper, nickel, lead, phosphorus, magnesium and lutetium. Traces of inorganic barium and lithium as well as organic amine group related to protein compounds are identified using the Shimadzu spectral library as reference. The mineralogical composition indicates that the binder is a hydrated mortar containing lime particles. Lime mortar is a primary material for the conservation of historical-cultural structures which are significant for aeration and water absorption.
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Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2019
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
June 19 to 21, 2019
The Baclayon Church (Bohol) Debris of Mortar: A Geomaterial
Dimension of Philippine Cultural-Historical Church
Aniano N. Asor Jr. 1*, Bubbles Beverly N. Asor2, and Jan-Michael C. Cayme1
1Chemistry Department, De La Salle University
2 Department of Sociology, University of the Philippines
*Corresponding Author: aniano.asor@dlsu.edu.ph
ABSTRACT. Heritage is the totality of tangible and intangible inherited identity in
a society. Different churches are tangible ancestral heritage with its unique
architectural framework and artistic elegance. Baclayon church as heritage is one of
the earliest historical-cultural structures by the Spanish conquistadores with its
unique baroque architectural design. Structural materials include adobe, coral
stone, bricks and limestone with organic adhesive additive like eggs, oil and viscous
plant extracts. In October 15, 2013 a 7.2 earthquake devastated the province of
Bohol with Baclayon as one of the most affected. This research explores the
Baclayon church: the historical-cultural testimony and mineralogical components of
its mortar. The methodology used is a complementary study on narrative from
archival data files and geomaterial characterization of different fragments. From the
debris, samples with code BCB1, BCB2 and BCB3 are analyzed for its chemical
components using Shimadzu FT-IR and ED-XRF. From this analysis, the major
mineralogical bulk is calcite. Based from FT-IR spectra, the adsorption peaks are
located in the calcite range point and in complement with the ED-XRF. The greater
volume of calcite is 95.139 % (BCB1), 95.131 % (BCB2) and 94.190 % (BCB3).
Aggregate materials like silicates are limited to a minimal proportion. Mineralogical
constituents include strontium, silicon, potassium, iron, sulfur, zinc, copper, nickel,
lead, phosphorus, magnesium and lutetium. Traces of inorganic barium and lithium
as well as organic amine group related to protein compounds are identified using the
Shimadzu spectral library as reference. The mineralogical composition indicates
that the binder is a hydrated mortar containing lime particles. Lime mortar is a
primary material for the conservation of historical-cultural structures which are
significant for aeration and water absorption.
Keywords: church, heritage, mortar, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR), Energy
Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF)
Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2019
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
June 19 to 21, 2019
1. INTRODUCTION
Ancestral heritage is characterized by the
spectrum of conceptual endowment of linguistic
configuration, architectural structures, tangible
artistry of ceramics, paintings and artworks, and
abstract concept and memoir (Umass Amherst
Center, 2019). Historical-cultural churches in the
Philippines are endowed treasures from the
Spanish influence in the orient with more than a
hundred structures built in every country’s ritual
space and sanctuary. Colonial Spanish era from
1565 until 1898 produced Spanish architectural
significance:
la templo espiritual
or
iglesia
(simbahan or church) connecting
campanario
(carillon belfry),
convento
(parish priest residence),
escuela
(parochial school), and
fuerza
or
fortaleza
(fortified citadel); the public architecture of
casa
real
(royal house) and
tribunal
(court), the
farola
(lighthouse observatory), the vernacular
casa de
hormigon y madera
or
bahay na bato
(concrete and
wooden residences), and the
puente
(structural
arch masonry) (nlpdl.nlp, 1981).The birth of the
Philippine colonial architecture started from the
landing of Miguel Lopez de Legaspi exploration
(1565). They established the
siudad
(city) and
constructed religious sanctuary and
fuerte
(fort). In
1571, they overtook and explored Manila for the
beginning of colonial
pueblo
architectural
projection.
Cultural-Historical Churches’ Masonry. The
architectural design is based from the Spanish-
Mexican flamboyant baroque found in the plaza
area, churches, convent, bell tower and fort. These
structures are made from adobe, coral stone, bricks
and limestone usually from the introduction of
volcanic stone quarries (Palafox, 2014). Stonework
and masonry began with a Jesuit missionary,
Antonio Sedeno in 1581 who introduced this form of
construction method in the Philippines with his
familiarity and expertise on quarrying, stone
masonry, arches design and dimensional survey
(Villalon, 2014).
2. METHODOLOGY
Heritage Profiling. Archival research is a process
of compiling existing abstracts, materials and facts
documented in the past. It is a theory and
philosophy of facts’ production, development and
acquisition in connection with oral and written
thesis (Tesar and Arndt, 2019). Archival evidences
are historical-cultural data for deposition of ancient
or late circumstances for proceedings or
retrospection. They are broad spectrum of
manifestation, proceedings and materialization
from particular or diverse phenomenon to
monumental incident (Van Gardener, 2007).
Figure 1: Fragments from the debris of Baclayon
Church
Baclayon Church has a background full of events,
milestone and development of historical-cultural
mantra of Bohol. Archival documentation of
Baclayon Church is a narrative, unstructured,
feasible, and uses non-ethnographic mechanism.
Geomaterial Characterization. The
theory of
restoration
by Cesare Brandi (1963) resolved that
any historical-cultural components should be
rehabilitated on its authentic properties and
appearance (Mangay et al, 2018). The importance
of geomaterial characterization of historical-
cultural mortars was to prepare prospective
restoration of mortars with identical peculiarity of
the sample (Dalto et al, 2018).
Sample fragments (see Figure 1) were
obtained from the debris of the collapsed structure
of the Baclayon Church in Bohol which was very
much devastated by the 2013 earthquake. These
Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2019
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
June 19 to 21, 2019
were non-destructive and non-abrasive method of
mortar collection. The mortar samples were
analyzed by Shimadzu IRTracer-100 Fourier
Transform-Infrared spectroscopy and Shimadzu
EDX 800P Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence.
This FT-IR with excellent reactivity and accuracy
had Lab Solutions IR software with wide range
data base of different continuum spectra. The EDX
800P had immense perceptibility LED lamp and
PCEDX Navi software (Shimadzu 2019).
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Heritage Profiling. The Philippines’ earliest
religious sanctuary is the Baclayon’s Church of Our
Lady of the Immaculate Conception. It is one of the
finest secured and erected Jesuit religious
sanctuary in addition to Agustinian Recollects’
structural exterior and architectural masonry.
Jesuit Fr. Juan de Torres and Fr. Gabriel Sanchez
from Cebu were the pioneer Spanish missioner or
doctrineros
in Baclayon dating back on November
17, 1596. When Baclayon became a parish in 1717,
the church was built with local restricted manual
labor or
obras pias
had been enforced. The
construction materials were corals from the nearby
seas and volume of albumin from eggs as an
adhesive plastering materials (Hellingman, 2013).
On October 15, 2013, the devastating 7.2
magnitude earthquake in Bohol busted different
centuries-old churches with the Immaculate
Conception of Virgin Mary Parish or Baclayon
Church among them. The church underwent
enormous destruction with ruined veranda and
carillon (inquirer.net, 2013).
Geomaterial Characterization Using Fourier
Transform Infrared (FT-IR). Three fragments of
Baclayon Church debris (see Figure 1) during the
October 15, 2013 earthquake with 7.2 magnitude
had been characterized using Fourier Transform
Infrared (FT-IR). Different traces of compounds
were approximately identified with a standard
reference from the Shimadzu library of different
spectra of chemical compounds.
Table 1: Traces of Compounds using FT-IR with
Standard Reference
Spectrum Adsorption
Range (cm-1)
Standard Reference (Shimadzu)
BCB
1
BCB
2
BCB
3
769
670
611
BaCO3
Profile 9
File:
BACO3.DX
750
814
832
CaCO3
Profile 7
Calcium
Carbonate
Transmissio
n
685
625
628
Li2CO3
Profile 10
Lithium
Carbonate
Transmissio
n
650
652
642
K2CO3
Profile 9
Potassium
Carbonate
Transmissio
n
626
607
590
Melamin
Profile 22
Polymer2
Melamin
603
none
none
Chimassorb944L
D
Profile 69
Polymer2
Additive
602
none
none
Chimassorb944L
D
Profile 80
Polymer2
(Polymeric)
600
590
591
D_Additive7
Profile 69
Polymer
Additive
(Chimassorb
944LD)
580
none
none
Epoxy
Profile 42
Polymer2
Epoxy
Adhesives
572
584
585
Epoxy
Profile 45
Polymer2
Epoxy Resin
567
none
none
D_Epoxy6
Profile 42
Polymer2
Epoxy
Adhesives
Based from the Shimadzu references, the traces of
inorganic compounds (see Table 1) were barium
carbonate, lithium carbonate, calcium carbonate,
potassium carbonate, calcium nitrate, and
Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2019
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
June 19 to 21, 2019
potassium nitrate. Also, from the Shimadzu
references, organic components were identified as a
polymerized organic compounds believed to be
additive and adhesive organic character such as:
melamin, achromatic translucent compound of
heterocyclic organic structure and higher content of
nitrogen, a complementary character of protein
(Rogers, 2019). Other organic compound identified
was a polymer additive with identical characteristic
of Chimassorb944LD, higher value of oligomeric
interfering amine light stabilizer (HALS)
(SpecialChem, 2018). Another organic compound
identified was the epoxy adhesive and polyvinyl
alcohol. Epoxies are polymerization of two reacting
compounds: the resin and the hardener.
Polyfunctional primary amines mold primary group
of epoxy hardeners. Polyvinyl alcohol is water-
soluble synthesized polymer and forming carbon-
carbon linkages. IR absorption spectra of major and
inorganic components of the mortar fragments are
shown in Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4 with
corresponding Table 2. Studies on calcite IR spectra
had corresponding absorption value at 1796, 1430,
874 and 713 cm-1. The quartz IR spectra had
corresponding absorption value at 1874, 1072, 794
and 695cm -1 (Dalto et al, 2018).
Figure 2, Figure 3 and Figure 4: FT-IR spectra of
Fragment BCB1, BCB2 and BCB3, respectively.
Table 2: Tentative adsorption spectra of major
components of mortar debris
Adsorption
spectra
position (cm-
1)
Sample
debris
BCB2
(cm-1)
Sample
debris
BCB3
(cm-1)
C-O plane
bending
(Ravinsakar
711.73
711.73
et al, 2010)
C-O weak
bands
(Sathya et al,
2012)
856.39
856.39
C-O out of
plane
bending
(Cayme et al,
2016)
871.82
873.75
Si-O
stretching
(Velraj et al,
2012)
1082.07
1082.07
From Figure 2, the IR adsorption spectra of
fragment BCB1: 711.73 cm-1, 854.47cm-1, 1456.26
cm-1, 1469.76 cm-1 and 1786 cm-1 for calcite and
1082.07 cm-1for silicate IR spectra. From Figure 3,
the sample fragment BCB2 has corresponding IR
spectra 711.73 cm-1, 856.39 cm-1, 871.82 cm-1,
1440.83 cm-1 and 1791.87 cm-1 for calcite and
1082.07 cm-1 for silicate. With Figure 4, the
Baclayon church fragment BCB3 has FTIR spectra
of 711.73 cm-1, 856.39 cm-1, 873.75 cm-1, 1440.83
cm-1 and 1791.87 cm-1.
Geomaterial Characterization using Energy
Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF).
Mortar lime as the ultimate geologically extensive
structural materials was used comprehensively by
coastland community wherein mollusk and shale
are extremely sufficient. It was one of the earliest
constituent of primeval historical flooring,
brickwork, exterior canvas, plaster coating, and
architectonic engraves. Interest of mortar was
important date back in 8,000 BCE along the
transcontinental region and 4000 years ago in
earliest American civilization (getty.edu, 2011).
Lime is a basic and natural component generally
the surface sedimentary rock containing calcium
carbonate. It is a fundamental binder forming the
silicates and aluminates of calcium. From Table 2,
sample fragments from Baclayon church debris had
elemental calcium composition of 95.14 % (BCB1),
95.13 % (BCB2) and 94.19 % (BCB3).
Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2019
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
June 19 to 21, 2019
Elemental
Composition
Fragment
BCB1 (%)
Fragment
BCB2 (%)
Fragment
BCB3 (%)
Calcium
(Ca)
95.139
95.131
94.190
Strontium
(Sr)
2.603
2.675
3.097
Silicon (Si)
1.183
1.106
1.279
Potassium
(K)
0.406
0.388
0.386
Iron (Fe)
0.347
0.129
0.182
Sulfur (S)
0.183
0.020
0.106
Zinc (Zn)
0.061
0.026
0.026
Copper (Cu)
0.031
0.025
None
Nickel (Ni)
0.029
0.017
0.003
Lead (Pb)
0.012
none
none
Magnesium
(Mg)
none
0.483
0.601
Table 2: Elemental Composition of Baclayon
Church debris using ED-XRF
Aside from lime mixture, masonry mortar includes
the ingredients of granular earth materials of sand
(0.125 to 0.25 mm) and amount of water. The
utmost natural component of finer sand is silicates
in a configuration of quartz. Silicates or silicon
dioxide is a mineral salt of anions of silicon and
oxygen combining with metal ions as components of
earth rocks. They are inert material and filller to
accumulate volume. They inhibit mortar reduction
and fracture of binder. From Table 2, the
component analysis of silicon of Baclayon church
debris were 1.183 % (BCB1), 1.106 % (BCB2) and
1.279 % (BCB3). Other elemental components with
respective amount in Table 2 were strontium,
potassium, iron, sulfur, zinc, copper, nickel, lead,
phosporus, magnesium and lutetium as part of
minerals in earth’s crust.
4. CONCLUSION
Mortar is a complicated structural
material with researches on different ancient
procedural technique. The plasticity and
workability of the mortar mixture is dependent on
the elemental components, texture and mixture.
The conclusive mortar output of lime, fine sand and
water is waterproof and eradicate shrinkage
cracking. Calcite in lime in its higher composition
and lesser amount of quartz cannot gain strength
and durability to withstand destruction of the
natural calamities (earthquake and typhoon). From
the mineralogical investigation, the majority on
highest proportion is calcite with a range of 94-96
%. Other components are limited and more
minerals are only traces in proportion. Organic
content and inorganic salts are detected in traces
using Shimadzu library of spectral adsorption
peaks of different compounds as reference in FT-IR
instrumentation.
5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We are giving sense of gratitude for the
people of Baclayon, Bohol for using their church as
a primary, significant and exceptional research
topic. We are grateful for Shimadzu-Philippines for
accommodating and allowing for using their
instruments.
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Presented at the DLSU Research Congress 2019
De La Salle University, Manila, Philippines
June 19 to 21, 2019
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Article
Full-text available
This study reports the chemical composition of historical brickworks from Franciscan-built church complexes in the Philippines. An old brick sample from the Spanish colonial period church convento at Pagsanjan, Laguna was characterized by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), infrared spectroscopy (IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Conventional hot plate aqua regia (1:3 HNO3:HCl, v/v) digestion method was employed to extract iron, calcium, and magnesium from the brick sample. The combined AAS and EDX results yielded a percentage composition of iron ranging from 5.48 to 6.62%, calcium ranging from 1.50 to 3.72%, while magnesium ranges from 0.083 to 0.12%, respectively. These amounts were compared to a similar AAS and EDX study made on a historical brick sample from Ilocos Norte. The presence of possible pores on the brick's microstructure was confirmed by SEM. Minerals consisting of hematite, kaolinite, illite, quartz, and calcite were present in the sample, as well as trace amounts of other minerals based on IR peak intensities. Upon heating to about 800⁰C using TGA, the loss of bound water from the sample's internal surface structure and the decomposition of brick minerals and carbonates are evident.
Article
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Infrared spectroscopy can be a very useful technique for analysis of ceramic materials. It allows in assessing basic molecular and mineralogical composition as well as the firing temperature of the ceramics. In this paper, FT-IR spectra of recently excavated archaeological bricks from salavankuppam, Tamilnadu, India were studied with as received state to establish the type of clay minerals associated with the bricks, their origin and the art of firing adopted during manufacturing. From the tentative infrared vibrational assignments with relative intensity the mineralogical composition of the ancient bricks were evaluated and by studying the differences in mineral composition in the representative samples the firing temperature and conditions were interpreted. The results showed that all the samples have been fired above 600 0 C.
Characterization of the Lime Mortars of the Rui Barbosa House Museum in Rio De Janeiro
  • D Dalto
  • C Ribeiro
  • Luanna C De Moura
Dalto, D., Ribeiro, C., de Moura, Luanna C. (2018). Characterization of the Lime Mortars of the Rui Barbosa House Museum in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Minerals 8 (50) (MDPI). Retrieved January 15, 2019 from doi.10.3390/mins8020050.www.mdpi.com/journal/m inerals getty.edu (2011) Lime Mortars and Plasters. The Getty Conservation Institute. Retrieved February 18, 2019 from http://
2 centuries-old Bohol churches devastated by 7.2 magnitude earthquake
  • Jeroen Hellingman
Hellingman, Jeroen (2013). Bohol's Old Churches. Retrieved January 25, 2019 from https://www.bohol.ph/article8.html inquirer.net (2013, October 15). 2 centuries-old Bohol churches devastated by 7.2 magnitude earthquake. Retrieved November 26, 2019 from https://newsinfo.inquirer.net
Determination of firing temperature of some ancient potteries of Tamil Nadu
  • R Ravinsakar
  • S Kiruba
  • A Chandrasekaran
  • A Naseerutheen
  • M Seran
  • P D Balaji
Ravinsakar, R., Kiruba, S., Chandrasekaran, A., Naseerutheen, A., Seran, M., Balaji, P.D. (2010). Determination of firing temperature of some ancient potteries of Tamil Nadu, India. Indian Journal of Science and Technology 3 (9) ISSN:0974-6846
Melamin Chemical compound. Encyclopedia Britannica
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Shimadzu Corporation
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Philosophies and ethics of the project archive. Educational Philosophy and Theory 51
  • M Tesar
  • S Arndt
Tesar, M. and Arndt, S. (2019). Philosophies and ethics of the project archive. Educational Philosophy and Theory 51. Taylor & Francis Online
Characterization of Mortar from Church Ruins in Barangay Budiao
  • J C Mangay
  • E Miranda
  • J M Anicas
  • A Recto
  • J M Cayme
Mangay, J. C., Miranda, E., Anicas, J. M., Recto, A., Cayme, J. M. (2018). Characterization of Mortar from Church Ruins in Barangay Budiao, Daraga, Albay. MATEC Web of Conferences EDP Series National Library of the Philippines (1981). The Spanish Colonial Tradition. Retrieved November 16, 2019 from Nlpdl.nlp.gov.ph:81/cc01/NLP00VM052mcd
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Palafox, F. Jr. A. (2014, April 23). The architecture of faith. The Manila Times. Retrieved January 14, 2019 from https://www.manilatimes.net/author/felino-palafox/