ArticlePDF Available

Using Cannabis and Cannabidiol (CBD Oil) in Dog Training and Behavior Work

Abstract

The continuing legalization of cannabis has led to a growing number of cannabis-based products available for sale in the pet market, where sales have quadrupled since 2017. Dog owners are increasingly using these products for their dogs, and may be seeking advice on their use from their trainer or behavior consultant. Despite the wild claims, there is limited science to support the use of these products, and a number of cautions and issues that trainers and behaviour specialists may want to be aware of when working with clients.
ApublicationoftheInternationalAssociationofAnimalBehaviorConsultants,https://iaabc.org
UsingCannabisandCannabidiol(CBDOil)inDogTrainingandBehaviorWork
2019-08-0101:08:11qbgiw
HelenPrinold
ThecontinuinglegalizationofcannabishasledtoagrowingnumberofCBDoilproductsavailableforsaleinthepetmarket,
wheresaleshavequadrupledsince2017.Dogownersareincreasinglyusingtheseproductsfortheirdogs,andmaybeseeking
adviceontheirusefromtheirtrainerorbehaviorconsultant.Despitethewildclaims,thereislimitedsciencetosupporttheuse
oftheseproducts,andanumberofcautionsandissuesthattrainersandbehaviourspecialistsmaywanttobeawareofwhen
workingwithclients.
Mellowdogordangerousoverdose?
AsaresultoflegalizationofcannabisinseveralstatesandacrossCanada,trainersandbehavioristsarelikelyincreasingly
facedwithquestionsfromclientsaboutwhethercannabismightbehelpfulfortheirdog.Afterall,theownerwhofeelstheirdog
is“hyper”or“anxious”mightthinkitisgoodcommonsenseto“mellowtheirdogout”withabitofpot.Thismaybewhythe
surveyfirmBrightfieldGroupstatesthatsalesofcannabis-derivedproductsforpetsquadrupledfrom2017to2018—atrend
theypredictwillcontinueoverthenextcoupleofyears.
Unfortunately,dogsreactbadlytotheTHC,thepsychoactiveingredientincannabis/marijuana(BrutlagandHommerding,
2018).THCistoxictodogs—anddogshavebeenpoisonedbyexposuretoedibles.Insomeofthesecases,therewere
additionaltoxicingredientsinvolved—suchaschocolate,raisins,orxylitol—thecombinationofwhichresultedinapoorer
outcome.CasesofTHCtoxicityhavebeenreportedbyboththeAmericanandCanadianVeterinaryMedicalAssociations
(personalcommunications),aswellastotheAnimalPoisonControlCenteroftheAmericanSocietyforthePreventionof
CrueltytoAnimals(MeansandWismer,2018).
ThisriseisattributedbothtotheincreasedlegalizationofmarijuanabutalsotostrongerTHCconcentrations.As
manufacturersmovedfromcannabisproductiontoproducingsensamilla(unpollinatedfloweringfemaletopsofthecannabis
plant),THCconcentrationsinatypicalsamplehaverisenfrom1.5%inthe1960sto24%by2014(BrutlagandHommerding,
2018).CatsdonotappeartobeassusceptibletoTHCoverdoses—infactanearlystudyshowedTHCwasanappropriate
treatmentforepilepsyincats(Wadeetal.,1973).
Typicalsignsofadogwithcannabistoxicosisareadepressedanduncoordinateddog“seemingdrunk,”andoftendribbling
urine(MeansandWismer,2018).Alimitednumberofdeathshavealsobeenreportedduetocannabistoxicityandassociated
complications,suchaschokingonvomit(BrutlagandHommerding,2018).Soitisvitalweencourageclientstoavoidgiving
THC-ladenproductstodogs.It’salsogoodpracticetomentionthatclientsshouldpracticesafestorageoftheircannabisto
protecttheirpetsandavoidexposingtheirpetstosmoke.
Despitethistoxicity,clinicalapplicationsforTHCindogswilllikelybeinvestigatedinthefuture.AttheNorthAmerican
VeterinaryCommunity’sVeterinaryMedicalExpoin2018,veterinarianDr.RobertSilverhighlightedinhispresentationthat
dogsmightbeabletohabituatetoTHCwithadosethatittitrated(builtup)overtime.However,itisnotyetclearhowtodo
thissafely.AsDr.SilverworksforRxVitaminsinBoulder,Colorado,itispossiblethisissomethinghisfirmmaybe
investigating.InthesameaddressheencouragedtheexplorationofTHC-containingproductsforcancertreatment(Silver,
2018).Thereare,however,somecannabis-basedproductsthatarelesstoxictodogs—thereareaplethoraofNorthAmerican
manufacturersmakingproductsfromhempthataremarketedasbeingTHC-free.Theyonlycontaincannabidiol.THCand
cannabidiolarethetwomostabundantcannaboids(activeingredientsthataffectthebrain)incannabis.
CBDforalladog’sills
Cannabisthathasextremelylowlevels(lessthan0.3%bydryweight)ofTHCisclassifiedashemp.Atthispointitappearsthat
themostcommonproductsonthemarketfordogsarehemp-derivedcannabidiol(CBD)oilsandchews.You’llseethe
contradiction,Ihope:Claimsthathemp-basedproductsare“THC-free”areprimarilyfalse,asmosthempproductsdocontain
someresidualTHCat—hopefully—non-toxiclevels.
Unfortunately,thereisnoresearchonthelong-termeffectsofusingCBDoilscontainingsmallamountsofTHCindogs.
Regulationsarestillbeingdevelopedorarejustbeingrolledout,andinmostcasestheregulatorscan’tkeepupwiththewide
varietyofproductshittingtheshelvesinmostpetorhumanhealth-foodstores.
InCanada,hemp-basedproductsfordogsarelegalandareapprovedforsaleundertheVeterinaryHealthProductsAct
IndustrialHempRegulations.Theseproductsmustcontainlessthan10ppmTHCandhaveaVHPnotificationnumberonthe
label(CollegeofVeterinariansofOntario,2019).Oilsderivedfrommarijuana—nothemp—shouldnotbeusedwithdogsas
theyareillegalintheU.S.andCanada,andgenerallycontainhigherlevelsofTHC.
AcrossNorthAmerica,governmentshavenoapproveddrugsthatarelegallylicensedtoactuallytreathealthconditionsin
animals—andthisincludesCBDoil(AmericanandCanadianVeterinaryMedicalAssociations,2018).So,toclarify,youcan
useCBDoilsforadogwithmildnon-clinicalanxiety,buttherearenolegalandsafecannabis-containingdrugstotreatserious
generalizedanxietydisordersasdiagnosedbyveterinarians.
Normally,inhumanandveterinarymedicine,claimsaboutdrugsandhealthproductscuringcancerorotherdiseasesmustbe
backedupbysolidresearchandarepolicedstrictly.Regulationsforproductsfordogsaresomewhatlesswell-policedwhenit
comestosupplementsandhealth-maintainingproducts.
ThemostimportantthingtoknowisthatthereiscurrentlynoscientificevidencetosupportclaimsthatCBDoilscaneffectively
treatseparationanxiety,noisephobias,cancer,ordermatitisindogs,noraretheyshowntobegood“vitamins”tobeuseddaily
byourpets.Unfortunately,alloftheseareclaimsbeingmadedailybymanufacturersandindustry-sponsoredassociations!
Withoutstudies,foreveryanecdoteaboutapetthatdoeswellonCBDoil,itispossibletofindastoryofanownerwhostopped
usingitbecause“nothingchanged”.AndtherearestoriesaplentyintheworldofCBDoilmarketing.Igenerallyprefernotto
basemyrecommendationstoclientsonsuchflimsyevidence.
Therearetworecentexceptionscurrentlytothelackofevidence.Thatdoesnotmean,however,thatthereshouldbeagreen
light“goahead”forustoinformourclientstouseCBDoiltotreattheseconditions.
Gambleetal.(2018)andMcGrathetal.(2019)reportedusingCBDsuccessfullytoreducepainandepilepticepisodesinsmall
samplesofdogs.However,bothstudiesalsoreporteddisturbingchangesinakeyliverfunctionenzyme(whichindicatesliver
diseaseanddysfunction).McGrathalsoreportedtherewasnodifferencefromplaceboresultsintheirstudy.So,basically,CBD
mighthaveauseincontrollingpainandepilepsy,butmorestudyisneededtomakesureitcanbeusedsafely.
Inadditiontotheconcernsaboutliverfunction,inthecaseofdogscurrentlyonmedicationmetabolizedbytheliver,CBD
metabolisiscouldpotentiallyreducetheeffectivenessoftheexistingmedicationandincreaseliverdamagerisk(Greband
Puschner,2018).WeknowthatCBDcanalsoacttosuppresstheimmunesystem(ibid).
AlsoconcerningarerecentreportsoflabanalysesintheU.S.indicatingthataportionofproductscurrentlyavailableonthe
marketarelabeledinaccuratelywithrespecttoboththeidentityandamountofactiveingredientfoundwithintheproduct.The
U.S.FoodandDrugAdministrationisregularlysendingwarningletterstomanufacturersaboutthis.Productsmarketedasnot
havingTHCarealsobeingfoundincorrectlylabeled.Thiscouldleadtoaccidentalpoisoningsinpets.
Finally,IhaveheardveterinariansandtrainersalikesuggestthatrecommendingCDBmayencourageownerstotrytouse
cheaperandmoredangerousversionscontainingTHC,by“smokingup”theirdogs,usinglessexpensivehome-grownedibles
andmakingtheirownnon-hemp-basedCBDs.Thisdoesmakesensewhenyouconsiderthefairlyhighcostofmanyofthese
newproducts.
Consultingroomconcerns
Alloftheseconcernsdon’tmeanthatthenextdogownerintoyourconsultingroomwon’talreadybegivingtheirdogCBDoils
orrelatedproducts—oratleastconsideringit.
Asaresultoftheincreaseinsalesoftheseproducts,Inowalwaysaskspecificallyinmyintakeswhetheraclientisusing
cannabis-basedproductswiththeirdogs.Exposuretocannabis,synthetics,andCBDoilhasbeenshowntocauseincreasesin
agitationandirritableaggression(BrutlagandHommerdang,2018),andIwanttobeasawareaspossibleofallofthefactors
thatmightinfluencethedoginfrontofme.
Useoftheseproductscanalsoreducetheeffectivenessoftrainingattimes.DogtrainerswithclientsusingCBDoilshave
reportedthatdogshaveshowndrymouthanddrowsiness,bothofwhichareknownCBDsideeffectsthatcaninterferewith
trainingandbehaviormodificationwork(MeansandWismer,2018).
AsIalwaysstartmybehaviourworkbyrecommendingaveterinaryhealthcheck,Ialsohavetakentoencouragingmyclientsto
lettheirveterinariansknowiftheyareusingtheseproducts,tocheckwiththeveterinarianforpossibleinteractionsiftheirdog
isonothermedications,andtoaskforabloodtestnow(andperiodicallyinthefuture)toensurethedog’sliverfunctionis
stable.
AccordingtotheveterinariansIhavespokenwithabouttheseissues,clientswithdogswhopresentinconsultationsasbeing
excessivelysleepy,sensitivetolightorsound,withdilatedpupilsandlotsofsalivation,irritableaggression,oragitationshould
beaskedaboutpossibleexposuretoTHCinthelastfewdays.Ialwaysstartthisareaofquestioningbyasking“Isitpossible
thatyourdogmighthavegottenintoanymarijuanaproducts—maybeafriendleftsomelyingaround?”Thatgivestheclientan
opportunitytomentionapossibleexposurewithouthavingtofeelblamedforit.
AfteranyconcernsaboutTHC-toxosisaredealtwith,IamoccasionallyaskedbyclientswhetheraCBDproductmighthelptheir
dog.Basedonalloftheconcernsnotedabove,Idon’tmakeanyblanketpositiverecommendations.Idon’thandoutflyers,and
Idon’tcommentonanyparticularproductsinmylocalmarket.
Aveterinaryregulatoralsorecentlyremindedmethatproductrecommendationsalwayscanleadtosomeliabilityfor
veterinariansandbehaviorexperts.Inherexample,adoctorwhorecommendedagoodstiffdrinkofalcoholforsocialanxietyis
notresponsibleforthesafetyorsaleofalcohol,buttheycanbeliableifthepatientbecameanalcoholicordevelopedcirrhosis
oftheliver.IexpectthesameholdstrueifbehaviorconsultantsrecommendCBDoilsforanxietyandthedogdevelopsliver
disease.Thatalonegivesmeabitofpause.
Insteadofsaying“goforit,”whatIdoissuggesttoclientsthattherearealreadyreasonablygood,effectiveandwell-regulated
productsformedicalissuessuchaspaincontrol,anxiety,andnoisephobiasthatcanbeprescribedbyaveterinarian.Isuggest
thatiftheirdogisshowingsignificantsymptomsofadisorder,veterinarymedicationsmightbeabetterchoicerightnow,
particularlyuntiltheCBDoilmarketstabilizesinthenextfewyearsandthesignificantissuesaroundCBDoilsareresolved.I
tellthemmypositionmaywellchangeinthenextfewyearsasthesciencecatchesuptotherealityofwhatourclientstrywith
theirdogs.
IsuggestthatifclientsdowanttogoaheadandtryCBDoil,theyreadovertheversionofthisarticleIuseasaclienthandout.I
alsosuggesttheydotheirownresearchontheproducttheyarethinkingofbuying,andcheckifthecompanyiswillingto
providesomeinformationontheproductanditsingredientsonabatch-by-batchbasis.ItellthemwillwouldtoavoidCBDin
tincturesthathaveanalcoholbase(asalcoholisalsonotgreatfordogs).Afterallthat,Itellthemthatthedecisionistotallyup
tothemandthatIwillworkwiththemeitherway.
Thismaybealittleoverthetop,butIfindclientsrightnowarebeingbombardedbywell-meaningfellowpetownersandin-
storemarketingmaterial.Socialpressuretohavetriedtheseproductsisnotinsignificant.Mostclientsseemrelievedtogeta
broaderperspectiveandtobeawareoftheotherissuesinvolved.Isuspecttheir“ifitsoundstoogoodtobetrueitprobablyis”
radarhasbeensubconsciouslyalertingthemthattheremightbeaproblemwiththeglowingclaimstheyarehearing.
Sometimestheclientfeelscomfortableenoughatthatpointtosharethattheyhavebeengivingtheirdogsomeoftheirown
CBDproducts.Whethertheclientindicatesaninterestornot,ourdialoguehasplacedmebesidethem,asacaringpartner
workingontheirbehalfwhotheycantrusttoprovidethoughtfulandwell-curatedadvice.Ihavefoundmyclientrelationships
becomestrongerafterthesediscussions.
Finally,IalwaysaskclientswhohavedecidedtouseCBDproductstoavoidusingthemforatleast24hoursbeforecomingto
classordoingbehaviormodificationwork.AndImakesuretohavewateravailablefordogsintheconsultroomjustincase.
References
AmericanVeterinaryMedicalAssociation,(2019).Cannabisuseandpets[WWWDocument].URL(accessed7.3.19).
Brutlag,A.,Hommerding,H.,(2018).ToxicologyofMarijuana,SyntheticCannabinoids,andCannabidiolinDogsandCats.
VeterinaryClinicsofNorthAmericaSmallAnimalPractice48,pp.1087–1102.
CanadianVeterinaryMedicalAssociation,n.d.VeterinariansCaution:MedicalCannabisExposureinPets.Accessed7.4.19.
Cannabisoilresearch.com,n.d.InformativeWebsites—CannabisOilResearch.Accessed7.3.19.
CollegeofVeterinariansofOntario,n.d.CannabisandCBDOilforAnimals.Accessed7.3.19.
FoodandDrugAdministration,n.d.WarningLettersandTestResultsforCannabidiol-RelatedProducts|FDA.Accessed7.3.19.
Gamble,L.-J.,et.al(2018).Pharmacokinetics,Safety,andClinicalEfficacyofCannabidiolTreatmentinOsteoarthriticDogs.
FrontiersinVeterinaryScience5:165.
Greb,A.,Puschner,B.,(2018).Cannabinoidtreatsasadjunctivetherapyforpets:gapsinourknowledge.Toxicology
Communications2,pp.10–14.
Kogan,L.R.,et.al(2016).Consumers’perceptionsofhempproductsforanimals.JournaloftheAmericanHolisticVeterinary
MedicalAssociation42,pp.40–48.
LaVito,A.,(2019).PetsarehotnewcustomerforCBDmarketasownersuseitforanxiety.CNBC.com.Accessed7.3.19.
McGrath,S.,et.al(2019).Randomizedblindedcontrolledclinicaltrialtoassesstheeffectoforalcannabidioladministrationin
additiontoconventionalantiepileptictreatmentonseizurefrequencyindogswithintractableidiopathicepilepsy.Journalofthe
AmericanVeterinaryMedicalAssociation254,pp.1301-1308.
Means,C.,Wismer,T.,(2018).AnOverviewofTrendsinAnimalPoisoningCasesintheUnitedStates:2011to2017.Veterinary
ClinicsofNorthAmericaSmallAnimalPractice48,pp.899–907.
Meola,S.D.,et.al(2012).Evaluationoftrendsinmarijuanatoxicosisindogslivinginastatewithlegalizedmedicalmarijuana:
125dogs(2005-2010).JournalofVeterinaryEmergencyandCriticalCare22,pp.690–696.
Silver,R.J.(2018)Theanti-neoplasticactivityofcannabissatival.:explainedandcase-illustratedandCannabissatival.Asan
emergingveterinarytherapyforcancer,pain,appetite,neurodegenerativeconditionsandbehavior.ProceedingsofVMX2018,
SmallAnimal/AlternativeMedical.pp.44–50.
WadaJ.A.,SatoM.,andCorcoran,M.E.(1973).AntiepilepticpropertiesofD9-tetrahydrocannabinol.ExperimentalNeurology
39,pp.157–65.
HelenPrinoldownsDogFriendshipinOntario,Canada,wheresheprovidespuppysocializationclasses,helpsraisegreatfamily
pets,andsupportsclientsastheybuilddogsportskills.Shehasabehaviourconsultingpractice,istheweeklyvolunteer
behaviouristatherlocalanimalshelter,andhasalsorunthepuppytrainingprogramforaservicedogcharity.Sheholdsa
master’sdegreeinanimalbehaviourandwelfare,hasaCPDT-KAcertification,andisCertifiedDogBehaviorConsultant
throughIAABC.Currently,sheispresidentoftheCanadianAssociationofProfessionalPetDogTrainers.Helenhastwodogs–
aLyme-diseasedshelterrescueAmericanEskimoandanundersocializedYorkiePoorescuedaftertwoyearslivingindoorsin
justoneroom.Fromtimetotimesheremindsherselfthatdespitethehighcostsofworkingwithdogs,theyarestillcheaper
andmoreportablethanthehorsesthatshetrainedformanyyears.
ApublicationoftheInternationalAssociationofAnimalBehaviorConsultants,https://iaabc.org
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine basic oral pharmacokinetics, and assess safety and analgesic efficacy of a cannabidiol (CBD) based oil in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: Single-dose pharmacokinetics was performed using two different doses of CBD enriched (2 and 8 mg/kg) oil. Thereafter, a randomized placebo-controlled, veterinarian, and owner blinded, cross-over study was conducted. Dogs received each of two treatments: CBD oil (2 mg/kg) or placebo oil every 12 h. Each treatment lasted for 4 weeks with a 2-week washout period. Baseline veterinary assessment and owner questionnaires were completed before initiating each treatment and at weeks 2 and 4. Hematology, serum chemistry and physical examinations were performed at each visit. A mixed model analysis, analyzing the change from enrollment baseline for all other time points was utilized for all variables of interest, with a p ≤ 0.05 defined as significant. Results: Pharmacokinetics revealed an elimination half-life of 4.2 h at both doses and no observable side effects. Clinically, canine brief pain inventory and Hudson activity scores showed a significant decrease in pain and increase in activity (p < 0.01) with CBD oil. Veterinary assessment showed decreased pain during CBD treatment (p < 0.02). No side effects were reported by owners, however, serum chemistry showed an increase in alkaline phosphatase during CBD treatment (p < 0.01). Clinical significance: This pharmacokinetic and clinical study suggests that 2 mg/kg of CBD twice daily can help increase comfort and activity in dogs with OA.
Article
Full-text available
Cannabidiol (CBD)-infused pet treats are becoming a huge market for pet owners as they turn to this supplement for a non-traditional therapeutic option. However, CBD's short-term or long-term effects on companion animals remain largely unknown. We conducted a targeted literature search about the mechanism, efficacy, and safety of these treats in order to highlight the gaps in knowledge of CBD products. This communication elucidates some of the common misperceptions regarding CBD pet treats, and proposes suggestions for further research based on the status of knowledge in this field. With the emergence of these treats and identified gaps in knowledge, the veterinary research community needs to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters for short- and long-term duration and conduct rigorous clinical trials to assess CBD's and other cannabinoids' impact on various diseases.
Article
Objective: To assess the effect of oral cannabidiol (CBD) administration in addition to conventional antiepileptic treatment on seizure frequency in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. Design: Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial. Animals: 26 client-owned dogs with intractable idiopathic epilepsy. Procedures: Dogs were randomly assigned to a CBD (n = 12) or placebo (14) group. The CBD group received CBD-infused oil (2.5 mg/kg [1.1 mg/lb], PO) twice daily for 12 weeks in addition to existing antiepileptic treatments, and the placebo group received noninfused oil under the same conditions. Seizure activity, adverse effects, and plasma CBD concentrations were compared between groups. Results: 2 dogs in the CBD group developed ataxia and were withdrawn from the study. After other exclusions, 9 dogs in the CBD group and 7 in the placebo group were included in the analysis. Dogs in the CBD group had a significant (median change, 33%) reduction in seizure frequency, compared with the placebo group. However, the proportion of dogs considered responders to treatment (≥ 50% decrease in seizure activity) was similar between groups. Plasma CBD concentrations were correlated with reduction in seizure frequency. Dogs in the CBD group had a significant increase in serum alkaline phosphatase activity. No adverse behavioral effects were reported by owners. Conclusions and clinical relevance: Although a significant reduction in seizure frequency was achieved for dogs in the CBD group, the proportion of responders was similar between groups. Given the correlation between plasma CBD concentration and seizure frequency, additional research is warranted to determine whether a higher dosage of CBD would be effective in reducing seizure activity by ≥ 50%.
Article
Pet exposure to marijuana-containing products—both recreational and medicinal—along with exposure to extracts such as cannabidiol is increasing in conjunction with greater accessibility. Cannabis products are even sold for use in pets. In addition, exposure to illegal synthetic cannabinoids remains concerning. Veterinarians need to be able to recognize associated clinical signs and understand when cases have the potential for severity. This article provides a brief history of cannabis along with a review of the endocannabinoid system, common cannabis products, expected clinical signs, and medical treatment approaches associated with cannabis exposure in pets.
Article
Each year the Animal Poison Control Center of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals receives thousands of reports of suspected animal poisonings. By using an electronic medical record database maintained by the Animal Poison Control Center, data on current trends in animal poisoning cases are mined and analyzed This article explores recent trends in veterinary toxicology including the types of animals and breeds that are most commonly exposed to different toxicants, seasonal and geographic distribution of poisoning incidents, the therapies that are most commonly administered, and trends in agents that are most frequently involved in poisonings.
Article
To report a correlation between the increased number of medical marijuana licenses and marijuana toxicosis in dogs in a state with legalized marijuana for medical use. Retrospective case series from January 1, 2005 to October 1, 2010. Private specialty referral hospital and a university teaching hospital. A total of 125 client-owned dogs presenting for known or suspected marijuana toxicosis with or without a urine drug screening test (UDST). None. During the study period, 125 dogs were evaluated including 76 dogs with known marijuana exposure or a positive UDST (group 1), 6 dogs with known marijuana ingestion and a negative UDST (group 2), and 43 dogs with known marijuana ingestion that were not tested (group 3). The incidence of marijuana toxicosis presenting to both hospitals increased 4-fold, while the number of people registered for medical marijuana in the state increased 146-fold in the last 5 years. A significant positive correlation was detected between the increase in known/suspected marijuana toxicosis in dogs (groups 1–3) and the increased number of medical marijuana licenses (correlation R coefficient = 0.959, P = 0.002). Two dogs that ingested butter made with medical grade marijuana in baked products died. A significant correlation was found between the number of medical marijuana licenses and marijuana toxicosis cases seen in 2 veterinary hospitals in Colorado. Ingestion of baked goods made with medical grade tetrahydrocannabinol butter resulted in 2 deaths. UDST may be unreliable for the detection of marijuana toxicosis in dogs.
Article
Available evidence in the literature suggests that various cannabinoid drugs possess some antiepileptic properties in terms of amelioration of clinical (behavioral) seizures. For instance, a dimethylheptylpyran derivative of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has reduced the incidence of electroconvulsive shock induced seizure activity in rats; the same THC derivative was shown to have therapeutic value in several institutionalized epileptic children. Similary, seizures induced in mice both by electroconvulsive shock and by auditory stimulation have been reduced or blocked by administration of Δ 9-THC, the presumed major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis. The present study was initiated to systematically examine the effects of cannabis on both the behavioral and electrographic manifestations of natural and induced epileptic activity in several species. The authors summerize initial observations on epileptic activity in freely moving rats and cats induced by repetitive electrical stimulation of limbic, hypothalamic, and thalamic structures. A clearcut antagonism of either or both the clinical and the electrographic seizures was demonstrated in both species following administration of Δ 9-THC (0.25 to 5.0 mg/kg); the vehicle alone had no effect.
Consumers' perceptions of hemp products for animals
  • L R Kogan
Kogan, L.R., et. al (2016). Consumers' perceptions of hemp products for animals. Journal of the American Holistic Veterinary Medical Association 42, pp.40-48.
Pets are hot new customer for CBD market as owners use it for anxiety
  • A Lavito
LaVito, A., (2019). Pets are hot new customer for CBD market as owners use it for anxiety. CNBC.com. Accessed 7.3.19.
The anti-neoplastic activity of cannabis sativa l.: explained and case-illustrated and Cannabis sativa l. As an emerging veterinary therapy for cancer, pain, appetite, neurodegenerative conditions and behavior
  • R J Silver
Silver, R. J. (2018) The anti-neoplastic activity of cannabis sativa l.: explained and case-illustrated and Cannabis sativa l. As an emerging veterinary therapy for cancer, pain, appetite, neurodegenerative conditions and behavior. Proceedings of VMX 2018, Small Animal /Alternative Medical. pp. 44 -50.