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Pfui Helsinki, was zum Pharao!‘ Fluchen und Tabuvermeidung im Schwedischen aus gebrauchsbasierter Perspektive

Authors:
‚Pfui Helsinki, was zum Pharao!‘
Fluchen und Tabuvermeidung im Schwedischen
aus gebrauchsbasierter Perspektive
Steffen Höder
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 2019
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20192
farao ‚Pharao‘
statt
fan ‚Teufel‘
vad fan
‚was zum Teufel‘
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20193
helsinki
statt
helvete ‚Hölle‘
fy helvete
‚pfui Hölle‘
gebrauchsbasierte
Linguistik
Perspektiven
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20194
Fluchen als
kommunikative Praktik
kultureller Hintergrund
Tabuvermeidung lautliche
Tabuvermeidungs-
strategien
lautliche Schematizität
Fluchen als kommunikative Praktik
Fluchen als kommunikative Praktik ist universell.
[Ljung 2011, Bergen 2016, Beers Fägersten & Stapleton 2017]
Arbeitsdefinition
[vgl. Andersson 1985, Stroh-Wollin 2008, Ljung 2011, Culpeper 2019]
Fluchen ist der expressive Gebrauch sprach- und gesellschaftsspezifisch
tabuisierter Elemente.
typischer pragmatischer Gehalt
Unhöflichkeit: din jävla idiot
Emotion: fan, varför är han populär
Intensivierung: jag är så in i helvete trött
geringe bis keine referentielle Bedeutung
det är ett helvetes jävla skitjobb
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20195
Etymologie schwedischer Flüche
Etymologisch sind lexikalische Flüche konventionalisierte Metaphern.
je nach gesellschaftlich tradierten Wertvorstellungen unterschiedliche
Quellbereiche dominant [Nübling & Vogel 2004: 20]
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20196
Quelle
Sprache
sexuell
skatologisch
religiös
Krankheiten
Niederländisch
+++
+(+)
+(+)
++(+)
Deutsch
[+]
+++
++
Schwedisch
[+]
+
+++
helvete ‚Hölle‘
fan, satan, djävul/jävel Teufel
förbannad ‚verflucht‘
skit ‚Scheiße‘
piss ‚Pisse‘
Kulturgeschichtlicher Hintergrund
Die Dominanz des religiösen Quellbereichs geht historisch
auf die starke christliche Prägung Skandinaviens zurück.
[Andersson 2004, Stroh-Wollin 2008, 2010, 2012, ...]
traditionell monokonfessionell protestantische Gesellschaften mit
nationalen Staatskirchen
konservatives lutherisches Denken bis ins 20. Jahrhundert dominant
zusätzlich starke Rolle pietistischer Strömungen und freikirchlicher
Erweckungsbewegungen seit dem 18. Jahrhundert und bis heute
magisches Denken als Teil des (christlichen) Volksglaubens
gesellschaftliche Verankerung religiöser Vorstellungen zur realen Existenz
von Hölle und Teufel
Namensnennungsverbot (etwa im Zweiten Gebot)
heute bedeutungslos
sprachliche Tabus reflektieren historische Vorstellungen
religiöse Argumente gegen Flüche bereits in den 1970ern nicht mehr
nachweisbar [Stroh-Wollin 2010: 1718]
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20197
Strukturelle Variation
Schwedische Flüche kommen in verschiedenen Wortklassen
und grammatischen Strukturen vor. [Teleman 1987; vgl. Hoeksema 2019]
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20198
Interjektion
fan
!
jävlar
!
helvete
!
fy
fan!
jävlar
också!
för
helvete!
Adjektiv
jävla
SUBST
din
jävla idiot
Intensivierer
jävla
ADJ
ADJ
som fan
SATZADV
fan
det är så
jävla kallt
det var billigt som
fan
inte
fan är jag nazist
Kompositionszweitglied
X
-helvete
bil
helvetet
Fragepartikel
WH
-WORT fan
vad
fan håller du med?
var
fan har du varit?
när
fan är det påsk?
...
Tabuvermeidungsstrategien
Oft werden (sprachübergreifend) Flüche durch andere
Elemente ersetzt, die keine tabuisierten Elemente enthalten.
einfache Typologie für Schwedisch
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 20199
Ausgangslexem
fan
‚Teufel‘
lexikalische Substitution
ersättare/ersättningsord,
eufemismer
[Teleman 1987]
knäveln
pocker
katten
(< katt ‚Katze‘)
hundan
(?< hund ‚Hund‘)
hundan
(?< hundra ‚100‘)
tusan
(< tusen ‚1000‘)
attan
(< arton ‚18‘)
sjutton
(‚17‘)
lautliche
Modifikation
fonetiska variationer, kreativa eufemismer
[Stroh
-Wollin 2008]
farao
‚Pharao‘
fasen
?Phase, ?Angst‘
Tabuvermeidungsstrategien
Tabuisierte Elemente werden lautlich modifiziert, eine
formale Ähnlichkeit zum Ausgangslexem bleibt aber erkennbar.
typische Tabuvermeidungsstrategie in vielen Sprachen
dän. for søren(= for satan)
dt. Scheibenkleister
engl. gosh, shoot, heck, darn
aber:
im Schwedischen besonders frequent, variantenreich und produktiv
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201910
Ausgangslexem
fa
n‚Teufel‘
lautliche
Modifikation
fonetiska variationer, kreativa eufemismer
[Stroh
-Wollin 2008]
fa
rao ‚Pharao‘
fa
sen ?Phase, ?Angst‘
Schematizität
Zentraler Begriff in der gebrauchsbasierten Linguistik.
[allgemein: Bybee 1999, 2010, Schmid 2017, 2018 …; Kognitive Linguistik: Langacker 2008 …;
Konstruktionsgrammatik: Croft 2001, Goldberg 2006, 2019 …, Hilpert 2014, Diessel 2015,
Hilpert & Diessel 2017; Skandinavistik: Norde, Lyngfelt, Andersson, Höder, …]
kognitiv relevante Einheiten
Form vs. Bedeutung
gefüllte vs. schematische Elemente
kognitive Verfestigung (entrenchment)
inputbasierter Erwerb (Exemplare, Reokkurrenz, Frequenz, Salienz)
allgemeine kognitive Prozesse (Identifikation, Abstraktion, Generalisierung)
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201911
ˈkʰafːə
‚Kaffee‘
Leerstellen
VERB-ar
Präsens
... SUBJ¹ (SA²) Vfin³
Nebensatz
SUBJ, BITA, i gräset
‚sterben‘
Schematizität
Unterschiedliche Grade an Schematizität (‚Schematizitätskontinuum‘).
Standardannahmen: lexikalische Schematizität
Evidenz für kognitive Realität von Schemata
Produktivität
z. B. Bildung des Präsens bei neuen Verben mit VERB-ar (nicht mit VERB-er)
messbare Vorteile bei der Prozessierung
Reaktionszeitmessungen, Eye-Tracking, …
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201912
Schematizität
ˈ
kʰafːə ‚Kaffee‘
BITA
, i gräset ‚sterben‘
VERB
-ar Präsens
...
SUBJ¹ (SA²) Vfin³Nebensatz
Schematizität
Auch lautliche Schemata sind als kognitiv relevant nachweisbar.
… im Schematizitätskontinuum
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201913
Schematizität
ˈ
kʰafːə ‚Kaffee‘
b
__{ei̯|}nKnochen, Bein
ˈ
sn__ ‚Nase, Mund‘
VERB
-ar Präsens
...
SUBJ¹ (SA²) Vfin³Nebensatz
(__)
υHörersignal
Morpheme,
Wörter,
Phrasen, Sätze,
Äußerungen
sprechaktspezifische
Intonationsmuster [Höder 2014]
prosodische Kompositionsmarkierung
[Riad 2009]
ingressiver Luftstrom als Hörersignal
[Eklund 2008]
submorphematische
Einheiten
nichtkonkatenative
Morphologie
[
Bybee & Moder 1983, Davis & Tsujimura 2018]
Diamorphe
[Höder 2018, 2019]
Phonästheme
[Abelin 1999, Bergen 2004]
Lautliche Schemata und Tabuvermeidung
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201914
Ausgangslexem
fan
helvete
jävla(r)
modifizierte Elemente
fasen
helsicke
jäkla(r)
fasingen
helskota
fanken
lautliche Schemata
[
ˈfa__]ω
[
ˈhel__σσ]ω
[
ˈ__KKa(r)]ω
mögliche
Fluchkontexte
fy
[ˈfa__]ω
för
[ˈhel__σσ]ω
[
ˈ__KKa(r)]ω
vad
[ˈfa__]ω
bil
[ˈhel__σσ]ω
inte
[ˈfa__]ω
?verfestigte
Schemata
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Welche Formen sind erwartbar?
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201915
fy [ˈfa__]ω
fy fan fy fasen ?fy fannan
?fy facken
?fy fattan
Ausgangslexem
Hapaxe/infrequente Types
Produktivität
bekannte
modifizierte Formen
lexikalisierte Formen
weitere modifizierte
Formen?
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Korpusdaten: fy [ˈfa__]ωin Korp
Korp <spraakbanken.gu.se/korp>
multifunktionale Korpusschnittstelle (Korpussammlung und -werkzeuge)
ausgewählte Korpora (Zeitschnitt 2017-10-25)
moderne fiktionale Texte, social media, Zeitungstexte
(144 von 232 Korpora)
Fokus auf informelle Texte
9,23 Mrd. Wörter
Operationalisierung
CQP-Suchstring mit regulären Ausdrücken
[word = "fy"] [word = "[f][a][a-zäöå]+\b"]
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201916
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Korpusdaten: fy [ˈfa__]ωin Korp
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201917
Rohdaten
285 Types, 119.549 Tokens
Bereinigung
um graphische Variation inklusive erkennbare Schreibfehler
bereinigte Daten
87
Types, 119.539 Tokens (13,0 TPM)
durchschnittlich 1.374 Tokens je Type
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
fy-fan fy-fasen fy-farao fy-fasiken fy-fanken fy-fabian fy-fa…
Tokenfrequenz (TPM)
TPM > 0,01
n = 119.214
TPM < 0,01
ΣTPM < 0,01
n = 325
modifizierte Formen
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Korpusdaten: fy [ˈfa__]ωin Korp ohne Ausgangslexem
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201918
bereinigte Daten
86
Types, 12.928 Tokens (1,4 TPM)
durchschnittlich 150 Tokens je Type
0
0,1
0,2
0,3
0,4
0,5
0,6
0,7
fy-fasen fy-farao fy-fasiken fy-fanken fy-fabian fy-fa…
Tokenfrequenz (TPM)
20,4 % 18,1 %
6,0 % 5,9 % 2,5 % infrequente
Types
47,1 %
fy faderullan (27)
fy fagerlund (20)
fy fanders (8)
fy fanta (5)
fy fabylon (1)
fy fakta (1)
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Korpusdaten: fy [ˈfa__]ωin Korp
19
Type
n
TPM
Verfestigung des
Types
fy
fan
106.611
11,55
Produktivität des Schemas
fy
fasen
6.089
0,66
fy
farao
2.635
0,29
fy
fasiken
2.342
0,25
fy
fanken
770
0,08
fy
fabian
767
0,08
fy faderullan
27
< 0,01
fy
fagerlund
20
< 0,01
fy
fanders
8
< 0,01
fy
fanta
5
< 0,01
fy
fabylon
1
< 0,01
fy
fakta
1
< 0,01
frequente
Types
infrequente
Types
Hapaxe
lexikalisierte
Elemente
Korpusanalyse zur Produktivität
Korpusdaten: fy [ˈfa__]ωin Korp
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201920
fy [ˈfa__]ω
Ausgangslexem
bekannte
modifizierte Formen
lexikalisierte Formen
produktive
Formenbildung
sprachliche Kreativität
auf der Basis
lautlicher Schemata
Fazit
Ursprünglich religiös motivierte sprachliche Tabus wirken
bis heute in Form von Tabuvermeidungsstrategien nach.
darunter ganz wesentlich: lautliche Modifikation
Aus gebrauchsbasierter Perspektive deutet dabei
Produktivität auf die kognitive Relevanz lautlicher Schemata. [Höder i. Vorb.]
gezeigte Ergebnisse für einen exemplarischen Kontext;
ähnliche Ergebnisse für andere Fluchkontexte und -wörter
Ausblick: experimentelle Studie
zur Rolle lautlicher Schemata bei der Dekodierung
Reaktionszeitmessungen, Diskriminierungstests, ...
Produktive lautliche Tabuvermeidungsstrategien
stützen Befunde zur kognitiven Relevanz
submorphematischer Schemata insgesamt.
Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201921
Tack så [ˈ__KKa]ωmycket!
jävla jäkla jädra
Herzlichen Dank!
?...
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Vortrag im Tenure-Track-Verfahren | Kiel, 29. 4. 201926
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Chapter
Full-text available
Mainstream grammatical theory and traditional grammaticography concentrate on single languages or varieties, which are conceptualised as pre-existing, distinct entities and analysed in terms of coherent, static, ideally variation-free language systems. This is in stark contrast to actual language usage, where various kinds of structural contact phenomena are the rule rather than the exception. In line with recent insights from contact linguistics, Diasystematic Construction Grammar assumes that multilingual speakers and communities organise their grammatical knowledge on the basis of the available input via processes of interlingual identification, abstraction, generalisation, and categorisation, regardless of language boundaries. This results in a community-specific multilingual constructicon, comprising both language-specific constructions (restricted to certain communicative contexts associated with a particular language) and constructions unspecified for language.
Research
Full-text available
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Article
Full-text available
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Book
In recent years, linguists have increasingly turned to the cognitive sciences to broaden their investigation into the roots and development of language. With the advent of cognitive-linguistic, usage-based and complex-adaptive models of language, linguists today are utilizing approaches and insights from cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, social psychology and other related fields. A key result of this interdisciplinary approach is the concept of entrenchment-the ongoing reorganization and adaptation of communicative knowledge. Entrenchment posits that our linguistic knowledge is continuously refreshed and reorganized under the influence of social interactions. It is part of a larger, ongoing process of lifelong cognitive reorganization whose course and quality is conditioned by exposure to and use of language, and by the application of cognitive abilities and processes to language. This volume enlists more than two dozen experts in the fields of linguistics, psycholinguistics, neurology, and cognitive psychology in providing a realistic picture of the psychological and linguistic foundations of language. Contributors examine the psychological foundations of linguistic entrenchment processes, and the role of entrenchment in first-language acquisition, second language learning, and language attrition. Critical views of entrenchment and some of its premises and implications are discussed from the perspective of dynamic complexity theory and radical embodied cognitive science. © 2017 by the American Psychological Association and Walter de Gruyter GmbH. All rights reserved.
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This study provides a definition and a typology of swearing and compares its manifestations in English and 24 other languages. In addition the study traces the history of swearing from its first known appearance in Ancient Egypt to the present day.
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Introduces Construction Grammar as a cognitive-functional theory of language, applied to the structures of English What do speakers of English know in order to produce utterances that other speakers will understand? Construction Grammar explains how knowledge of language is organized in speakers' minds. The central and radical claim of Construction Grammar is that linguistic knowledge can be fully described as knowledge of constructions, which are defined as symbolic units that connect a linguistic form with meaning. The implications of this claim are far-reaching: in Construction Grammar, not only lexical items, but also syntactic patterns are seen as symbolic, meaningful units. Instead of being meaningless structural templates, syntactic patterns actively contribute to the overall meaning of an utterance. Knowledge of language is thought of as a vast repository of interrelated symbolic units, and nothing else in addition. This book expands on this idea and familiarizes readers with the central concepts of Construction Grammar, as applied to English constructions. In the process, it explains how the theory of Construction Grammar relates to issues of language processing, language acquisition, and language variation and change. Key Features • The first textbook to offer a full introduction to Construction Grammar, as applied to English • Includes exercises and questions to stimulate reflection • Provides a thorough grounding in the central concepts of Construction Grammar.
Book
Cognitive Grammar is a radical alternative to the formalist theories that have dominated linguistic theory during the last half century. Instead of an objectivist semantics based on truth conditions or logical deduction, it adopts a conceptualist semantics based on human experience, our capacity to construe situations in alternate ways, and processes of imagination and mental construction. A conceptualist semantics makes possible an account of grammar which views it as being inherently meaningful (rather than an autonomous formal system). Grammar forms a continuum with lexicon, residing in assemblies of symbolic structures, i.e. pairings of conceptual structures and symbolizing phonological structures. Thus all grammatical elements are meaningful. It is shown in detail how Cognitive Grammar handles the major problems a theory of grammar has to deal with: grammatical classes, constructions, the relationship of grammar and lexicon, the capturing of regularities, and imposition of the proper restrictions. It is further shown how the framework applies to central domains of language structure: deixis, nominal structure, clausal structure, and complex sentences. Consideration is also given to discourse, the temporal dimension of grammar, and what it reveals about cognitive processes and the construction of our mental world.
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This book investigates the nature of generalizations in language, drawing parallels between our linguistic knowledge and more general conceptual knowledge. The book combines theoretical, corpus, and experimental methodology to provide a constructionist account of how linguistic generalizations are learned, and how cross-linguistic and language-internal generalizations can be explained. Part I argues that broad generalizations involve the surface forms in language, and that much of our knowledge of language consists of a delicate balance of specific items and generalizations over those items. Part II addresses issues surrounding how and why generalizations are learned and how they are constrained. Part III demonstrates how independently needed pragmatic and cognitive processes can account for language-internal and cross-linguistic generalizations, without appeal to stipulations that are specific to language.