Conference PaperPDF Available

AI for a Generative Economy: The Role of Intelligent Systems in Sustaining Unalienated Labor, Environment, and Society

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Extractive economies pull value from a system without restoring it. Unsustainable extraction of ecological value includes over-fishing, clear-cut logging, etc. Extraction of labor value is similarly objectionable: assembly line jobs for example increase the likelihood of cardiovascular disease, depression, suicide and other problems. Extraction of social value-vacuuming up online personal information, commodification of the public sphere, and so on-constitutes a third form. But all three domains-ecological value, labor value, and social value-can thrive in unalienated forms if we can create a future of work that replaces extraction with generative cycles. AI is a key technology in developing these alternative economic forms. This paper describes some initial experiments with African, African American, and Native American artisans who were willing to experiment with the introduction of computational enhancements to their work. Following our report on these initial results, we map out a vision for how AI could scale up labor that sustains "heritage algorithms", ecologically situated value chains and other hybrid forms that prevent value alienation while flourishing from its robust circulation. 1 Questions such as "what jobs will remain after AI is sufficiently advanced" are implying a rather passive stance. True, the potential disruptions created by AI can cause trepidation. But they are also an opportunity for re-fashioning the future of work in ways that optimize environmental sustainability, sustain enjoyable labor, and enhance the public sphere. In the experiments described in this paper we investigate artisanal labor as the basis for such forms. Traditional cultural forms of production such as Native American wood crafting often embody all three domains: harvesting practices that are ecologically sustainable; labor practices that are deeply satisfying; and social networks in which both equity and creative expression can flourish (Ostrom and Ahn 2009; Corntassel 2012; Eglash 2016a,b; Liu et al 2018). If AI and related automation technologies can help to "translate" these forms into modes of production that fit contemporary needs and contexts, the social and environmental ills that were created by centuries of mass production-the extractive economy-could be addressed, and a generative economy-one in which value remains in an unalienated form; circulated rather than extracted-could be achieved. In this paper we will briefly review the problems created by mass production, and the principles of generative economies in their traditional form. We then present some initial experiments with what we might term "artisanal cyborgs"-a synthesis between traditional work practices and contemporary automation technologies. We conclude with a vision for how this research trajectory could enable the development of computational forms that merge artificial intelligence with a generative economy.
Content may be subject to copyright.
AI for a Generative Economy: The Role of Intelligent Systems in Sustaining
Unalienated Labor, Environment, and Society
Corresponding author:
Ron Eglash (eglash@umich.edu), Professor, School of Information,
University of Michigan, 4389 North Quad, 105 S. State St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1285. ORCID#
0000-0003-1354-1300
Co-authors:
Lionel P. Robert Jr.(lprobert@umich.edu); Associate Professor, UM School of Information.
ORCID# 0000-0002-1410-2601
Audrey Bennett (agbennett@umich.edu), Professor, UM School of Art and Design.
ORCID# 0000-0002-6763-2622
Kwame Porter Robinson (kwamepr@umich.edu), Graduate Student, UM School of Information.
ORCID#0000-0003-2663-571X
Michael Lachney (lachneym@msu.edu), Assistant Professor, Michigan State University, Department of
Counseling, Educational Psychology and Special Education.
ORCID# 0000- 0003-3310-8707
William Babbitt (babbiw2@rpi.edu), Research Associate, Rensselaer, Department of Science and
Technology Studies. ORCID# 0000-0002-2684-4901
Abstract
Extractive economies pull value from a system without restoring it. Unsustainable extraction of
ecological value includes over-fishing, clear-cut logging, etc. Extraction of labor value is similarly
objectionable: assembly line jobs for example increase the likelyhood of cardiovascular disease,
depression, suicide and other problems. Extraction of social value--vacuuming up online
personal information, commodification of the public sphere, and so on-- constitutes a third form.
But all three domains--ecological value, labor value, and social value--can thrive in unalienated
forms if we can create a future of work that replaces extraction with generative cycles. AI is a
key technology in developing these alternative economic forms. This paper describes some
initial experiments with African, African American, and Native American artisans who were
willing to experiment with the introduction of computational enhancements to their work.
Following our report on these initial results, we map out a vision for how AI could scale up labor
that sustains “heritage algorithms”, ecologically situated value chains and other hybrid forms
that prevent value alienation while flourishing from its robust circulation.
Keywords: human-machine collaboration; artisanal economy; generative justice; industrial
symbiosis; ethnocomputing
1
Questions such as “what jobs will remain after AI is sufficiently advanced” are implying a rather
passive stance. True, the potential disruptions created by AI can cause trepidation. But they are
also an opportunity for re-fashioning the future of work in ways that optimize environmental
sustainability, sustain enjoyable labor, and enhance the public sphere. In the experiments
described in this paper we investigate artisanal labor as the basis for such forms. Traditional
cultural forms of production such as Native American wood crafting often embody all three
domains: harvesting practices that are ecologically sustainable; labor practices that are deeply
satisfying; and social networks in which both equity and creative expression can flourish
(Ostrom and Ahn 2009; Corntassel 2012; Eglash 2016a,b; Liu et al 2018). If AI and related
automation technologies can help to “translate” these forms into modes of production that fit
contemporary needs and contexts, the social and environmental ills that were created by
centuries of mass production--the extractive economy--could be addressed, and a generative
economy--one in which value remains in an unalienated form; circulated rather than extracted--
could be achieved.
In this paper we will briefly review the problems created by mass production, and the principles
of generative economies in their traditional form. We then present some initial experiments with
what we might term “artisanal cyborgs” -- a synthesis between traditional work practices and
contemporary automation technologies. We conclude with a vision for how this research
trajectory could enable the development of computational forms that merge artificial intelligence
with a generative economy.
2. Social and environmental destruction in the mass production economy
Collaborative robots (“cobots”), where humans and robots work together side by side, are often
proposed as a potential solution to the fear of massive job losses due to automation; the
emphasis is on their ability to accomplish shared work goals (Colgate et al. 1996; Peshkin and
Colgate 1999; You et al. 2018). But these goals are typically those of the mass production
economy. Amplifying them with AI is not addressing the three problems that value extraction
creates.
a. Alienation of labor value: monotony, limited worker agency, and a failure to allow a sense of
pride in the fruits of our activity are typical of mass production. These are correlated with
cardiovascular disease (Karasek et al 1981); work-related depression (Michelsen and Bildt,
2003); suicide (Woo and Postolache 2011), and other disorders.
b. Alienation of ecological value: millions of tons of plastic are entering the ocean annually; and
heavy metals, pesticides, cleaning agents, organochlorides, and other toxins continue
increasingly contaminate land and air (Kannan 1991; Jambeck et al 2015; Coccia 2017). Global
warming; ocean acidification; and mass extinction (Vallero 2015; de Souza Machado, 2016;
Dirzo et al 2014) are all consequences of mass production in an extractive economy.
c. Alienation of social value: mass production creates a demand for mass consumption.
Increasingly AI is applied in the development of consumption accelerating techniques: adware,
spyware, targeted social media marketing, and so on. Rather than satisfying needs, purchases
in this “hedonic treadmill” increase buying aspirations (Chancellor and Lyubomirsky 2011).
Consumption-driven social media platforms are linked to loneliness and depression (Hunt et al
1. Introduction
2
2018); focus onto extrinsic rather than intrinsic goals (Kasser and Ryan 1996); and a decrease
in academic achievement for consumption-obsessed youth (Bunce et al 2017).
A typical objection to proposals for a generative economy is that artisanal production--especially
that tied to ecologically sustainable sources-- is incapable of generating the massive streams of
consumer goods we currently produce. That is precisely the point: a generative economy,
empowered by AI and other automation forms, would be decreasing social alienation, and (in a
bi-directional, co-evolutionary process) decreasing consumer demand. In short: with more
meaningful forms of production comes less need to find meaning in consumption.
3. The principles of generative justice
The phrase “alienated labor value” comes from Marx (1844); to fully understand that concept,
we need to clarify the word “alienated”. Today that is interpreted as a psychological condition, “I
feel alienated”. But Marx was using the word to mean “something that has been taken from
you”. Marx and Engles had carefully read von Helmholtz, Carnot, Boltzmann and others in the
new science of thermodynamics (Bellamy and Burkett 2008), and accordingly reconceptualized
work in terms of “labor power”. Thus “alienation of labor value” was analogous to energy
transfer in their framework: from the original source of energy generation (people) to
somewhere else (capital). This labor value could then be stored (banks) and repurposed (capital
investments in machines). By moving extracted value to the communist state, a utopian society
would be born.
This vision for a top-down technocratic communism
utterly failed, creating poverty, human rights abuse
and environmental destruction to rival that of
capitalism (Graham 1993; Peterson 2019). That is
because both centralized communism and
corporate capitalism depend on the same
extractive modes of production (figure 1). Whether
the “owner” is state or corporate is irrelevant. The
self-generating source of value in Nature, Labor,
and Social expression is reduced to “resources”.
Note that at bottom, the self-generating character
of nature, labor and society is shown as a looping pipe. Nature attempts to sustain itself even if
overharvested; labor replenishes itself at home even if the factory drains it; society maintains
communication even if privacy is violated. But that value is extracted and carried off elsewhere.
In contrast, Indigeous societies (figure 2) keep value in unalienated forms: the network is all
pipe! Value generation is under control of the generators. A traditional artisan can take pride in
her craft; maintain respectful two-way exchanges with nature, and relish a social network of
solidarity and creative expression.
Figure 1: Extractive modes of
production
3
Figure 2 shows how Adinkra textile production in Ghana begins with Badie tree bark. Soaking
bark in water produces an anti-dysentery medication (“aduru”), and is available in the commons
to anyone. Further cooking the bark produces ink, which creates the adinkra symbols for
“sharing” (two crocodiles who have the same stomach need not fight over food), and “earth in
balance” (log spirals representing things in nature). Bark drained of its tannins is sent back to
nature as compost. The sacred forest is small, but maintains a “hot spot” of biodiversity that
feeds other areas, where the Badie tree grows. The value circulates in ways that are highly
productive but have little alienation.
4. Initial experiments in artisanal cyborgs
Figure 3 shows our experiment with Ghanaian textile makers using a batik wax-resist method.
The latex sponges they used were not compostable, so a trash heap of used sponges was
growing. We had already created simulations of adinkra symbols, and shown statistically
significant improvement for students learning math and computing through this indigenous
knowledge (Babbitt et al 2015). So it was a simple matter to extend that to a 3D printed mold in
which we grew mushroom-based foam. This merger of traditional artisanal practice and
computational modeling is only the first step. By replacing wood fires with solar heat to produce
inks and waxes; monitoring forests via GIS to prevent over-harvesting of Badie tree bark;
bringing in additional sustainable and locally owned plant harvests (e.g. the coconut husk
building materials in Lokko and Eglash 2017), a network of physical computing can both monitor
and optimize these generative systems, leveraging traditional sustainability and equity with
contemporary innovation.
4
Figure 3: from Indigenous geometric form, to code, to 3D print, to mycofoam stamp
Further experiments yielded similar opportunities (Eglash et al. forthcoming; Lachney et al.
forthcoming). In the case of African American braiding salons, these “heritage algorithms” were
used for STEM education (Lachney et al 2018), and later rendered by 3D printing into store
mannequin heads (figure 4). However the 2D patterns produced by students did not map neatly
onto the heads; AI is currently being investigated as a possible means to automate what our
postdocs have been doing by human expertise. Finally, in the case of Native American artisans,
their use of parabolic arcs (wigwaams, canoe ribs, etc.) provided the heritage algorithm. But
unlike the African American case, Native American students insisted on hand crafting the fibers
to board with holes determined by the simulation they made. The African American hair stylists
5
went on to investigate healthier hair products, testing locally produced plant products with digital
pH meters. The Native American group extended the experiments into the use of arcs to create
an aquaponics system, also with computational monitoring of water, fish and plant conditions. In
both cases, like the Ghanaian textiles, the potential clearly exists for using AI to help the next
generation sustain and innovate with heritage algorithms, bringing value back to those who
generate it, and building those computation links out into generative network with reciprocal
relations to nature, labor and society.
Figure 4: African American and Native American students merging traditional and
computational crafting
5. Analysis
Gombolay et al (2015) conducted experiments on automating mass production. They
reported that workers preferred to ceed task control to automated machines. Our experiments
with African American, African, and Native American artisans in human-machine collaboration
traditions (Eglash et al. forthcoming; Lachney et al. forthcoming) show distinctly different
preferences depending on the context.
6. Conclusion
Artisanal labor, in a careful synthesis with AI, robotics and other automation technologies, could
potentially help to democratize the economy, improve environmental sustainability, and allow
lifeways that find more meaning and satisfaction in creative production than mindless
consumption. AI has the potential to aid us in replacing extraction with a generative network in
which value circulates in unalienated forms: hence the need for “artisanal cyborgs” that can
scale up these generative alternatives.
Acknowledgement: The authors would like to acknowledge NSF grants DRL-1640014 and DGE-
0947980 in support of this work.
7. References
Altieri, M. A. (2009). The Ecological Impacts of Large-Scale Agrofuel Monoculture Production
Systems in the Americas. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 29(3), 236–244.
6
Babbitt, William, Michael Lachney, Enoch Bulley, and Ron Eglash. “Adinkra Mathematics: A
Study of Ethnocomputing in Ghana.” Multidisciplinary Journal of Educational Research 5, no. 2
(June 15, 2015): 11035.
Bauwens, Michel, & Pantazis, Alekos. (2018). The ecosystem of commons-based peer
production and its transformative dynamics. The Sociological Review, 66(2), 302319. London,
England: SAGE Publications.
Bellamy Foster, J., & Burkett, P. (2008). Classical Marxism and the second law of
thermodynamics: Marx/Engels, the heat death of the universe hypothesis, and the origins of
ecological economics. Organization & Environment, 21(1), 3-37.
Bunce, L., Amy Baird, A., and Jones, S. (2017) The student-as-consumer approach in higher
education and its effects on academic performance, Studies in Higher Education, 42:11, 1958-
1978,DOI: 10.1080/03075079.2015.1127908
Burawoy M. 2006. “Antinomian Marxist”. In The Disobedient Generation: Social Theorists in the
Sixties, ed. A Sica, S Turner, pp. 4871. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press.
Callahan, B. R., Hathaway, C., & Krishnamoorthy, M. (2016). Quantitative Metrics for
Generative Justice: Graphing the value of diversity. Teknokultura, 13(2), 567-586.
Carr, C., & Gibson, C. (2016). Geographies of making: Rethinking materials and skills for
volatile futures. Progress in Human Geography, 40(3), 297315.
https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132515578775
Chancellor, Joseph, and Sonja Lyubomirsky. “Happiness and Thrift: When (Spending) Less Is
(Hedonically) More.” Journal of Consumer Psychology 21, no. 2 (April 1, 2011): 13138.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.004.
Cimatti, B., Campana, G., & Carluccio, L. (2017). Eco Design and Sustainable Manufacturing in
Fashion: A Case Study in the Luxury Personal Accessories Industry. Procedia Manufacturing, 8,
393-400.
Cobble, D. S. (2016). Worker mutualism in an age of entrepreneurial capitalism. Labour &
Industry: a journal of the social and economic relations of work, 26(3), 179-189.
Coccia, M. (2017). Global Negative Effects of the Technological Change on Human Health: The
High Incidence of Cancers in the Anthropocene.
Coleman, E. Gabriella. Coding freedom: The ethics and aesthetics of hacking. Princeton
University Press, 2012.
Corntassel, J. (2012). Re-envisioning resurgence: Indigenous pathways to decolonization and
sustainable self-determination. Decolonization: indigeneity, education & society, 1(1).
de Souza Machado, A. A. (2016). Coastal and marine pollution in the Anthropocene: Identifying
contaminants and processes. Coastal pollution of aquatic systems, 17.
7
Diez, T., & Posada, A. (2013, February). The fab and the smart city: the use of machines and
technology for the city production by its citizens. In Proceedings of the 7th international
conference on tangible, embedded and embodied interaction (pp. 447-454). ACM.
Dirzo, R., Young, H. S., Galetti, M., Ceballos, G., Isaac, N. J., & Collen, B. (2014). Defaunation
in the Anthropocene. science, 345(6195), 401-406.
Drazan, J. F., Loya, A. K., Horne, B. D., & Eglash, R. (2017). From Sports to Science: Using
Basketball Analytics to Broaden the Appeal of Math and Science Among Youth. MIT Sloan
Sports Analytics Conference 2017.
Eckert , S. Collaborative robot market set for phenomenal growth. Oct 11, 2016. Retrieved from
https://www.rethinkrobotics.com/blog/collaborative-robot-market-growth/ January 1, 2019.
Eglash, R., Bennett, A., O'donnell, C., Jennings, S., & Cintorino, M. (2006). Culturally situated
design tools: Ethnocomputing from field site to classroom. American anthropologist, 108(2),
347-362.
Eglash, R and Bennett, A. (2009). Teaching with Hidden Capital: Agency in Children’s
Computational Explorations of Cornrow Hairstyles. Children, Youth and Environments pp. 58-
74, 19 (1) 2009.
Eglash, R., Krishnamoorthy, M., Sanchez, J., and Woodbridge, A. (2011). Fractal simulations of
African design in pre-college computing education. ACM Transactions on Computing Education,
v11 n3 Article 17 Oct 2011.
Eglash, R., Lachney, M., Babbitt, W., Bennett, A., Reinhardt, M., Davis. J. (forthr). Decolonizing
Education with Anishinaabe Arcs: Generative STEM as a Path to Indigenous Futurity.
Eglash, R. (2016). Of marx and makers: An historical perspective on generative justice.
Teknokultura, 13(1), 245-269.
Esim, S., & Katajamaki, W. (2017). Rediscovering worker cooperatives in a changing world.
IusLabor, (1).
Fox, S., Ulgado, R. R., & Rosner, D. (2015). Hacking culture, not devices: Access and
recognition in feminist hackerspaces. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Computer
Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing (pp. 5668). CSCW ’15. New York, NY:
Association for Computing Machinery. doi: 10.1145/2675133.2675223
Gallegos, J. E., Boyer, C., Pauwels, E., Kaplan, W. A., & Peccoud, J. (2018). The Open Insulin
Project: A Case Study for ‘Biohacked’Medicines. Trends in biotechnology.
Gershenfeld, N., Gershenfeld, A., & Cutcher-Gershenfeld, J. (2017). Designing reality: How to
survive and thrive in the third digital revolution. Basic Books.
Gombolay, M. C., Gutierrez, R. A., Clarke, S. G., Sturla, G. F., & Shah, J. A. (2015). Decision-
making authority, team efficiency and human worker satisfaction in mixed humanrobot teams.
Autonomous Robots, 39(3), 293-312.
8
Graham, L. R. (1993). The ghost of the executed engineer: Technology and the fall of the Soviet
Union (No. 87). Harvard University Press.
Grauel, J. (2016). Being authentic or being responsible? Food consumption, morality and the
presentation of self. Journal of Consumer Culture, 16(3), 852-869.
Gultepe, E., Conturo, T. E., & Makrehchi, M. (2018). Predicting and grouping digitized paintings
by style using unsupervised feature learning. Journal of Cultural Heritage, 31, 13-23.
Haro-Zea, K., Haro-Zea, Y., Roblero-Mazariegos, G., & Sánchez, S. (2018, January).
Chiapaneca Handicraft as a Driver of Sustainable Local Development. In Global Conference on
Business and Finance Proceedings (Vol. 13, No. 1, pp. 89-97).
Jambeck, Jenna R., Roland Geyer, Chris Wilcox, Theodore R. Siegler, Miriam Perryman,
Anthony Andrady, Ramani Narayan, and Kara Lavender Law. “Plastic Waste Inputs from Land
into the Ocean.” Science 347, no. 6223 (February 13, 2015): 76871.
https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1260352.
Johnston, H., & Land-Kazlauskas, C. (2018). Organizing on-demand: Representation, voice,
and collective bargaining in the gig economy. Conditions of work and employment series, 94.
Kannan, K. (1991). Fundamentals of environmental pollution. S. Chand & Company.
Karasek, R. (1979). Job Demands, Job Decision Latitude, and Mental Strain: Implications for
Job Redesign. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24(2), 285-308. doi:10.2307/2392498
Karasek, R., Baker, D., Marxer, F., Ahlbom, A., & Theorell, T. (1981). Job decision latitude, job
demands, and cardiovascular disease: a prospective study of Swedish men. American journal of
public health, 71(7), 694-705.
Kiess, C. "The McDonaldization of UX". Available at https://uxdesign.cc/the-mcdonaldization-of-
ux-705438fea958 (accessed April 30, 2019).
Kneese, T., & Rosenblat, A. (2014). Technologically Mediated Artisanal Production. Open
Society Foundations' Future of Work Commissioned Research Papers.
Kostakis, V., Niaros, V., Dafermos, G., & Bauwens, M. (2015). Design global, manufacture local:
Exploring the contours of an emerging productive model. Futures, 73, 126-135.
Kousis, M., Kalogeraki, S., & Cristancho, C. (2018). Alternative Action Organizations During
Hard Economic Times: A Comparative European Perspective. American Behavioral Scientist,
62(6), 733738. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764218768845
Kuhn, K. M., & Galloway, T. L. (2015, May). With a little help from my competitors: peer
networking among artisan entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 39(3), 571
Lanham, R. A. (2006). The economics of attention: Style and substance in the age of
information. University of Chicago Press.
9
Lewis, J. (2015). Barriers to women’s involvement in hackspaces and makerspaces. Access as
spaces. Available at: http://access-space. org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Barriers-to-womens-
involvement-in-hackspaces-and-makerspaces. pdf (accessed 10 May 2016).
Lewis, T., & Potter, E. (2013). Ethical consumption: A critical introduction. Routledge.
Lindtner, S., Bardzell, S., & Bardzell, J. (2016, May). Reconstituting the utopian vision of
making: HCI after technosolutionism. In Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human
Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1390-1402). ACM.
Liu, S., Min, Q., Jiao, W., Liu, C., & Yin, J. (2018). Integrated Emergy and Economic Evaluation
of Huzhou Mulberry-Dyke and Fish-Pond Systems. Sustainability, 10(11), 3860.
Lokko, M. and Eglash, R. Transforming the poor man’s building block: value creation,
translation and circulation for upcycled indigenous building materials. FOLIO: Journal of
African Architecture, Vol. 1, May 2017 pp 237-249.
Marsden, T., & Smith, E. (2005). Ecological entrepreneurship: sustainable development in local
communities through quality food production and local branding. Geoforum, 36(4), 440-451.
McLain, R. J., Hurley, P. T., Emery, M. R., & Poe, M. R. (2014). Gathering “wild” food in the city:
rethinking the role of foraging in urban ecosystem planning and management. Local
Environment, 19(2), 220-240.
Michelsen, H., & Bildt, C. (2003). Psychosocial conditions on and off the job and psychological
ill health: depressive symptoms, impaired psychological wellbeing, heavy consumption of
alcohol. Occupational and environmental medicine, 60(7), 489-496.
Morell, M. F., & Espelt, R. (2018, August). How Much are Digital Platforms Based on Open
Collaboration?: An analysis of technological and knowledge practices and their implications for
the platform governance of a sample of 100 cases of collaborative digital platforms in
Barcelona. In Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (p. 26).
ACM.
Morrison, P. D., Roberts, J. H., & Midgley, D. F. (2004). The nature of lead users and
measurement of leading edge status. Research policy, 33(2), 351-362.
Lachney, M. (2017). Computational communities: African-American cultural capital in computer
science education. Computer Science Education, 27(3-4), 175-196.
Lachney, M., Babbitt, W., Bennett, A., Eglash, R. (Forthcoming). Generative Computing:
African-American Cosmetology as a Link Between Computing Education and Community
Wealth. Interactive Learning Environments.
Luckman, S. (2015). Craft and the creative economy. Springer.
Ocejo, R. E. (2017). Masters of Craft: Old Jobs in the New Urban Economy. Princeton
University Press.
10
Ostrom, E., & Ahn, T. K. (2009). The meaning of social capital and its link to collective action.
Handbook of social capital: The troika of sociology, political science and economics, 17-35.
Papadaki, M., & Kalogeraki, S. (2018). Exploring Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) during
the Greek Economic Crisis. Partecipazione e Conflitto, 11(1), 38-69.
Peterson, D. J. (2019). Troubled lands: The legacy of Soviet environmental destruction.
Routledge.
Ramsay, M. (2015). Resisting Alienated Labour Through Hacking: The Case of Free and Open
Source Software (Doctoral dissertation).
Rüthschilling, E. A. (2019). Sunshine on a Cloudy Day. In A. Gwilt, A. Payne, and E.
Rüthschilling, Global Perspectives on Sustainable Fashion, (pp. 2-12), New York: Bloomsbury.
Saner, R., Yiu L., Filadoro, M. (2012), “Cooperatives for inclusive growth”, CSEND Policy. Brief,
n. 10. ISSN 2235 8048, Geneva.
Savic, S., & Wuschitz, S. Feminist Hackerspace as a Place of Infrastructure Production. Ada
issue 13, 2018.
Scrase, T. J. (2003). Precarious production: globalisation and artisan labour in the Third World.
Third World Quarterly, 24(3), 449-461.
Sennett, R. (2008). The Craftsman. Yale University Press.
Scholz, T., & Schneider, N. (Eds.). (2017). Ours to hack and to own: The rise of platform
cooperativism, a new vision for the future of work and a fairer internet. OR books.
Story, M., & French, S. (2004). Food Advertising and Marketing Directed at Children and
Adolescents in the US. The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity,
1(1), 3. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-1-3.
Tabuchi, H. (2015). Etsy’s Success Gives Rise to Problems of Credibility and Scale. The New
York Times (March 15).
Tanenbaum, Laura. (2014). “My Brooklyn, Not Yours.” Jacobin, 13.
https://www.jacobinmag.com/2014/01/my-brooklyn-not-yours/
Thompson, D. (2015). A world without work. The Atlantic, 316(1), 50-61.
Thomas, L., & Samuel, K. (2017). Characteristics of Open Source Business Models. In ISPIM
Conference Proceedings(pp. 1-15). The International Society for Professional Innovation
Management.
Thorlakson, T., de Zegher, J., & Lambin, Eric (2018) Companies’ contribution to sustainability
through global supply chains. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Feb 2018, 115
(9) 2072-2077; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1716695115
11
Vallero, D. A. (2014). Fundamentals of air pollution. Academic press.
World Bank. 2018. Tech startup ecosystem in West Bank and Gaza : findings and
recommendations (English). Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group.
http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/715581526049753145/Tech-startup-ecosystem-in-
West-Bank-and-Gaza-findings-and-recommendations
Woo, J. & Postolache , T. (2011). The impact of work environment on mood disorders and
suicide: Evidence and implications. International Journal on Disability and Human Development,
7(2), pp. 185-200.
Wojtkowski, Paul A. (2006) Introduction to Agroecology: Principles and Practices. Haworth
Press, Binghamton, NY.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Recent scholarship in computer science (CS) education shifts from a focus on the technical-cognitive skills of computational thinking to the socio-cultural goal of computational participation, often illustrated as remixing popular media (e.g. music, photos, etc.) in online communities. These activities do enhance the participatory dimensions of CS, but whether they also support broadening the participation of underrepresented youth remains unclear. While online communities that are dedicated to computational participation have existed in the U.S. for over a decade, many communities of color remain underrepresented in CS disciplines. How might CS educators, researchers, and technologists promote culturally responsive forms of computational participation? To answer this question, we propose a culturally responsive framework for computational participation called generative computing. Generative computing approaches CS as a means for strengthening relationships between learning environments and local communities, leveraging culturally relevant sources of wealth generation in technology design and implementation. To explore this concept, we conducted a mixed-methods study with a cosmetology high school program that predominantly serves young African-American women. Through a series of computationally and culturally rich cosmetology projects, we tested our hypothesis that generative computing can enhance connections between Black heritage, CS, and cosmetology while supporting students’ academic interests and knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
The Huzhou mulberry-dyke and fish-pond system (HMFS) is a compound structure of agriculture with interaction among several subsystems, and it is an effective example of a circular economy by exogenous input and waste reduction to maintain a harmonious relationship between humans and nature. As increases in rural urbanization and transition of peasants occur, the traditional systems remain in a constant state of change, along with different kinds of adaptation models. In this study, two main existing models are examined by field investigation and extensive literature analysis. Emergy theory and methods are adopted to make a further quantitative analysis from emergy structure and indices synthetically and systemically. In this process, the models of HMFS are split into several subsystems, including mulberry dyke, fish pond, rape dyke, and silkworm, in terms of a modularization approach. The proportion of combinations among different subsystems is calculated by the average production level of local peasants. The empirical results of emergy analysis indicate that the two existent patterns of HMFS are themselves superior in terms of environmental capacity and commercial efficiency. The mulberry–silkworm–fish model possesses more sustainable characteristics than the rape–fish model by the mass flow and energy flux. In addition, the rape–fish model may obtain considerably better economic returns by more inorganic resources, and thus achieve higher economic benefits. Therefore, the rape–fish model may be an evolutionary model to make directions for further research and protection, while other adaptive units are introduced to form multiple systems.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Most academic literature concerning open business model reliance on collaborative ecosystems is firm-centric. However, this phenomenon is spreading to open source product development (OSPD) ventures with undefined legal status. The complex art of choosing a business model becomes more difficult for such projects where non-market considerations are at the heart of the value creation process. Of the 76 open source product development projects identified, 23 were the subjects of interviews and later ranked according to variables in the Fjeldsted et al., (2012) Open Source Development framework. The most noteworthy, explicating the drive of OSPD projects, their level of centralization, their intended production mode and the status of the projects, were later analysed. Findings reveal that open-source product development broadens the business model framework in terms of value creation and capture for all stakeholders.
Article
Full-text available
New innovation ecosystems are emerging that challenge the complex intellectual property and regulatory landscape surrounding drug development in the United States (US). A prime example is an initiative known as the Open Insulin Project. The goal of the project is to sidestep patents and enable generic manufacturers to produce cheaper insulin. However, the US regulatory environment, not patent exclusivity, is the main barrier to insulin affordability. If the Open Insulin Project succeeds in releasing an open protocol for insulin manufacturing, follow-on work could enable a number of new insulin production ecosystems, including 'home-brewed' insulin. Regulators will need to consider how to proceed in a future where commercial pharmaceuticals remain unaffordable, but patients are empowered to produce drugs for their personal use.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
From the early cases of FLOSS and Wikipedia, the digital collaborative model of production and consumption has rapidly expanded to other spheres. This article explores to what extent this expansion has maintained the open character of the initial model, specifically the extent to which platform projects follow an open collaborative approach in their technological and knowledge policies and practices, and if this is also reflected in an open approach to governance. The empirical analysis is based on a sample of 100 cases in Barcelona. On the basis of this analysis, we conclude that open modalities of collaborative digital platforms are not prevalent. Around a third of the sample present open modalities of the dimensions analyzed. Different areas (technological, knowledge, or governance) showed different levels of diffusion of open practices. The cases which tended to be open in one dimension also tended to be open in the other dimensions. That is, the analysis points to a correlation between technological, data, and knowledge policies and open and democratic collaborative economy models. These results suggest the importance of open technology and knowledge in adopting an open and democratic collaborative model.
Article
Full-text available
In the last decades, Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) has become an everyday practice for an increasing number of citizens, and the SSE sector has been constantly expanding. Particularly, during hard economic times, SSE has acted as a viable economic alternative and as a means to support vulnerable social groups, hit by the recession. However, SSE does not merely act as an emergency actor during harsh economic times, but also as a form of resistance to neoliberal dominance and as a tool of empowerment, transformation and social change. This paper, using quantitative data from the LIVEWHAT project, ex-plores SSE organisations in Greece, as one of the European countries most severely affected during the recent global financial crisis. The results, which are indicative of the Greek SSE sector during the period under study, shed light on the role of the recession as one of the main triggers for the recent expansion of SSE organisations that are often less formally organised, and primarily act as coping mechanisms, which aim to meet the uncovered, urgent socioeconomic needs of citizens. The findings also demonstrate that the Greek SSE sector, under study, acts as an economic alternative, promoting collective action and new social movements.
Article
Full-text available
Work in a (feminist) hackerspace relies on the circulation of knowledge and availability of hardware. In contemporary maker scene, the majority of these resources is created in male-dominated circles and handed over to female identified makers to act upon and appropriate. Attempts to reconcile the disbalance in gender participation with pink-colored microcontrollers only reinforced existing gender and cultural stereotypes. Instead of adding to the growing voice of critique of exclusionist and inclusionist practices, we take a critical stand towards feminist hacking practice itself: we look at what is produced by feminist hackerspaces. Using standpoint theory to analyze the experience of working with one particular self-organized group of feminist artists and developers, this paper looks at practice in feminist hackerspaces as a way to create and share essential infrastructure with female or transgender identified makers. We analyze patterns of mutual self-help through sharing and learning, and their role in creating feminist infrastructure.
Article
The aim of this Special Issue is to offer new systematic analyses on European alternative (non)economic solidarity practices since the global financial crisis, that have attracted limited media and scholarly attention. Its seven articles are devoted to multidimensional analyses providing complementary perspectives on alternative action organizations across Europe and rest on Action Organization Analysis, a new hubs-website approach extending Protest Event Analysis. They deal with the emergence and continuity of alternative action organizations in different contexts, while they focus on its multiple tactics and the ways in which they address crisis-related needs under diverse conditions of vulnerability and hardship. Our contributions rely on original data produced in the context of Work Package 6 of the EU-funded FP7 project “Living with Hard Times: How Citizens React to Economic Crises and Their Social and Political Consequences” (LIVEWHAT), conducted across nine European countries.