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THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF WORK STRESS IN ABK
(CREW) FISHING BOAT IN CILACAP
Andi Hendrawan, Aneu Yulianeu
ABK (crew) is the labor that works above as fisherman, chef, captain, keep the machine and so
on. The risk of work is very great then it takes the condition of the environment Working
comfortable, enjoyable work is a work full of sincerity where the soul is full of spirit and
surrender. ABK is so heavy load, economic burden, psychological burden and burden as a crew
who must work properly with a great risk. This struggle must be eliminated and may have to be
This study aims to prove the influence of the physical environment on the stress of work on crew
(crew) on a fishing boat in the waters of Cilacap regency. Using 200 people with sampling
method of random sampling, then the results showed that there was a significant effect of
physical environment (noise and vibration) on work stress. Therefore job stress can be reduced if
the work environment can be improved so that the work environment as a source of stress can be
reduced and even eliminated.
Keywords: work stress, physical environment, noise, vibration
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THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF WORK STRESS IN ABK (CREW) FISHING BOAT IN CILACAP
Andi Hendrawan, Aneu Yulianeu
Proceeding ICSTIEM 2017
Abstract ABK (crew) is the labor that works above as fisherman, chef, captain, keep the
machine and so on. The risk of work is very great then it takes the condition of the
environment Working comfortable, enjoyable work is a work full of sincerity where the soul is
full of spirit and surrender. ABK is so heavy load, economic burden, psychological burden
and burden as a crew who must work properly with a great risk. This struggle must be
eliminated and may have to be eliminated.
THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT OF WORK STRESS IN ABK (CREW) FISHING BOAT IN CILACAP
A Hendrawan, A Yulianeu - Proceeding ICSTIEM 2017, 2017
All 2 versions
THE IMPACT OF PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT (LIGHTING) TO WORK STRESS IN ABK
(CREW) SHIP FISH IN CILACAP WATER
Lecturer of Maritime Academy Nusantara Cilacap
Lecturer STMIK DCI Tasikmalaya
ABK (crew) is the labor that works above as fisherman, cook, nakoda, keep the machine
and so on. Working hazards are so great that the necessary conditions of the environment
Working comfortable, enjoyable work is a work full of sincerity where the soul is full of spirit
and sincerity. ABK is so heavy burden, economic burden, psychological burden and burden as a
crew that must work properly with a great risk. This struggle must be eliminated and may have
to be eliminated. This study aims to prove the influence of the physical environment on the stress
of work on crew (crew) on a fishing boat in the waters of Cilacap regency.
The sample used is 200 people with sampling method of ramdom sampling.
The results showed that there was a significant effect of physical environment (lighting) on work
stress. Job stress can be reduced if the work environment can be improved so that the work
environment as a source of stress can be reduced and even eliminated.
Keywords: work stress, physical environment, lighting
ABK (crew) working in Fishing Vessel has a high risk of work, Risks that arise bias come from
the work environment and from the natural environment itself. Physical work environment
contained in the work of fishing boats, among others, noise, vibration and light. The natural
environments that are possible as a source of danger are the waves, storms, heat, and tsunamis.
Comfort that is comforted psychologically and environmentally, comfort Psychologically for
example, there is no stress, there is no role conflict and relations between colleagues are
conducive and comfortable environment can be obtained if the atmosphere of work environment
in terms of the classroom can be felt comfortable; enough ventilation and sufficient lighting
Comfortable work, pleasant work is a work full of sincerity where the soul mood is full of the
aroma of pleasure and sincerity of crew aboard is so heavy burden, economic burden,
psychological burden and burden as a teacher who must educate properly and correctly. This
struggle must be eliminated and may have to be eliminated. Sources of work stress Nalayan may
be from a less supportive physical environment, l. Work stress is the starting point of the decline
in productivity even Setyawati (1997) said that job stress is closely related to work fatigue,
productivity and even work-related illness.
Fishermen are the assets of the nation that must be maintained so that productivity remains high.
High productivity can be achieved if the workforce feels comfortable in working. Atmodiphoero
(2000) according that one aspect of comfort in question is a visual comfort, this aspect is part of
adequate lighting or a visual task. Adequate lighting of one of its properties will be clearly
visible without the eye having to work hard so that the workforce can perform its visual duties
well during work. Visual comfort is determined by the performance of the lighting system,
among others, not dazzling and can display the original color.
The function of the lighting system in a working environment is to provide a visual environment
that is safe, comfortable, and allows the visual task to be easier so that it can accomplish the job
quickly, the risk of minor accidents and prevent the emergence of occupational diseases
Inadequate lighting in the workplace can cause fatigue and even work-related illness with
symptoms of pain around the eyes, dizziness, blurred vision, all of which will decrease work
productivity. Harwinta (1993) stated that the adequacy of the lighting level is a preventive effort
against occupational diseases and avoid losses that may arise in the form of loss of working
hours and medical expenses for sick workers. The type and level of lighting is one of the factors
in the working environment that affect the work productivity. . Visual comfort prevents work
fatigue because the light produced by local and general combined is smoother and cooler.
Sufficient lighting will improve the health of the workforce, the workforce becomes more
comfortable and happy in its work. Ankrum (2004) states that an adequate lighting system, in
accordance with the type of work will improve labor health and work productivity. At some
levels excessive lighting also interferes with health because excessive lighting will lead to cancer
(Beld, 2003). Misky (2001) suggests that lighting in the workplace has a significant effect on
productivity. Good lighting will increase 10% to 50% and reduce the rate of work errors 30% to
Light is electromagnetic waves that are sensitive to the human eye. Their sensitivity to
wavelengths ranges from 380 to 760 nm. This peak sensitivity is achieved at 555 nm wavelength
(Gie, 1999). The objects around us will be seen if the eye as the sense of sight receives the
stimulation of light beams on the retina, then by the intermediate fibers of the optic nerve.
Transferring this stimulus to the brain's vision center, to be interpreted (Jonathan, 2001).
Lighting in the workplace serves to make it easier for the eye to distinguish objects used in the
workplace. Good lighting is comfortable and fun so as to maintain the excitement of work.
Sufficient lighting of the object of vision will help the workforce to carry out its work easily and
Lighting can be done in a natural way that comes from sunlight and artificial lighting with
electric lights. Suma'mur (1984) the development of offices and industry took place in multi-
storey buildings causing the use of sunlight is reduced. Modern buildings with large windows of
glass aim to get as much natural light as possible. Lighting so many shortcomings, among others;
because the distance of a few meters from the window of direct sunlight resulted in radiation
heat. Artificial lighting is used if the natural form can not be implemented or not enough
intensity for the level of accuracy of work done. Artificial lighting generally uses electrical
energy as well as electric lighting. This lighting system must meet the following requirements:
a. Electric lighting should be of sufficient intensity in accordance with work performed by the
b. Electrical lighting should not cause the workplace air temperature to increase excessively.
c. The source of electric light should provide the lighting with the right intensity, spread evenly,
not blink, not blinding and not cause disturbing shadows. (Zulmiar, 1999).
The effect of incandescent lamps does not depend on the type of lamp. Incandescent bulbs are
usually yellowish white and give a warm impression on the environment. Incandescent lamps are
less efficient when used to recognize color and can generate heat up to 60 oC. This will create a
lack of work convenience. The loss of aline is less durable, quick to wear due to a less than
optimal void that simplify the oxidation in the tube. The advantage of incandescent lamps is
cheap and not so affected by voltage stability (Monroe, 1999).
Lamp type Fluorescent tube (tube lamp / TL) has the property of distributing the light more
evenly than the incandescent lamp. Whatever its type of TL lamp class is very sensitive to
changes in the available utility voltage lower than it should be, the resulting light output will
decrease (Hendrawan, 1999).
TL lamps using AC voltage will appear visible clarity and clarity is not visible, turn of this clutch
looks like continuous course. If the fluorescent rays hit a shiny object or machine it will appear
clear, called "clutch movement". Both visible and the clutch movement are both not good for
labor and if this condition is too long it will cause headaches or eye disorders, sore eyes, watery
and flushed (Harwinta, 1993).
The colors produced by TL lamps can also be distinguished over white, yellowish-white and
bluish-white, by itself the nuances obtained from these colors are different too. White color cause
neutral effect, yellowish white color gives warm shades and bluish white color will cause cold
In general the level of illumination in the workplace can be arranged according to table 1
Table 1. Guidelines on Intensity of Information
Lighting the pages and streets of the company
Jobs that distinguish rough goods, for example:
- doing rough materials
- working on charcoal and or ash
- set aside large items
- working on soil and rock.
Jobs that distinguish small items in passing, for
- Rough mounting
- Doing iron or steel for so little
- Rice mill
- Work on agricultural materials
A rather careful job, for example;
- Rough lathe work
- Sew textiles or colored leather
- Doing wood / carpentry
- Packaging meat
Careful discernment work on fine and small items, for
- Careful machine work
- A thorough examination
- Completion of leather and cotton
- Office work, writing, reading, archive and mail
500 -1000 lux
The work distinguishes the fine stuff with contrast and
for a long time.
- Fine machine work
- Fine wood work
- Accountant, shorthand work, typing or old office
The work that distinguishes very delicate items with
very little contrast for a long time, for example;
- Diamond welder
- Fine elastic mounting
- Works extra fine stuff
Source: Minister of Labor Regulation no. 7 of 1964
EFFECT OF LIGHTING ON HEALTH
The workforce will do the job more easily and quickly with clear vision so that productivity is
expected to rise, whereas poor lighting will result in:
- loss of power and work efficiency
- sore complaints in the eye area and sore eyes around the eyes
- Eye damage
- Increases accidents.
Intensive tension in a single function of the eye will cause visual fatigue. Continuous tension in
the ciliary muscle occurs when the prolonged object is exposed and the tension in the retina may
arise by continuous bright contrast. Visual tiredness can lead to:
- Conjunctiva watery and flushed.
- Double view.
- The power of accommodation is declining
- Visual acuity, sensitivity and speed of perception will decrease.
Traumatic nerves occur when visual perception suffers from extreme tension. This happens to
activities that require very precise movements. This situation leads to elongated reaction time,
slow movement and disruption of other psychological and motor functions.If the condition
persists then chronic fatigue will occur with symptoms:
- General fatigue
- Hearing disorders
- Headache and vertigo
- Difficulty sleeping and loss of appetite (Harwinta, 1993; Smith, 2003)
Grandjean (1995) states that job stress is a state of emotion or mood caused by a demand
between the level of expectation with the ability of a person to face stress work with an event and
the introduction of a person from their inability to overcome the demands on the work situation.
In accordance with the meaning of Grandjean Stress work is a condition of psychophysiological
tension arising from the response due to the excess demands on the ability of individuals from
their work environment.
Almost everyone agrees that job stress is caused by worker interactions and working conditions.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational and Health) based on experience and research
conducted, that working condition is the main role cause of work stress. Working conditions that
can lead to stressful work are social environments such as relationships among friends, rigid
leadership traits, culture, workload and family problems. physical environmental work that can
cause work stress is the crowd, noise, pollution, lighting and ergonomics.
Astuti (2002) states stress can lead to behavioral changes that can disrupt the relationships
between individuals within an individual. Gibson et al (1996) revealed that potential categories
are due to stress among others; 1. Subjective in the form of fear and apathy; 2. behavior in the
form of alcoholism, drug dependence and easy to get accidents; 3. cognitive form of low
concentration, obstacles and more; 4. physiological form of increased blood pressure, and
increased heart disorders; 5. organizational form of low productivity, absenteeism and legal
Setyawati (2000) states that noise factor, lighting factor, vibration factor, pressure factor,
radiation factor, chemical factor, microoragnism factor and ergonomic factor can influence to
physical health and psychosocial condition of labor. These factors are directly influential as a
single cause or accumulation of several factors.
The relationship between work stress and various diseases can cause mood and sleep disorders,
indigestion and headaches, disturbance of relationships with family and friends. (NIOSH, 1999).
According to research Baker et al (1987) in Astuti (2002), the stress experienced by someone
will change the way the immune system works. The researchers also concluded that stress would
lower the body's resistance to disease by reducing the number of fighting disease cells. As a
result, the person is prone to frequent and susceptible to diseases that tend to be long healing
time because the body does not produce many immune cells, or cells that many lose antibodies
Two researchers, namely Plaut and Friedman (1981) managed to find the relationship between
stress and health. The results of this study proves that stress is potentially heightened the chances
of someone to get infected, exposed to allergies and lowered his autoimmune system. Also found
evidence of decreased antibody response in the body when a person's mood is negative, and will
increase when someone's mood is positive.
Other researchers, Dantzer and Kelley (1989) argue that stress is associated with immunity. He
said, the effect of stress on endurance is also determined by the type, duration, and frequency of
stress experienced by a person. Other researchers also revealed, if the stress experienced by
someone that has been running for a long time, will make fatigue health promoting response and
ultimately weaken the provision of adrenal hormones and endurance (Astuti, 2002).
Many studies have found a causal link between stress and disease, such as heart, digestive
disorders, high blood pressure, ulcers, allergies, and some other diseases. Therefore, it needs a
full awareness of everyone to maintain not only health and physical balance, but also psychic.
In general people argue that if a person is faced with the demands of work that goes beyond the
ability of the individual, then it is said that the individual is experiencing work stress. But what
exactly is categorized as work stress? According to Phillip L. Rice (1978), author of Stress and
Health, one can be categorized as having a stressful work if:
1. Affairs of stress experienced also involve the organization or company where individuals
work. But the cause is not only within the company, because the problems of household brought
to work and work problems brought to the home can also be a cause of work stress
2. Resulting in negative impacts for companies as well as individuals
Therefore, cooperation between both parties is needed to solve the stress problem.
According to Terry Beehr and John Newman (1978) in Astuti (2002) the symptoms of work
stress can be divided into 3 (three) aspects, namely psychological symptoms, psychological
symptoms and behavior.
Tebel 2. Symptoms of work stress
Symptoms of Behavior
Increased heart rate and
Delay or avoid work / task
Increased secretion of
Decline in achievement and
eg gastric disorders
Increased use of alcohol and
Easy to hurt
Physically tired easily
Increased frequency of attendance
Abnormal eating behavior (mostly
or lack of)
Feel alienated and
Loss of appetite and a drastic
decrease in body weight
Increased trends in high-risk
behavior, such as speeding,
Sweats more often
Increased aggression, and crime
Tired of mental
Decrease the quality of
interpersonal relationships with
family and friends
Loss of concentration
Loss of spontaneity and
Lose the spirit of life
(difficulty sleeping, too
Schuller (1980), identifies some of the employees' negative behaviors that affect the
organization. According to these researchers, the stress faced by employees correlates with
decreased job performance, increased work absenteeism, and accidental tendencies
Briefly some of the negative impacts caused by work stress can be:
• The occurrence of chaos, obstacles in both management and work operations
• Disturb normalization of work activities
• Lowering productivity levels
• Lowering the company's revenue and profits. Financial losses experienced by the company
because it is not balance between productivity with the costs incurred to pay salaries, benefits,
and other facilities. Many employees are not employed for various reasons, or the job does not
finish in time either because of inaction or because of repeated mistakes.
The impact of work stress on the individual is the emergence of health, psychological and
SOURCE AND CAUSE OF WORK STRESS
According to Cooper and Melhursh (1990) sources of work stress, among others, the type of
work itself To understand the source of work stress, we must see the stress of this work as the
interaction of several factors, namely stress in the work itself as an external factor, and internal
factors such as the character and perceptions of the employees themselves. In other words, work
stress is not solely due to internal problems, because the reaction to the stimulus will largely
depend on individual subjective reactions of each.
Robbins (1998), Sheridan and Radmacher (1990). Says there are three categories of potential job
1. Environmental factors include uncertainties in the economic field, political uncertainty and
2. Organizational factors include, task demands, role demands, interpersonal demands,
organizational structure and leadership of the organization.
3. Individual factors include economic problems and family problems.
Various things that can cause stress called a stressor. Gibson in Setyawati (2002), divides 4 types
of stressors in the workplace, namely;
1. Environmental stressors, between lian; rays, noise, temperature, and dirty air.
2. Individual stressors, including role conflict, responsibility and job design.
3. Stressor group between lian; bad relationships with peers, subordinates and bosses.
4. Stressor organization, among others; organizational structure, policy and level of office.
According Soewadi (1997), that stress will arise in the work environment if the basic needs at
work are not met. The basic needs in question are a) biological needs, often not met due to
inadequate wage factors, lack of health insurance, working hours and excessive workload; b) the
need for compassion, non-fulfillment, among others, because there is no place for
communication, bureaucracy in the workplace and unhealthy competition; c) the need for
security, unfulfilled by others due to social isolation, lack of or lack of adequate work equipment
and poor management systems; d) the need for a sense of belonging and belonging, this need is
important because every individual is essentially a part of the workplace environment, these
barriers may arise in part because there are no personnel development programs and lack of
clarity of job design; e) the need for a sense of respect, often unfulfilled due to conditions such as
lack of appreciation and strong sanction, lack of or lack of respect for achievements and an
attitude of always rejecting new ideas; f) self-actualization needs, often not met by an
environment that does not provide opportunities for development and lack or absence of
planning for each individual.
Setyawati (1994) and Grandjean (1985) stated that the following conditions may be the cause of
stress in the work environment:
1. Work supervision: some studies have suggested that a lack of oversight may result in tension
and tightness and the supervision of the workplace can also lead to emotional and psychological
tension in the workforce.
2. Social support; social support both within and outside the work environment can decrease the
effects of adverse stress and vice versa.
3. Difficult or unsatisfactory work (job distress or dissatisfaction). This happens mainly with
regard to work content and workload, this can lead to job stress.
4. Duty and performance demands (task and performance demand). Categorized as workload,
including the need for attention.
5. Responsibility (responsibility)
6. Security work (job security)
7. Problems in the physical environment of the workplace (pysical enviroment problem)
8. Complexity or difficulty of work (complexity)
THE IMPACT OF WORK STRESS
According to Cox (1982), there are five types of potential consequences of job stress, namely;
1. Subjective impact: anxiety, aggression, indifference, boredom, depression, fatigue, frustration,
loss of patience, low self-esteem, nervousness, feeling lonely.
2. Behavioral impacts: accidental tendencies, alcoholics, drug abuse, suddenly explosive
emotions, overeating, over-conscious behavior.
3. Cognitive impact: inability to make clear decisions, poor concentration, short attention spans,
very sensitive to criticism, mental obstacles.
4. Physiological effects: increase sugar levels, increase heart rate and blood pressure, sweating,
enlarged pupils, hot body cold.
5. Organizational impact: absenteeism, labor turnover, low productivity, alienation from co-
workers, and job dissatisfaction.
Setyawati (1980) suggests that the effects of stress vary and are not the same for individuals, it is
caused by work factors and work environment and individual differences, endurance and
physical and psychological tolerance. If adjustment to stress fails can lead to body illness, mental
illness such as psychosomatic diseases or personality diseases.
Labor resistance to stress has its limits, as illustrated by a curve about the function or human
response to stressors. The curve describes the relationship of stimuli (aurousol) with appearance
or ability (performance) and is called a healthy tension curve (healthy-tension). At the peak of
the ability or endurance in the face of labor stressors begin to experience fatigue, and if at this
condition the stressors still continue or new stressors arise. If there is exhaustion (Exhaustion)
that continues it will happen ill-sick state (ill-healthy). This condition can still continue to the
point of critical, with only a small instrument, the individual will become powerless at all (break
Figure 1. Nixon healthy tension curve
Atkinson (1990) says that prolonged stress can lead to various diseases such as allergies, high
blood pressure, migraines and stomach pain. In addition, the stress is usually followed by
feelings of anger, anxiety, depression, nervousness, irritability, tension and saturation (Luthan,
Stress can help or damage work performance, will depend on how much stress level. For several
years the inverted U-hypothesis has been accepted. This hypothesis explains the relationship
between stress and work performance. Matterson and Ivancevich (Minner 1992) that this
hypothesis explains that at some level stress can stimulate and increase attention to work that
will improve work performance or performance, but the optimum stress level will decrease work
performance to a minimum. A model of stress - work performance with an inverted U-shape can
be described as follows:
Figure 2. U-Inverted Relationship Stress-job performance
Robbin (1998) suggests that the underlying U-logic inverted is that stress at low to moderate
levels stimulates the body and improves the ability to react. At that time the individual often
performs his duties well, more intensively, or faster. Increased stress will place the unreachable
demands or constraints on a person resulting in poor performance.
Stress in addition to affecting work performance can also bring a potential impact on individuals,
namely a) subjective impact of fear and apathy; b) behavioral impacts of alcoholism, drug
dependence and easy accidents; c) cognitive impacts can be low concentrations, obstacles and
fatigue; d) physiological effects of increased blood pressure and heart problems; e)
organizational impacts can be low productivity, absenteeism and legal action. Hypothesis on the
relationship of lighting with the level of work stress on fishermen in cilacap regency.
Schematically the concept of research framework as follows:
This type of research is a type of survey research with cross-sectional approach, will be done to
fishermen in Cilacap Regency, by filling questionnaires and interviews. The population of
research is all fishermen of Cilacap Regency which amounted to 8834 people. . The sample size
was determined using a confidence level of 95%, due to the large population of 33600 fishermen.
Sampelyang used 200 fishermen The sampling technique is done by quota sampling method, ie
the sample is done with quota system. The tool used in this research is: Luxmeter to know the
intensity of lighting; Job stress questionnaire; Interview guide; Recorder Tool. Research data
taken among others; (1) population characteristics and sample of elementary school teachers in
Cilacap regency. (2) work environment data in the form of lighting level of vessel space used by
work place. (3) job stress obtained from questionnaires distributed to fishermen.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
The results of the analysis are shown in Table 3 to Table 5
Table 3 lighting
Non correct qualified
Based on table 3 shows that those who received the correct qualified lighting were 61 people
(30.5%), and people who received the non-qualified lights were 139 people (69.5%).
Tebel 4 work stress
Table 4 shows that the most common category in moderate stress is 107 people (53.5%), at least
in the non-stress category as many as 3 people (1.5%).
Tabel 3 lighting dan work stress
% of Total
% of Total
% of Total
Based on table 3. above shows that people who do not stress and occupy qualified elicitation as
much as 2 people (1%) and at most in the category qualify with low stress that is 48 people
(24%). Based on df = 3 and value X (140) is greater than the value of X table (7,831) and the
value of p value = 0.000 is smaller than = 0.05, hence Ho rejects and receives Ha , there is a
significant difference between stress level in lighting. Or there is a correlation between lighting
and stress level on crew ship Fish in Cilacap regency waters in 2017
Tabel 4 Chi-Square Tests
N of Valid Cases
a. 2 cells (25.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is .92.
The work environment is very influential to the work stress, comfortable working environment in
accordance with the wishes of workers will increase the feeling of pleasure so that performance
becomes better and improved, (Astianto 2014) said that adequate environment will improve the
performance of individuals and groups.
Prolonged work stress will result in disrupted performance, as the beginning is the productivity
of work will decrease, absentism and often pain. Working stress (Prasasya 2015) will lead to low
performance so that eventually will cause losses to the company. Stress work will also cause
(Verina 2015) feeling uncomfortable in doing the job so that the desire to get out of the company
Sufficient or qualified lighting is one of the functions of ergonomic work. Appropriate lighting
will reduce the stress level of work, workers who do not stress tend to work better and the spirit
that will improve the end of performance and productivity. Lighting is part of the main work
environment because its main function is to provide visual function in doing the work, The
appropriate working environment (Prasasya 2015) will increase the sense of comfort in work.
Lighting is one of the work environment that must be considered because the visual function in
carrying out the work.
There is a significant relationship between lighting with stress level on fishermen in 2017 cilacap
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