Emerging innovative building technologies offer unprecedented opportunities for accelerating transitions of the construction industry. To unlock the full potential of these technologies, their interactions should be conceptualised within co-evolution and transitions contexts. This paper develops a new theory to examine the 'co-evolution through interaction' of innovative building technologies. Drawing on the socio-technical transitions and technology interaction theories, a conceptual model was proposed, defining three interaction modes. The model was contextualised and verified using empirical case study of two innovative building technologies: modular integrated construction and robotics adopted in Hong Kong. The results demonstrate and characterise the co-evolution patterns of these technologies in bounded competition, adaptable neutralism, and reinforced symbiosis. The findings reveal that interaction modes are transferable during the technology co-evolution, which provides a theoretical foundation for understanding the interaction complexity and guides the formulation of policy and managerial strategies towards the future symbiotic development of innovative building technologies.