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Data-Driven Lexical Normalization for Medical Social Media

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In the medical domain, user-generated social media text is increasingly used as a valuablecomplementary knowledge source to scientific medical literature. The extraction of this knowledge iscomplicated by colloquial language use and misspellings. However, lexical normalization of suchdata has not been addressed effectively. This paper presents a data-driven lexical normalizationpipeline with a novel spelling correction module for medical social media. Our method significantlyoutperforms state-of-the-art spelling correction methods and can detect mistakes with an F1 of 0.63despite extreme imbalance in the data. We also present the first corpus for spelling mistake detectionand correction in a medical patient forum.
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Multimodal Technologies
and Interaction
Article
Data-Driven Lexical Normalization for Medical Social
Media
Anne Dirkson 1,* , Suzan Verberne 1, Abeed Sarker 2and Wessel Kraaij 1
1Leiden Institute for Advanced Computer Science, Leiden University, 2333 CA Leiden, The Netherlands
2Department of Biomedical Informatics, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
*Correspondence: a.r.dirkson@liacs.leidenuniv.nl
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in Social Media Mining for Health Applications
workshop (SMM4H), ACL 2019.
Received: 30 June 2019; Accepted: 13 August 2019; Published: 20 August 2019


Abstract:
In the medical domain, user-generated social media text is increasingly used as a valuable
complementary knowledge source to scientific medical literature. The extraction of this knowledge is
complicated by colloquial language use and misspellings. However, lexical normalization of such
data has not been addressed effectively. This paper presents a data-driven lexical normalization
pipeline with a novel spelling correction module for medical social media. Our method significantly
outperforms state-of-the-art spelling correction methods and can detect mistakes with an F
1
of 0.63
despite extreme imbalance in the data. We also present the first corpus for spelling mistake detection
and correction in a medical patient forum.
Keywords: spelling correction; social media; health; natural language processing; lexical normalization
1. Introduction
In recent years, user-generated data from social media that contains information about health,
such as patient forum posts or health-related tweets, has been used extensively for medical text mining
and information retrieval (IR) [
1
]. This user-generated data encapsulate a vast amount of knowledge,
which has been used for a range of health-related applications, such as the tracking of public health
trends [
2
] and the detection of adverse drug responses [
3
]. However, the extraction of this knowledge is
complicated by non-standard and colloquial language use, typographical errors, phonetic substitutions,
and misspellings [46]. This general noisiness of social media text is only aggravated by the complex
medical domain [1].
The noisiness of medical social media can be reduced through lexical normalization:
the transformation of non-standard text to a standardized vocabulary. Nonetheless, lexical
normalization for medical social media has not been explored thoroughly. Medical lexical
normalization methods (i.e., abbreviation expansion [
7
] and spelling correction [
8
,
9
]) have mostly been
developed for clinical records or notes. Although clinical records also contain many domain-specific
abbreviations and misspellings, their contents are typically focused solely on the medical domain.
In contrast, social media text typically covers a wider vocabulary including colloquial language
and layman’s terms for medical concepts [
1
,
10
]. For medical social media, some recent studies
have explored the related task of concept normalization (i.e., the mapping of tokens to standardized
concept IDs in an ontology) [
1
]. (For example, lexical normalization of “pounding hed” would output
“pounding head”, whereas concept normalization would aim to map it to the concept of Headache in a
medical ontology such as SNOMED CT. A major difference between lexical and concept normalization
is that the latter is constrained to terms of a pre-defined category (e.g., symptoms), whereas lexical
normalization is unconstrained and can include any term.) Community-driven research on the topic
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60; doi:10.3390/mti3030060 www.mdpi.com/journal/mti
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 2 of 27
has been boosted by the public release of relevant annotated datasets (CSIRO Adverse Drug Event
Corpus (Cadec) [
11
], Psychiatric Treatment Adverse Reactions data set (psyTAR) [
12
] and the shared
tasks of the Social Media Mining for Health Applications (SMM4H) workshop [
13
,
14
]). However, these
available annotated datasets for concept normalization do not annotate misspellings explicitly and are
thus not suitable for evaluating lexical normalization. In fact, as of yet, there are no publicly available
annotated datasets for lexical normalization in medical social media.
Currently, the most comprehensive benchmark for lexical normalization in general-domain social
media is the ACL W-NUT 2015 shared task (https://noisy-text.github.io/norm-shared-task.html) [
15
].
The current state-of-the-art system for this task is MoNoise [
16
]. However, this system is supervised
and uses a lookup list of all replacement pairs in the training data as one of its important features. The
training data from the task consist of 2950 tweets with a total of 3928 annotated non-standard words
[
15
]. As extensive training data are unavailable for medical social media, such supervised systems
cannot be employed in this domain. The best unsupervised system available is a modular pipeline with
a hybrid approach to spelling, developed by Sarker
[5]
. Their pipeline also includes a customizable
back-end module for domain-specific normalization. However, this back-end module relies on: (i) a
standard dictionary supplemented manually with domain-specific terms to detect mistakes; and (ii) a
language model of distributed word representations (word2vec) of generic Twitter data to correct these
mistakes (for more details, see Section 3.2.2). For domains that have many out-of-vocabulary (OOV)
terms compared to the available dictionaries and language models, such as medical social media, this
is problematic.
Manual creation of specialized dictionaries is an unfeasible alternative: medical social media
can be devoted to a wide range of different medical conditions and developing dictionaries for
each condition (including laymen terms) would be very labor-intensive. Additionally, there are many
different ways of expressing the same information and the language use in the forum evolves over time.
In this paper, we present an alternative: a corpus-driven spelling correction approach. Our method
is designed to be conservative and to focus on precision to mitigate one of the major challenges of
correcting errors in domain-specific data: the loss of information due to the erroneous correction of
already correct domain-specific terms. Although dictionary-based retrieval will capture all mistakes,
because any word that is not in the dictionary is considered a mistake, thereby attaining a high recall,
its precision will be low. This is a result of words that are correct but not present in the dictionary as
they will be erroneously marked as mistakes. Many domain-specific terms will fall in this category. In
contrast, data-driven methods can capture patterns to recognize these non-mistakes as correct words
and thereby improve precision, while recall could go down as these patterns might miss mistakes, for
example because they are common. A data-driven detection approach will thus be more precise than
dictionary-based retrieval.
In this paper, we address two research questions:
1.
To what extent can corpus-driven spelling correction reduce the out-of-vocabulary rate in medical
social media text?
2.
To what extent can corpus-driven spelling correction improve accuracy of health-related
classification tasks with social media text?
Our contributions are: (1) an unsupervised data-driven spelling correction method that works
well on specialized domains with many OOV terms without the need for a specialized dictionary (our
lexical normalization pipeline is available at: https://github.com/AnneDirkson/LexNorm); and (2)
the first corpus for evaluating mistake detection and correction in a medical patient forum (the corpus
is available at https://github.com/AnneDirkson/SpellingCorpus).
The rest of the paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we briefly review related work.
In Section 3, we discuss the datasets we employ (Section 3.1) followed by a detailed description of
our methodology (Section 3.2). In Section 4, we present our evaluation results, which are discussed
further in Section 5. Lastly, in Section 6, we conclude our paper with final insights and an outline of
future work.
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 3 of 27
2. Related Work
2.1. Challenges in Correcting Spelling Errors in Medical Social Media
A major challenge for correcting spelling errors in small and highly specialized domains is a
lack of domain-specific resources. This complicates the automatic creation of relevant dictionaries
and language models. Moreover, if the dictionaries or language models are not domain-specific
enough, there is a high probability that specialized terms will be incorrectly marked as mistakes.
Consequently, essential information may be lost as these terms are often key to knowledge extraction
tasks
(e.g., a drug
name) and to specialized classification tasks (e.g., whether the post contain a side
effect of “drug X”).
This challenge is further complicated by the dynamic nature of language on medical social media:
in both the medical domain and social media novel terms (e.g., a novel drug names) and neologisms
(e.g., group-specific slang) are constantly introduced. Unfortunately, professional clinical lexicons are
also unsuited for capturing the domain-specific terminology on forums, because laypersons and health
care professionals express health-related concepts differently [
17
]. Another complication is the frequent
misspellings of key medical terms, as medical terms are typically difficult to spell [
10
]. This results in
an abundance of common mistakes in key terms, and thus, a large amount of lost information if these
terms are not handled correctly.
2.2. Lexical Normalization of Social Media
The emergence of social networks and text messaging has redefined spelling correction to the
broader task of lexical normalization, which may also involve tasks such as abbreviation expansion [
15
].
In earlier research, text normalization for social media was mostly unsupervised or semi-supervised
(e.g., [
18
]) due to a lack of annotated data. These methods often pre-selected and ranked correction
candidates based on phonetic or lexical string similarity [
18
,
19
]. Han et al.
[19]
additionally used a
trigram language model trained a large Twitter corpus to improve correction. Although these methods
do not rely on training data to correct mistakes, they do rely on dictionaries to determine whether
a word needs to be corrected [
18
,
19
]. The opposite is true for modern supervised methods: they do
not rely on dictionaries but do rely on training data for both misspelling detection and correction.
For instance, the best performing method at the ACL W-NUT shared task of 2015 used canonical forms
in the training data to develop their own normalization dictionary [
20
]. Other competitive systems
were also supervised and often used deep learning to detect and correct mistakes [
21
,
22
] (for more
details on W-NUT systems, see Baldwin et al.
[15]
). More recent competitive results for this shared
task include MoNoise [
16
]. As mentioned, this system is also supervised and uses a lookup list of all
replacement pairs in the training data as an important feature in their spelling correction. Since such
specialized resources (appropriate dictionaries or training data) are not available for medical forum
data, a method that relies on neither is necessary. We address this gap in this paper.
Additionally, recent approaches (e.g., [
5
]) often make use of language models for spelling
correction. Language models, however, require a large corpus of comparable text from the same
genre and domain [
5
], which is a major obstacle for employing such an approach in niche domains.
Since forums are often highly specialized, the resources that could capture the same language use
are limited. Nevertheless, if comparable corpora are available, language models can contribute to
effectively reducing spelling errors in social media [
5
] due to their ability to capture the context of
words and to handle the dynamic nature of language.
Recent developments in the NLP field towards distributional language models based on byte-pair
(BPE) or character-level encoding instead of word-level encoding call into question the need for prior
spelling correction. In general, character-level models are more robust to noise than word-level models,
as they can exploit the remaining character structure regardless of errors. Niu et al.
[23]
recently
developed a character-level attentional network model for medical concept normalization in social
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 4 of 27
media which can alleviate the problem of out-of-vocabulary (OOV) terms by using a character-level
encoding. Their model is robust to misspellings resulting from double characters, swapping of letters,
adding hashtags and deletions.
However, firstly, the robustness to noise of character-based models appears to rely on whether they
have been trained on noisy data [
24
,
25
]. Otherwise, they are prone to breaking when presented with
synthetic or natural noise [
24
,
25
]. Thus, if sufficiently large amounts of data with similar types of noise
are available, character-based models may negate the need for spelling correction. However, in domains
lacking such resources, spelling correction in the pre-processing stage is still needed. Secondly,
character-based models have computational disadvantages: their computational complexity is higher
and it becomes harder to model long-range dependencies [
25
]. Alternatively, word embeddings
designed to be robust to noise [
26
] could be used. However, this method also requires sufficiently large
amounts of comparable noisy data. To provide an indication, Malykh et al.
[26]
used the Reuters CV-1
corpus consisting of 800,000 news stories ranging from a few hundred to several thousand words in
length [27] to generate their robust English word embeddings.
2.3. Lexical Normalization of Clinical Records
Similar to medical social media, clinical notes made by doctors are user-generated and noisy.
In fact, Ruch et al.
[28]
reported about one spelling error per five sentences. However, most
normalization research for clinical notes has focused on concept normalization instead of lexical
normalization [
1
]. A prominent shared task for concept normalization of clinical notes is Task 2 of the
CLEF e-Health workshop in 2014. Its aim was to expand abbreviations in clinical notes by mapping
them to the UMLS database [
7
]. The best system by Wu et al.
[29]
applied four different trained tagging
methods depending on the frequency and ambiguity of abbreviations. Unfortunately, the abbreviations
used by doctors are not the same as the ones used by patients, and thus these methods do not transfer.
To correct misspellings in clinical notes, Lai et al.
[8]
developed a spell checker based on the
noisy channel model by Shannon
[30]
. Noisy channel models interpret spelling errors as distortions
of a signal by noise. The most probable message can then be calculated from the source signal and
noise models. This is how spelling correction is modeled traditionally [
31
]. Although their correction
accuracy was high, their method relies on an extensive dictionary compiled from multiple sources to
detect mistakes. Similarly, the method by Patrick et al.
[9]
also uses a compiled dictionary for detecting
errors. For correction, Patrick et al.
[9]
used edit distance-based rules to generate suggestions which
were ranked using a trigram model. Fivez et al.
[32]
was the first to leverage contextual information to
correct errors in clinical records. They developed an unsupervised, context-sensitive method that used
word and character embeddings to correct spelling errors. Their approach outperformed the method
proposed by Lai et al.
[8]
for the benchmark MIMIC-III [
33
]. However, they did not perform any mistake
detection, as they simply tried to correct the annotated misspellings of MIMIC-III. In conclusion, the
methods developed for spelling correction in clinical records either only focus on correction or rely
solely on extensive, compiled dictionaries to find mistakes. Therefore, they are not applicable in
domains lacking such resources.
3. Materials and Methods
3.1. Data
3.1.1. Data Collection
For evaluating spelling correction methods, we used an international patient forum for patients
with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor (GIST). It is moderated by GIST Support International (GSI).
This dataset was donated to Dr. Verberne by GSI in 2015. We used a second cancer-related forum to
assess generalizability of our methods: a sub-reddit community on cancer, dating from 16 September
2009 until 02 July 2018. (http://www.reddit.com/r/cancer) It was scraped using the Pushshift Reddit
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 5 of 27
API (https://github.com/pushshift/api). The data were collected by looping over the timestamps in
the data. This second forum is roughly four times larger than the first in terms of the number of tokens
(see Table 1).
Table 1. Raw data without punctuation. IQR, Inter-quartile range.
GIST Forum Reddit Forum
# Tokens 1,255,741 4,520,074
# Posts 36,277 274,532
Median post length (IQR) 20 (35) 11 (18)
3.1.2. Data Annotation
Spelling mistakes were annotated for 1000 randomly selected posts from the GIST data. Each token
was classified as a mistake (1) or not (0) by the first author. For the first 500 posts, a second annotator
checked if any of the mistakes were false positives. In total, 99 of the 109 non-word spelling errors were
annotated for correction experiments. The remaining 10 errors were found later during error detection
experiments and were therefore only included in these experiments. The corrections for the 53 unique
mistakes present in the first 500 posts were annotated individually by two annotators, of which one
was a GIST patient and forum user. Annotators were provided with the complete post in order to
determine the correct word. The initial absolute agreement was 89.0%. If a consensus could not be
reached, a third assessor was used to resolve the matter. The remaining mistakes were annotated by
the first author. For the correction “reoccurrence”, the synonym “recurrence” was also considered
correct. As far as we are aware, no other spelling error corpora for this domain are publicly available.
To tune the similarity threshold for the optimal detection of spelling mistakes, we used 60% of the
annotated data as a development set. The split was done per post and stratified on whether a post
contained mistakes or not. Since the data are extremely unbalanced, we balanced the training data to
some extent by combining the mistakes with a ten-fold of random correct words with the same word
length distribution (see Table 2). These words were not allowed to be numbers, punctuation or proper
nouns, because these are ignored by our error detection process. The development set was split in a
stratified manner into 10 folds for cross-validation.
Table 2.
Annotated data for spelling detection experiments. * excluding punctuation, numbers and
proper nouns.
Mistakes (%) Total Word Count *
Training set 57 (9.1%) 627
Test set 45 (0.42%) 10,760
3.1.3. Corpus for Calculating Weighted Edit Matrix
Since by default all edits are weighted equally when calculating Levenshtein distance, we needed
to compute a weighted edit matrix in order to assign lower costs and thereby higher probabilities to
edits that occur more frequently in the real world. We based our weighted edit matrix on a corpus of
frequencies for 1-edit spelling errors compiled by Peter Norvig (http://norvig.com/ngrams/count_
1edit.txt). This corpus is compiled from four sources: (1) a list of misspellings made by Wikipedia
editors; (2) the Birkbeck spelling corpus; (3) the Holbrook corpus; and (4) the Aspell error corpus.
3.1.4. Specialized Vocabulary for OOV Estimation in Cancer Forums
To be able to calculate the number of out-of-vocabulary terms in two cancer forums, a specialized
vocabulary was created by merging the standard English lexicon CELEX [
34
] (73,452 tokens), the
NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms [
35
] (6038 tokens), the generic and commercial drug names from
the RxNorm [
36
] (3837 tokens), the ADR lexicon used by Nikfarjam et al.
[37]
(30,846 tokens) and
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 6 of 27
our in-house domain-specific abbreviation expansions (DSAE) (42 tokens) (see Section 3.2.1 for more
detail). As many terms overlapped with those in CELEX, the total vocabulary consisted of 118,052
tokens (62.2% CELEX, 5.1% NCI, 26.1% ADR, 6.5% RxNorm and <0.01% DSAE).
3.2. Methods
3.2.1. Preprocessing
URLs and email addresses were replaced by the strings -URL- and -EMAIL- using regular
expressions. Furthermore, text was lower-cased and tokenized using NLTK. The first modules of
the normalization pipeline of Sarker
[5]
were employed: converting British to American English
and normalizing generic abbreviations (see Figure 1). Some forum-specific additions were made:
Gleevec (British variant: Glivec) was included in the British–American spelling conversion, one generic
abbreviation expansion that clashed with a domain-specific one was substituted (i.e., “temp” defined
as temperature instead of temporary), and two problematic medical terms were removed from the slang
dictionary (i.e., “ill” corrected to “i’ll” and “chronic” corrected to “marijuana”).
Moreover, the abbreviations dictionary by Sarker
[5]
was lower-cased. As apostrophes in
contractions are frequently omitted in social media posts (e.g., “im” instead of “i’m”), we expanded
contractions to their full form (e.g., “i am”). Firstly, contractions with apostrophes were expanded and
subsequently those without apostrophes were expanded only if they were not real words according
to the CELEX dictionary. Lastly, domain-specific abbreviations were expanded with a lexicon of
domain-specific abbreviations expansions (DSAE). The abbreviations were manually extracted from
500 randomly selected posts of the GIST forum data. This resulted in 47 unique abbreviations.
Two annotators, of which one was a domain expert, individually determined the correct expansion
term for each abbreviation, with an absolute agreement of 85.4%. Hereafter, they agreed on the correct
form together (This abbreviations lexicon is shared at https://github.com/AnneDirkson/LexNorm).
Lower-cased
raw text
Tokenization
Abbreviation
expansion
English
normalization
Spelling
correction
Preprocessed
text
Generic Domain-specific
Abbreviation
Expansion & Slang
Normalization
Input Output
Modules
Contraction
Expansion
Figure 1. Sequential processing pipeline.
3.2.2. Spelling Correction
Baseline Methods
We used the method by Sarker
[5]
as a baseline for spelling correction. Their method combines
normalized absolute Levenshtein distance with Metaphone phonetic similarity and language model
similarity. For the latter, distributed word representations (skip-gram word2vec) of three large Twitter
datasets were used. In this paper, we used the largest available version of the DIEGO LAB Drug
Chatter Corpus (around 1 billion tweets) [
38
], as it was the only health-related corpus of the three.
We also used a purely data-driven spelling correction method for comparison: Text-Induced Spelling
Correction (TISC) developed by Reynaert
[39]
. It compares the anagrams of a token to those in a
large corpus of text to correct mistakes. These two methods were compared with simple absolute
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 7 of 27
and relative Levenshtein distance and weighted versions of both. To evaluate the spelling correction
methods, the accuracy (i.e., the percentage of correct corrections) was used. The weights of the edits for
weighted Levenshtein distance were computed using the log of the frequencies of the Norvig corpus.
We used the log to ensure that a 10
×
more frequent error does not become 10
×
as cheap, as this would
make infrequent errors too improbable. To make the weights inversely proportional to the frequencies
and scale the weights between 0 and 1 with lower weights signifying lower costs for an edit, the
following transformation of the log frequencies was used: Weight Edit Distance = 1
1+log(f requency).
Correction Candidates
Spelling correction methods were first compared using the terms from a specialized vocabulary
for cancer forums (see Section 3.1) as correction candidates. This enabled us to evaluate the methods
independently of the vocabulary present in the data. Hereafter, we assessed the impact of using
correction candidates from the data itself instead, since our aim was to develop a method that is
independent of manually compiled lexicons. Numbers, proper nouns and punctuation were ignored
as possible correction candidates.
We inspected whether restricting the pool of eligible correction candidates based on their corpus
frequency relative to that of the token aids correction. We used relative corpus frequency thresholds
ranging from at least 0 times (no restriction) to 10 times more frequent than the token. The underlying
idea was that the correct word would be used more often than the incorrect word and by restricting the
candidates we prevented implausible but similar words from hindering correction. This, for instance,
prevents mistakes from being corrected by other similar and roughly equally frequent mistakes.
A relative, instead of absolute, threshold that depends on the frequency of the mistake enabled us to
also correct mistakes even if they occur more commonly (e.g., misspellings of a complex medication
name). Candidates were considered in order of frequency. Of the candidates with the highest similarity
score, the first was selected.
We tried two different approaches to further improve correction by altering the pool of correction
candidates. Firstly, we tested whether prior lemmatization of the spelling errors with or without
prior lemmatization of the correction candidates could improve spelling correction. Secondly,
we investigated the effect on correction if we were to impose an additional syntactic restriction
on the correction candidates, namely only allowing those with the same Part-of-Speech tag at least
once in the data or the same surrounding POS tags to the left and right (i.e., the POS context) at
least once in the data. McNemar tests were used to test whether the predictions of various correction
methods are significantly different. In all follow-up experiments, correction candidates were derived
from the respective dataset and constrained by the optimal relative corpus frequency threshold.
Improving the Baseline Method
For the best baseline method with data-driven candidates, we explored whether context could
aid the correction further using: (1) language models of the forum itself; or (2) publicly available
distributed and sequential language models of health-related social media data. This last category
includes the distributed word2vec (dim= 400) and sequential trigram language models developed by
Sarker and Gonzalez [38]
and the distributed word2vec (dim = 200) HealthVec model developed by
Miftahutdinov et al. [40].
The models by Sarker and Gonzalez
[38]
are based on around 1 billion Twitter
posts derived from user timelines where at least 1 medication is mentioned. A smaller version of this
language model is used in the current state-of-the-art normalization pipeline for general social media [
5
]
(language models can be obtained from: https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/dwr4xn8kcv/3). The
HealthVec model is based on the Health Dataset consisting of around 2.5 million user comments from
six web resources: WebMD, Askapatient, patient.info, Dailystrength, drugs.com and product reviews
from the Amazon Dataset (available at: http://jmcauley.ucsd.edu/data/amazon). Besides employing
these language models, we explored whether adding double Metaphone phonetic similarity [
41
]
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 8 of 27
improves correction. Phonetic similarity is a measure for how phonetically similar an error is to the
potential correction candidate.
The best baseline method was combined with these measures (i.e., the similarity from a language
model or phonetic similarity) in a weighted manner with weights ranging from 0 to 1 with steps of
0.1. The inverse weight was assigned to the baseline similarity measure. For all language models,
if the word was not in the vocabulary, then the model similarity was set to 0, essentially rendering
the language model irrelevant in these cases. To investigate the impact of adding these contextual
measures, Pearson’s r was used to calculate the correlation between the correction accuracy and the
assigned weight.
3.2.3. Correcting Concatenation Errors
If a word is not in the Aspell dictionary (available at: http://Aspell.net/), but is also not a spelling
mistake, our method checks if it needs to be split into two words. It is split only if it can be split
into two words of at least 3 letters which both occur more in the corpus more frequently than the
relative corpus frequency boundary. For each possible split, the frequency of the least frequent word is
considered. The most plausible split is the one for which this lower frequency is highest (i.e., the least
frequent word occurs the most). Words containing numbers (e.g., “3 months”) are the exception: they
are split so that the number forms a separate word.
3.2.4. Spelling Mistake Detection
We manually constructed a decision process, inspired by the work by Beeksma et al.
[42]
,
for detecting spelling mistakes. The optimal relative corpus frequency threshold determined for
spelling correction in our earlier experiments is adopted. On top of this threshold, the decision process
uses the similarity of the best candidate to the token to identify mistakes. If there is no similar enough
correction candidate available, then the word is more likely to be a unique domain-specific term we do
not wish to correct than a mistake. The minimum similarity threshold is optimized with a 10-fold cross
validation grid search from 0.40 to 0.80 (steps of 0.02). The loss function used to tune the parameters
was the F
0.5
score, which places more weight on precision than the F
1
score. We believe it is more
important to not alter correct terms than to retrieve incorrect ones. Candidates are considered in
order of frequency. Of the candidates with the highest similarity score, the first is selected. The error
detection automatically labels numbers, punctuation, proper nouns and words present in the Aspell
dictionary as correct. We used the word list 60 version of the Aspell dictionary, as is recommended for
spelling correction. To verify that medication names were not being classified as proper nouns and
thereby excluded from spelling correction, we checked the part-of-speech tags of the most common
medication for GIST patients (gleevec) and two of its common misspellings (gleevic and gleevac).
For gleevec, 81.4% of the mentions were classified as nouns (NN). The next two largest categories were
adjectives (JJ) (7.2%), plural nouns (NNS) (4.7%) and verbs (VB) (3.9%). The remaining 2.8% were
divided over 10 POS-tags (ranging from 0.6% to 0.0005%). Most importantly, none were classified as
proper nouns (NNP or NNPS). Similarly, gleevic and gleevac were labeled as nouns (NN) 78.1% and
83.9% of the time and neither was ever labeled as a proper noun. For gleevic, the remaining cases were
divided amongst plural nouns (11.4%), adjectives (8.3%) and verbs (2.2%). For gleevac, the remainder
was divided between verbs (11.9%) and adjectives (4.2%).
We compared our optimized decision process with and without concatenation error detection
(see Section 3.2.3) with error detection using two commonly used dictionaries, CELEX [
34
] and Aspell,
with Microsoft Word and with TISC, another data-driven detection method [
39
]. Significance was
calculated with McNemar tests. Any mistakes overlapping between the training and test set were not
included in the evaluation.
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 9 of 27
3.2.5. Impact of the Corpus Size on Detection
To measure the influence of the size of the corpus on spelling mistake detection, we varied the
size of the corpus from which correction candidates are derived. The token frequencies of errors and
candidates were both calculated using this corpus. Therefore, the frequencies of mistakes and potential
corrections would vary and we could estimate for each corpus size how much the error detection
in 1000 posts would change. We used Jaccard similarity to measure the overlap between the error
predictions of each possible combination of two different corpus sizes.
As our relative corpus frequency threshold is a minimal threshold, bigger corpora and thus larger
differences between the token frequency of the error and that of the correct variant would not pose a
problem. Consequently, we randomly selected posts to artificially downsize our two cancer forums
exponentially. We used sizes ranging from 1000 posts to all forum posts. The 1000 posts for which
errors were detected were always included in the corpus. For the GIST forum, we used the 1000
annotated posts.
3.2.6. Impact of the Degree of Noisiness of the Data
To investigate the impact of the level of noise in the data on spelling correction and detection,
we simulated datasets with varying proportions of misspellings. As our method was designed on
data with few errors (<1% in our sample), this helped us to understand to what extent our method can
generalize to more noisy user-generated data. We generated artificial data by altering the amount of
misspellings in two cancer-related fora.
In line with the work by Niu et al.
[23]
, we generated artificial noise typical of social media text by:
(i) deleting a single letter; (ii) doubling a letter; and (iii) swapping two adjacent letters.
Niu et al. [23]
also added hashtags to words, but as this is only relevant for Twitter we omitted this transformation.
Words are randomly selected based on a pre-determined probability of occurrence (1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, 8%
and 16%). Which letter is removed or swapped in the word is dependent on the normalized likelihood
of a deletion or swap occurring in real-word data. We use the normalized log frequencies of the
Norvig corpus [43]
(additionally normalized to sum to 1 for all possibilities per word). Which letter
is doubled is randomly selected, as frequencies for such operations are not available. We evaluated
the spelling correction and detection for each forum with the average of three runs of 1000 randomly
selected posts with 3 different seeds.
3.2.7. Effect on OOV Rate
The percentage of out-of-vocabulary (OOV) terms is used as an estimation of the quality of the
data: less OOV-terms and thus more in-vocabulary (IV) terms is a proxy for cleaner data. As the
correction candidates are derived from the data itself, one must note that words that are not part of
Aspell may also be transformed from IV to OOV. OOV analysis was done manually.
3.2.8. External Validation
To evaluate the impact of lexical normalization as a preprocessing step on the performance of
separate downstream tasks, we performed extrinsic evaluation of our pipeline by running six text
classification experiments. We obtained six publicly available health-related Twitter datasets ranging
in size from 588 to 16,141 posts (see Table 3). As can be seen in Table 3, the datasets also have varying
degrees of imbalance. It is not uncommon for social media datasets to be highly imbalanced and
thus we investigated whether the impact of spelling correction is influenced by imbalance. The
datasets were retrieved from the data repository of Dredze (http://www.cs.jhu.edu/~mdredze/data/)
and the shared tasks of Social Media Mining for Health Applications workshop (SMM4H) 2019
(https://healthlanguageprocessing.org/smm4h/challenge/).
Text classification was performed before and after normalization using default sklearn classifiers:
Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Multinomial Naive Bayes (MNB) and Linear Support Vector
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 10 of 27
Machines (SVC). Unigrams were used as features. A 10-fold cross-validation was used to determine
the quality of the classifiers and a paired t-test was applied to determine significance of the absolute
difference. Only the best performing classifier is reported per dataset. For the shared tasks of the
SMM4H workshop, only the training data were used.
Table 3.
Six classification datasets of health-related Twitter data. * SMM4H, Social Media Mining for
Health Applications workshop.
Dataset Task Size Positive Class
Task 1 SMM4H 2019 * Presence adverse drug reaction 16,141 8.7%
Task 4 SMM4H 2019 * Flu vaccine Personal health mention of flu vaccination 6738 28.3%
Flu Vaccination Tweets [44] Relevance to topic flu vaccination 3798 26.4%
Twitter Health [45] Relevance to health 2598 40.1%
Task4 SMM4H 2019 * Flu infection Personal health mention of having flu 1034 54.4%
Zika Conspiracy Tweets [46] Contains pseudo-scientific information 588 25.9%
To evaluate our method on generic social media text, we used the test set of the ACL W-NUT
2015 task [
15
]. The test set consists of 1967 tweets with 2024 one-to-one, 704 one-to-many, and 10
many-to-one mappings. We did not need to use the training data, as our method is unsupervised.
We omitted the expansion of contractions from our normalization pipeline for the W-NUT task,
because expanding contractions was not part of the goals of the task. Error analysis was done manually
on the 100 most frequent errors.
4. Results
In this section, we report the distribution of spelling errors in our corpus (Section 4.1),
the evaluation of spelling correction (Section 4.2) and detection methods (Section 4.3) on our spelling
corpus, the impact of corpus size (Section 4.4) and the level of noise in the corpus (Section 4.5) on the
efficacy of our method. We assessed the impact of our method on the OOV rate in two cancer-related
fora (Section 4.6) and on classification accuracy of six health-related Twitter benchmarks (Section 4.7).
We also evaluated the performance of our method on the W-NUT shared task for generic social media
normalization (Section 4.7).
4.1. Error Distribution
Spelling errors can be divided into non-word errors (i.e., errors that are not valid words) and
real-word errors (i.e., errors that result in another valid word) [
47
]. Incorrect concatenations and splits
can be either. For example, “scan” to “scant” is a real word error whereas “side effects” to “sideeffects”
is a non-word error. We focus on correcting non-word errors, as we are not interesting in correcting
syntactic or semantic errors [47].
Nonetheless, we investigated the prevalence of these error types in the data to gain insight into
which types of errors are made in medical social media text. As can be seen in Table 4, our corpus of
1000 medical posts from the GIST forum mainly contains non-word errors. Moreover, non-word errors
contain the highest percentage of medical misspellings (47.7%). Comparatively, only 20% of real word
errors are medical terms. Most posts do not contain any errors (see Figure 2), but, for those that do,
there was in most cases only one error per post.
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 11 of 27
Table 4. Error distribution in 1000 GIST posts.
Error Type Non-Word Incorrect Splits Incorrect Concatenations Real Word
Amount 109 17 24 30
Non-Medical/Medical 57/52 25/5 14/3 18/6
Percentage of tokens 0.32% 0.05% 0.07% 0.09%
Example mistake gleevac gall bladder sideeffects scant
Example correction gleevec gallbladder side effects scan
Figure 2. Distribution of non-word and real word errors across posts in the GIST forum.
4.2. Spelling Correction
The normalization step prior to spelling correction (see Figure 1) corrected 12 of the 99 spelling
errors, such as “feelin” to “feeling”. These errors are all on the fuzzy boundary between spelling errors
and slang. Thus, spelling correction experiments were performed with the remaining annotated 87
spelling errors.
The state-of-the-art method for generic social media by Sarker
[5]
performed poorly for medical
social media: it corrected only 19.3% of the mistakes (see Table 5). In fact, it performed significantly
worse (
p<
0.0001) than all edit distance based methods. Computationally, it was also much slower
(see Table 6). A second established data-driven approach, TISC [
39
], performed even more poorly
(14.8%). This was also significantly worse than all edit-based methods (
p<
0.0001). Relative weighted
edit distance performed the best with an accuracy of 68.2%. The theoretical upper bound for accuracy
was 92.0%, because not all corrections occur in the specialized dictionary. Examples of corrections can
be seen in Table 7.
Table 5.
Correction accuracy using a specialized vocabulary. AE, absolute edit distance; RE, relative
edit distance; WAE, weighted absolute edit distance; WRE, weighted relative edit distance. * Only the
best corpus frequency threshold is reported.
Source of Correction Candidates Ceiling AE RE WAE WRE Sarker TISC
Specialized vocabulary 92.0% 58.0% 64.7% 63.3% 68.2% 19.3% 14.8%
GIST forum text * 97.6% 73.9% 73.9% 70.4% 72.7% 44.3% -
Table 6. Mean computation time over 5 runs.
AE RE WAE WRE Sarker
13.36 ms 14.04 ms 29.45 ms 32.00 ms 904.33 ms
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 12 of 27
Table 7.
Corrections by different methods with candidates from a specialized vocabulary. * Gleevec
and Sutent are important medications for GIST patients.
Mistake Correction AE RE WAE WRE Sarker TISC
gleevac gleevec * gleevec gleevec gleevec gleevec colonic gleevac
stomack stomach stomach stomach smack stomach smack smack
ovari ovary ovary ovary ovary ovary ova atari
sutant sutent * mutant mutant sutent sutent mutant dunant
mestastis metastasis miscasts metastasis metastasis metastasis miscasts mestastis
However, when using candidates derived from the data themselves, unweighted absolute and
relative edit distance performed the best. Relative edit distance accurately corrected 73.9% of all
mistakes at a relative corpus frequency threshold (
θ
) of 9, while absolute edit distance did so at a
θ
of
2–5 (see Table 5and Figure 3). A
θ
of 9 means that candidates are only considered plausible if they occur
nine times more frequently than the spelling error. We elected to use relative edit distance, because
it is more fine-grained than absolute edit distance, especially for short words. Using data-driven
candidates increased the theoretical upper bound from 90.2% to 97.6%. This showcases the limitations
of using, even domain-specific, dictionaries for correction.
Nonetheless, simply using all words from the data as possible candidates (i.e., a corpus frequency
threshold of 0) for every spelling error resulted in a very low correction accuracy (see Figure 3).
However, imposing the restriction that the corpus frequency of a viable correction candidate must
be at least double (2
×
) that of the mistake significantly improved correction (
p<
0.0001) for all
correction methods. In that case, for a mistake occurring 10 times, only words occurring at least 20
times were considered. Thus, the assumption that corrections are more common than mistakes appears
to hold true. However, at any threshold, all edit distance based methods still significantly (
p<
0.001)
outperformed the state-of-the-art method [
5
], in line with previous results (Table 5). Examples of
corrections with data-driven candidates are given in Table 8.
Figure 3.
Correction accuracy of unique mistakes using correction candidates from the data at various
minimum relative corpus frequency thresholds. Dotted line indicates the best correction accuracy using
dictionary-derived candidates.
Table 8.
Corrections by different methods with data-driven candidates. AE, absolute edit distance; RE,
relative edit distance; WAE, weighted absolute edit distance; WRE, weighted relative edit distance.
Mistake Correction AE RE WAE WRE Sarker
gleevac gleevec gleevec gleevec gleevec gleevec gleevec
stomack stomach stomach stomach stomach stomach stuck
ovari ovary ovary ovary ovary ovary ovarian
sutant sutent sutent sutent sutent sutent mutant
mestastis metastasis metastis metastis metastis metastis metastis
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 13 of 27
The accuracy of the best baseline method, namely relative edit distance with a
θ
of 9, was
unaffected by prior lemmatization of the spelling errors (see Table 9). It thus appears that, if prior
lemmatization can correct the error, our method automatically does so. In contrast, additional
lemmatization of their corrections and of the correction candidates significantly reduced accuracy
(
p=
0.021 and
p=
0.011) compared to omitting prior lemmatization. Thus, lemmatization of the data
or candidates prior to spelling correction is not recommended.
Table 9.
Effect of lemmatization of the errors (LemmatizedInput), their corrections (LemmatizedOutput)
and correction candidates (LemmatizedCandidates) on spelling correction accuracy using RE (θ= 9).
NoLemmatization LemmatizedInput + LemmatizedOutput + LemmatizedCandidates
73.6% 73.6% 64.7% 67.0%
4.2.1. Adding Weighted Phonetic Similarity
Previous research has shown that, when users are faced with the task of writing an unfamiliar,
complex word such as a drug name, they tend to revert to phonetic spelling [
48
]. Therefore, we
investigated whether adding a weighted phonetic component may improve correction. This is not
the case: The weight assigned to phonetic similarity had a strong negative correlation (
0.92) with
the correction accuracy (p< 0.0001) (see Figure 4). This suggests that such phonetic errors are already
captured by our frequency-based method.
Figure 4.
Correction accuracy with additional weighted double Metaphone phonetic similarity.
Dotted line indicates the best accuracy with relative edit distance alone.
4.2.2. Adding Weighted Contextual Similarity
Previous work has indicated that the context of the spelling mistakes might be helpful to improve
spelling correction [
32
]. Since domain-specific resources are scarce, one potential approach is to use
the contextual information present in the corpus itself. Based on work by Beeksma et al.
[42]
, we tried
to use the Part-of-Speech (POS) tags of the error or the POS tags of its neighbors to constrain correction
candidates. However, as can be seen in Figure 5, adding these constraints reduced correction accuracy,
although not significantly. Aside from some additional errors, using POS context as a constraint
resulted in identical errors as enforcing a similar POS tag for potential correction candidates, regardless
of whether NLTK or Spacy was used.
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 14 of 27
(a) NLTK POS tags (b) Spacy POS tags
Figure 5.
Correction accuracy of spelling mistakes with additional POS tag filters using NLTK (
a
) or
Spacy (b). Dotted lines indicate the best accuracy with relative edit distance alone.
As many modern methods use language models to aid spelling correction [
5
], we also examined
whether we can leverage contextual information by using language models of the corpus itself to
improve correction accuracy. For both Word2vec and FastText distributed models of the data, we found
that the higher is the weight assigned to the language model similarity, the more the accuracy drops.
This inverse correlation is significant and almost equal to
1 for all dimensionalities (
p<
0.000001)
(see Figure 6a,b). Our data are possibly too sparse for either contextual constraints on the correction
candidates or employing language model similarity in this manner. They are also too small for building
a sequential trigram model [49].
Alternatively, we could employ more generic language models based on medical social media,
but not specific to a particular disease domain. We found that a distributed language model based on
a collection of health-related tweets, the DIEGO Drug chatter corpus [
38
], does not manage to improve
correction accuracy (see Figure 6c). Nevertheless, a sequential trigram model based on this same
Twitter corpus did improve correction accuracy by 2.2–76.1% at a weight of 0.6 (see Figure 6c). The
weight assigned to the probability of a trigram with the correction in place of the error was positively
correlated (
r=
0.58) with the correction accuracy. However, the HealthVec distributed language model
could improve the correction accuracy up to 79.5% at a weight of 0.6 (see Figure 6d). Overall, its
assigned weight was also positively correlated (
r=
0.63) with the correction accuracy. Table 10 shows
that adding the HealthVec model mostly improved accuracy for non-medical errors (e.g., “explane”)
and for medical errors for which it is difficult to determine whether they should be singular or plural
(e.g., “ovarie” and “surgerys”). One medical term (i.e., “surgerys”) was no longer corrected accurately.
We opted to employ this weighted method due to its higher overall accuracy, but one could opt to not
include the HealthVec model for their corpus depending on the importance of non-medical terms for
the downstream task.
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 15 of 27
(a)Word2Vec distributed language model
trained on the GIST forum data (b)Fasttext language model
trained on the GIST forum data
(c)Language models trained on
the DIEGO Drug chatter corpus (d)Distributed Word2vec (dim= 200) model
(HealthVec) trained on Health Dataset
Figure 6.
Correction accuracy of spelling mistakes with additional weighted language model (LM)
similarity using language models of the data itself (
a–b
) or trained on external datasets: the DIEGO
Drug Chatter corpus (
c
) and the Health Dataset (
d
) . Weight of the LM similarity is the inverse of the
weight of the relative edit distance. Dotted line indicates the best accuracy with relative edit distance
alone.
Table 10.
Changes in corrections when HealthVec was added (weight = 0.6) to the relative edit distance
(weight = 0.4) with θ= 9. LM = language model.
Error Correct Word Correction
Without LM With LM
Improved
alse else false else
lm im am im
esle else resolve else
explane explain explained explain
ovarie ovary ovary ovaries
surgerys surgeries surgeries surgery
Missed surgerys surgery surgery surgury
4.3. Spelling Mistake Detection
A grid search resulted in an optimal similarity score threshold of 0.76. As higher similarity scores
indicate tokens are more dissimilar, this means that, if the best correction candidate has a higher
similarity score than this threshold, the token is not corrected (see Figure 7). This combination attained
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 16 of 27
the maximum F
0.5
score for 8 of 10 folds. For the other two folds, 0.74 was optimal. See Figure 7
for the tuned decision process. On the test set, our method attained a significantly higher precision
(
p<
0.0001) and F
0.5
score (
p<
0.0001) than all other detection methods (see Table 11). Our method
attained a slightly lower recall than dictionary-based methods, although its recall was very high at
0.91. Adding concatenation correction to our method improved both recall and precision by 0.05 and
0.01, respectively. See Table 12 for some examples of errors made by our decision process and the
corrections our method would output.
Although the recall of generic dictionaries was maximal at 1.0, their precision was low (0.11 and
0.26). Both were logical: The high recall was a result of dictionary-based methods classifying all terms
not included in the dictionary as mistakes, which would include all non-word errors, whereas the low
precision was a result of the misclassification of correct domain-specific terms that are not included
in the dictionary. Aspell outperformed CELEX due to its higher coverage of relevant words such as
“oncologist”, “metastases” and “facebook”. Microsoft Word and TISC performed the worst overall:
their precision was low but they also had a lower recall than both dictionary-based methods and our
method.
TOKEN
Is the token part of
ASPELL?
Do not correct
no
yes Is there a candidate with:
9x corpus frequency
of the token
0.76 SimilarityScore*
Correct
yes
no
Figure 7. Decision process. * SimilarityScore = 0.6 ×model similarity + 0.4 ×RE.
Table 11. Results for mistake detection methods on the test set.
Method Mistakes Found Recall Precision F0.5 F1
CELEX 395 1.0 0.11 0.13 0.20
Aspell dictionary 163 1.0 0.26 0.31 0.42
TISC 270 0.74 0.12 0.14 0.21
Microsoft word 395 0.88 0.10 0.12 0.18
Our method (RE = 0.76) 90 0.91 0.46 0.51 0.61
Our method (RE = 0.76) + ConcatCorrection 92 0.96 0.47 0.52 0.63
Table 12. Examples of false positives and negatives of our error detection method.
Mistakes (their Corrections with our Method)
False positives intolerances (intolerant) resected (removed) reflux (really) condroma (syndrome)
False negatives istological (histological) vechile (vehicle)
4.4. Impact of Corpus Size
Even though a relative corpus frequency threshold is more robust to different corpus sizes than
an absolute one, it is likely that the ratio between tokens and their corrections would vary if the corpus
size becomes smaller. Thus, we investigated to what extent the multiplication factor of nine would be
robust to such ratio changes.
Figure 8shows that our threshold was highly robust to corpus size with maximal Jaccard similarity
(1.0) for all comparisons. Figure 9demonstrates this with an example of one common (“gleevac”)
and one uncommon misspelling (“gllevec”) for the medication Gleevec. Each of them has, given its
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 17 of 27
relative corpus frequency, a respective minimum corpus frequency for each corpus size (indicated
by the dotted lines with the same color. Irrespective of the corpus size, the correct variant “gleevec”
(the purple line) remains above the minimum corpus frequency (i.e., the dotted lines), for the complete
range of corpus sizes.
(a) GIST forum of 36,277 posts. (b) Reddit forum of 274,532 posts
Figure 8.
Stability of error detection in 1000 posts with varying corpus size for the GIST forum (
a
) and
the Reddit forum on cancer (b).
Figure 9.
Corpus frequency of one uncommon and one common misspelling of the medication Gleevec
in the GIST forum with increasing corpus size. The dotted line indicates the corpus frequency threshold
for correction candidates for each misspelling.
4.5. Impact of the Degree of Noisiness of the Data
As our method was designed on data with few errors (<1% in our sample), we investigated to
what extent our method can generalize to more noisy user-generated data using simulated datasets
with varying proportions of misspellings. As can be seen in Figure 10a,b, correction accuracy was
either stable or increased when the level of noise increased from 1% to 8%, whereas it appeared to
diminish at a noise level of 16%. As relative Levenshtein distance does not depend on the noise in
the corpus, this possibly indicates that at 16% noise the corpus was affected to the degree that the
frequency of correct counterparts of errors often drops below the
θ
of nine times the frequency of the
error. This is not surprising: due to the equal probability that each word has of being transformed into
a mistake, increasingly more words necessary for correction were transformed into errors. However,
no conclusions can be drawn about the exact turning point, as we did not measure the impact of noise
levels between 8% and 16%. If necessary, re-tuning of the threshold on a more noisy corpus may
resolve this issue.
With the exception of errors due to doubling of letters, the absolute correction accuracy was far
lower than on our real-world dataset (79.5%). We believe there may be two reasons for this: firstly,
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 18 of 27
in reality, users are more likely to misspell medical terms than other words [
10
] and thus this random
distribution is unrealistic. Such medical terms are likely to be longer than the average word in social
media text. Indeed, we found that in our real-world sample of 1000 posts from the GIST forum the
109 non-word errors are significantly longer (
p<
1
22
) according to a Mann–Whitney U test than the
average word: The errors have a mean character length of 6.8 compared to an overall average of 4.2
characters. Since deletions or swaps in shorter words lead to more ambiguous words (e.g., “the” to
“te”) or even other real words (e.g., “the” to “he”), this would lower the overall correction accuracy of
methods designed to correct non-word medical errors. The second reasons ties into this: these artificial
datasets do not allow for differentiation between real word and non-word errors and thus are not
suited to evaluating absolute non-word error correction. Nonetheless, although absolute accuracy on
synthetic data may thus not be reliable indicator, the relative accuracy at different noise levels does
provide a good indication for the impact of the level of noise in the data on the efficacy of our method.
Regarding the detection of errors, recall appeared to drop as the level of noise increased for swaps
and deletions and remained roughly constant for errors due to doubling of characters (i.e., doubles)
(see Figure 10c,d). In contrast, precision increased with increasing noise for swaps and doubles and
remained mostly stable for deletions (see Figure 10e,f). These results may indicate that the relative
frequency ratios of false positives to their predicted corrections are more frequently close to the
detection threshold (
θ
) of nine than those of true positives. As an artificial increase in noise by a
certain percentage (e.g., 4%) would cause the frequency of correct words to drop by approximately
that percentage due to random chance selection of words to transform into errors, increasing noise
would lead to a slight drop in the ratio between a token and its predicted correction. If the ratio were
far larger than nine, it would not alter the outcome. However, if the ratio were only slightly above
nine, then it might drop below the detection threshold when the noise was increased. In that case,
the token would no longer be marked as an error. Thus, if false positives more frequently have ratios
slightly above nine than true positives do, this could explain the increase in precision.
To investigate this idea, we considered swaps in the GIST forum at different levels of noise.
It appeared that indeed false positives had a higher percent of ratios between 9 and 10 than true
mistakes at lower noise levels (2%, 4% and 8%) across all random seeds. This flips for 16%: false
positives now had a lower percentage of ratios liable to drop below the
θ
of nine than true positives.
Thus, possibly, the false positives that were “at risk” for dropping below the required
θ
had done so.
This increased precision did come at a cost: some errors also had ratios close to nine, leading to a drop
in recall with increasing noise levels.
Due to the presence of common errors, the impact of noise might be less pronounced for real data.
Although the artificial data do contain common errors (e.g., “wtih” (218×)), their frequency depends
on the frequency of the word of origin (e.g., “with” (9635
×
)) because each word has an equal, random
probability of being altered. Consequently, their ratio would be much higher and they would be easier
to detect than real common errors. Moreover, absolute precision and recall on synthetic data may not
be transferable. Overall relative trends, however, do provide a first indication for the generalizability
of our method to noisier datasets. Further experimentation with noisier, annotated real world data
will be necessary to assess the true effect of noise on our error detection.
For both error correction and detection, results are consistent across the two forums and variance
of the results is low except at tail end (16%). This can be explained by the random assignment of
transformations for each run: depending on which words are randomly transformed in a certain run,
the frequency of certain correct words may either fall below the θof 9 or not.
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 19 of 27
(a)GIST forum
Correction accuracy (b)Reddit forum
Correction accuracy
(c)GIST forum
Recall for error detection (d)Reddit forum
Recall for error detection
(e)GIST forum
Precision for error detection (f)Reddit forum
Precision for error detection
Figure 10.
Impact of degree of noisiness of the data (1%, 2%, 4%, 8% and 16% noise) on the detection
(
c
f
) and correction accuracy (
a
,
b
) of three types of spelling errors (deletions of a single letter, doubling
of a single letter and swaps of adjacent letters) in two cancer-related forums. The lines indicate the
mean result while the band indicates the variance in results over three runs.
4.6. Effect on OOV Rate
The reduction in out-of-vocabulary (OOV) terms was higher for the GIST (0.64%) than for the
Reddit forum (0.36%) (see Figure 11b). As expected, it appeared that in-vocabulary terms were
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 20 of 27
occasionally replaced with out-of-vocabulary terms, as the percentage of altered words was higher
than the reduction in OOV (0.72% vs. 0.64% for the GIST and 0.50% vs. 0.36% for the Reddit forum).
The vast majority of the posts do not contain any mistakes and, of the posts with mistakes, the majority
have only one (see Figure 11a). Thus, it appears that the spelling mistakes were not caused by a select
group of individuals who are poor at spelling, but by various forum users making the occasional
mistake.
Interestingly, the prior OOV count of the GIST forum is more than double that of the sub-reddit
on cancer. This could be explained by the more specific nature of the forum: it may contain more
words that are excluded from the dictionary, despite the fact that the dictionary is tailored to the cancer
domain. This again underscores the limitations of dictionary-based methods.
Many of the most frequent corrections made in the GIST forum are medical terms (e.g., gleevec,
oncologists, and tumors). Similarly, the most frequent mistakes found in this forum are common
misspellings of medical terms (e.g., gleevac and gleevic) (see Figure 12a). It appears that, for common
medical corrections, there are often various less commonly occurring misspellings per term since
their misspelt equivalents do not show up among the most common mistakes. We also found that
our method normalizes variants of medical terms to the more prevalent one (e.g., reoccurrence to
recurrence). Thus, although the overall reduction in OOV-terms may seem minor, our approach appears
to target medical concepts, which are highly relevant for knowledge extraction tasks. In addition,
our method incorrectly alters plural to singular variants (e.g., gists to gist), probably due to their higher
prevalence in the data. Additionally, due to the addition of the distributed language model, prevalent
terms can be replaced by their synonyms as “corrections” (e.g., resected to removed). Fortunately,
the resulting information loss would be minimal for medical downstream tasks.
In the sub-reddit on cancer, frequent corrections include medical terms (e.g., chemotherapy,
medication and hospital), normalization from plural to singular (e.g., “wifes” to “wife”) but also
both incorrect alterations of slang (e.g., “gon” to “got”) and of medical terms (e.g., immunotherapy)
(see Figure 12b). Additionally, the change from “didn” to “did” is problematic due to the loss of the
negation. Our method thus appears to work less well for more general fora.
Nonetheless, when we considered the 50 most frequent remaining OOV terms, only a small
proportion of them are in fact non-word spelling errors, although slang words could arguably also be
part of this category (see Table 13 for examples). A significant portion consists of real words not present
in the specialized dictionary. Importantly, also some drug names and medical slang (e.g., “scanxiety”
or “anxiety about being scanned”) are considered OOV. Since they can be essential for downstream
tasks, it is promising that they have not been altered by our method.
(a) Distribution of found mistakes across posts (b) Change in out-of-vocabulary terms
Figure 11.
The impact of spelling correction on the percentage of out-of-vocabulary terms in two cancer
forums (b) and the distribution of the spelling mistakes that were found (a).
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 21 of 27
(a) GIST forum (b) Reddit forum on cancer
Figure 12.
Most frequent mistakes and corrections on the GIST forum (
a
) and the Reddit forum on
cancer (b).
Table 13. Manual error analysis of 50 most frequent OOV terms after spelling detection.
GIST Example Reddit Example
Real word 33 unpredictable, internet 42 misdiagnosed, website
Spelling mistake 5 side-effects, wildtype, copay, listserve, listserve 2 side-effects, inpatient
Abbreviation 2 mos, wk 3 aka
Slang 6 scanxiety, gister 1 rad
Drug name 2 stivarga, mastinib 1 ativan
Not English 2 que, moi -
TOTAL 50 50
4.7. External Validation
As can been seen in Table 14, normalization led to a significant change in the F
1
score for two of
the six classification tasks (
p=
0.0096 and
p=
0.0044). For the Twitter Health corpus, this change is
mostly likely driven by a significant increase in recall (
p=
0.0040), whereas for the detection of flu
infection tweets (Task4 SMM4H2019) it is the precision that was increased significantly (
p=
0.0064).
In general, these changes are of the same order of magnitude as those made by the normalization
pipeline of Sarker
[5]
. Although the overall classification accuracy on Task 1 of the SMM4H workshop
was low, this is in line with the low F
1
score (0.522) of the best performing system on a comparable
task in 2018 [13].
Table 14.
Mean classification accuracy before and after normalization for six health-related classification
tasks. Only the results for the best performing classifier per dataset are reported.
∗∗
indicates p< 0.005;
indicates p< 0.01; † indicates absolute change.
F1 Recall Precision
Dataset Words Altered Pre Post Pre Post Pre Post
Task1 SMM4H 2019 1.53% 0.410 0.410 0.0007 0.373 0.387 +0.014 0.470 0.445 0.025
Task4 SMM4H 2019 Flu Vaccination 0.50% 0.780 0.787 +0.006 0.834 0.843 +0.008 0.733 0.738 +0.005
Flu Vaccination Tweets 0.50% 0.939 0.941 +0.002 0.935 0.939 +0.004 0.943 0.943 +0.0004
Twitter Health 0.71% 0.702 0.718 +0.016 * 0.657 0.685 +0.028 * 0.756 0.755 0.0009
Task4 SMM4H 2019 Flu Infection 0.57% 0.784 0.800 +0.012 ** 0.842 0.854 +0.013 0.735 0.754 +0.019**
Zika Conspiracy 0.36% 0.822 0.817 0.005 0.817 0.829 +0.012 0.835 0.814 0.021
Especially the expansion of contractions and the splitting of hash tags (e.g., “#flushot” to ’#flu
shot”) appeared to impact the classification outcome. In contrast, the goal of the task, the relative
amount of corrections and the initial result did not seem to correlate with the change in F
1
score. The
lack of a correlation between the amount of alterations and the change in F
1
score may be explained
by the weak reliance of classification tasks on individual terms. Unlike in [
5
], the improvements also
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 22 of 27
did not seem to increase with the size of the data. This is logical, as we did not rely on training data.
The imbalance of the data may be associated with the change in accuracy to some extent: the two most
balanced datasets showed the largest increase (see Table 3). Further experiments would be necessary
to elucidate if this is truly the case.
On generic social media text, our method performed only slightly worse than the state-of-the-art
methods (see Table 15). We did not need to use the training data, as our method is unsupervised.
For comparison, our method attained a F
1
of 0.726, a precision of 0.728 and a recall of 0.726 on the
W-NUT training data.
Error analysis revealed that 46 of the 100 most frequent remaining errors are words that should
not have been altered according to the W-NUT annotation (see Table 16). However, in fact, these words
are often slang that our method expanded correctly (e.g., info to information). It is thus debatable
whether these are errors. Of the remainder, 33 are either uncorrected abbreviations or slang terms.
This may partially be explained by the fact that the slang usage of medical forum users differs from the
general Twitter population. Lastly, 16 of these 100 can be considered non-word errors that were missed
by our method and another four are errors that were correctly detected but corrected inaccurately.
Table 15. Results for unconstrained systems of ACL W-NUT 2015.
F1Precision Recall
MoNoise [16]0.864 0.934 0.803
Sarker’s method [5] 0.836 0.880 0.796
IHS_RD [50] 0.827 0.847 0.808
USZEGED [51] 0.805 0.861 0.756
BEKLI [52] 0.757 0.774 0.742
LYSGROUP [53] 0.531 0.459 0.630
Our method 0.743 0.734 0.753
Table 16.
Manual analysis of 100 most frequent errors in W-NUT. * also considered non-word mistakes.
Type of Error Frequency Example Our Correction W-NUT Annotation
Should not have been altered 46 info, kinda information, kind of info, kinda
Abbreviation not or
incorrectly expanded 19 smh smh shaking my head
Uncorrected slang 14 esp esp especially
Missed concatenation error * 6 incase incase in case
Missed apostrophe * 5 youre youre you’re
Wrong correction 4 u your your
Missed split mistake * 3 i g g y i g g y iggy
Missed non-word spelling mistake 2 limites limites limits
American English 1 realise realize realise
TOTAL 100
5. Discussion
The state-of-the-art normalization method for generic social media [
5
] performed poorly for
medical social media with a spelling correction accuracy of only 19.3%. It was significantly
outperformed by all edit-based methods regardless of whether the correction candidates were derived
from a specialized vocabulary or the data themselves. The highest correction accuracy (73.9%) was
attained by unweighted relative edit distance combined with the constraint that correction candidates
need to be at least nine times more frequent than the error. This accuracy was further increased by
5.6–79.5% when it was combined with model similarity based on the HealthVec language model.
Our preceding decision process could identify mistakes for subsequent correction, with a F
0.5
of 0.52
and a significantly higher precision than all other methods while retaining a very high recall of 0.96.
Additionally, it was almost completely independent of the size of the corpus for two cancer-related
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 23 of 27
forums, which is promising for its usage in other even smaller, domain-specific datasets. Our method
could also function well for more noisy corpora up to a noise level of 8% (i.e., 1 error in every 12.5
words).
In the two cancer forums that we used for evaluation, the spelling correction reduced OOV-terms
by 0.64% and 0.36%. Although the reduction may seem minor, relevant medical terms appear to be
targeted and, additionally, many of the remaining OOV-terms are not spelling errors but rather real
words, slang, names, and abbreviations. Furthermore, our method was designed to be conservative
and to focus on precision to mitigate one of the major challenges of correcting errors in domain-specific
data: the loss of information due to the “correction” of correct domain-specific terms.
Our method also significantly improved classification accuracy on two tasks, although the
absolute change was marginal. On the one hand, this could be because classification tasks do not rely
strongly on individual terms. On the other hand, it may be explained by our use of only unigrams as
features. Feature extraction would likely also benefit from normalization and could possibly increase
performance differences. Further experimentation is required to further assess the full effect of lexical
normalization in downstream tasks.
As named entity recognition (NER) tasks rely more strongly on individual terms, we speculate that
our method will have a larger impact on such tasks. Unfortunately, NER benchmarks for health-related
social media are limited. We investigated three relevant NER tasks that were publicly available:
CADEC [
11
], ADRMiner [
37
], and the ADR extraction task of the SMM4H 2019. For all three tasks,
extracted concepts could be matched exactly to the forum posts, thus negating the potential benefit
of normalization. The exact matching can perhaps be explained by the fact that data collection and
extraction from noisy text sources such as social media typically rely on keyword-based searching [
54
].
Our study has a number of limitations. Firstly, the use of OOV-terms as a proxy for quality of the
data relies heavily on the vocabulary that is chosen and, moreover, does not allow for differentiation
between correct and incorrect substitutions. Secondly, our method is currently targeted specifically at
correcting non-word errors and is therefore unable to correct real word errors. Thirdly, the evaluation
dataset for developing our method is small: a larger evaluation dataset would allow for more rigorous
testing. Nonetheless, as far as we are aware, our corpora are the first for evaluating mistake detection
and correction in a medical patient forum. We welcome comparable datasets sourced from various
patient communities for further refinement and testing of our method.
6. Conclusions and Future Work
To what extent can corpus-driven spelling correction reduce the out-of-vocabulary rate in medical
social media text? Our corpus-driven spelling correction reduces the OOV rate by 0.64% and 0.36% in
the two cancer-related medical forums we used for evaluation. More importantly, relevant medical
terms appear to be targeted.
To what extent can corpus-driven spelling correction improve accuracy of health-related
classification tasks with social media text? Our corpus-driven method could significantly improve
classification accuracy on two of six tasks. This is driven by a significant increase in precision for one
and by a significant increase in recall for the second.
In conclusion, our data-driven, unsupervised spelling correction method can improve the quality
of text data from medical forum posts. We demonstrated the success of our method on data from two
cancer-related forums. The automatic spelling corrections significantly improve the F
1
score for two of
six external classification tasks that involve medical social media data. Our method can also be useful
for user-generated content in other highly specific and noisy domains, which contain many OOV terms
compared to available dictionaries. Future work will include extending the pipeline with modules
for named entity recognition, automated relation annotation and concept normalization. Another
possible avenue for future work could be to determine whether a word is or is not from the domain
at hand (the medical domain in our case) prior to normalization and apply different normalization
techniques in either case. Furthermore, despite a lack of domain-specific, noisy corpora for training
Multimodal Technol. Interact. 2018,3, 60 24 of 27
character-level language models, it would be interesting to investigate to what extent our spelling
correction can improve classification accuracy using character-level language models pre-trained on
other source domains.
Author Contributions:
Methodology, A.D., S.V. and W.K.; software, A.D.; validation, A.D.; investigation, A.D.;
data curation, A.D.; writing—original draft preparation, A.D.; writing—review and editing, S.V., A.S. and W.K.;
visualization, A.D.; supervision, S.V. and W.K.; and funding acquisition, W.K. and S.V.
Funding: This research was funded by the SIDN fonds (https://www.sidnfonds.nl/).
Acknowledgments:
We would like to thank Gerard van Oortmerssen for his help annotating the data. This
research project is part of the Leiden University Data Science Research Programme.
Conflicts of Interest:
The authors declare no conflict of interest. The funders had no role in the design of the
study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to
publish the results.
Abbreviations
The following abbreviations are used in this manuscript:
GIST Gastro-Intestinal Stromal Tumor
SMM4H Social Media Mining for Health Applications
UMLS Unified Medical Language System
MIMIC-III Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care-III
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2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access
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(CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
... is has aroused as a serious threat among nations [1]. Various privacy-preserving tools are adopted in the Internet arena to protect the data; however, most mechanisms are challenged by the process of traffic classification [3], which is a vital workhorse for network management, where it becomes a key factor in assigning the privacy level to classify malign and benign standpoints [4]. ...
... e deep neural network (DNN) is a multilayered MLP. More precisely using fewer neurons, additional layers and, therefore, connections enable the modelling of rare dependencies in the training data [4]. Nevertheless, the DNN learning process can result in overfitting and declining performance [5]. ...
... In this section, we present the details of the experiments using the collected datasets and the performance metrics. e study has selected 30,384 tweets collected from the twitter datasets [4]. e tweets contain both CB and non-CB tweets, where automated labelling or tagging is carried out using feature selection methods. ...
Article
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In the modern era, the cyberbullying (CB) is an intentional and aggressive action of an individual or a group against a victim via electronic media. The consequence of CB is increasing alarmingly, affecting the victim either physically or psychologically. This allows the use of automated detection tools, but research on such automated tools is limited due to poor datasets or elimination of wide features during the CB detection. In this paper, an integrated model is proposed that combines both the feature extraction engine and classification engine from the input raw text datasets from a social media engine. The feature extraction engine extracts the psychological features, user comments, and the context into consideration for CB detection. The classification engine using artificial neural network (ANN) classifies the results, and it is provided with an evaluation system that either rewards or penalizes the classified output. The evaluation is carried out using Deep Reinforcement Learning (DRL) that improves the performance of classification. The simulation is carried out to validate the efficacy of the ANN-DRL model against various metrics that include accuracy, precision, recall, and f-measure. The results of the simulation show that the ANN-DRL has higher classification results than conventional machine learning classifiers.
... 30 It is worth noting that while misspelled words can be readily corrected, the revision of slang terms and abbreviations remains a major challenge. 31 Data transformation refers to the conversion of extracted data into a suitable format for analysis. 28 An example is the use of rule-based algorithms to extract patient symptoms from posts and to store them in a structured format. ...
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... Self-reported data, especially on hard to measure factors such as fatigue and cognition is subjective, but generally reflects the normative value of the patient. The natural, non-clinical language used within unstructured text can contain valuable information that may remain unexplored in a clinical or research setting (117), but it can also contain many spelling or grammatical errors as well as slang terms or colloquialisms that are problematic even for NLP methods created for electronic health records (EHRs) (118). ...
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... Health care could also be increasingly affected by social media in the future. Social support and exchange among patients already plays a crucial role [89,90]. Twitter is used to prove general health advice and psychiatric consultation by health professionals, although privacy concerns exist [91]. ...
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... Health care could also be increasingly affected by social media in the future. Social support and exchange among patients already plays a crucial role [89,90]. Twitter is used to prove general health advice and psychiatric consultation by health professionals, although privacy concerns exist [91]. ...
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Over the past two decades, social media have become a crucial and omnipresent cultural and economic phenomenon, which has seen platforms come and go and advance technologically. In this study, we explore the further development of social media regarding interactive technologies, platform development, relationships to news media, the activities of institutional and organizational users, and effects of social media on the individual and the society over the next five to ten years by conducting an international, two-stage Delphi study. Our results show that enhanced interaction on platforms, including virtual and augmented reality, somatosensory sense, and touch- and movement-based navigation are expected. AIs will interact with other social media users. Inactive user profiles will outnumber active ones. Platform providers will diversify into the WWW, e-commerce, edu-tech, fintechs, the automobile industry, and HR. They will change to a freemium business model and put more effort into combating cybercrime. Social media will become the predominant news distributor, but fake news will still be problematic. Firms will spend greater amounts of their budgets on social media advertising, and schools, politicians, and the medical sector will increase their social media engagement. Social media use will increasingly lead to individuals’ psychic issues. Society will benefit from economic growth and new jobs, increased political interest, democratic progress, and education due to social media. However, censorship and the energy consumption of platform operators might rise.
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