Article

Safety solutions on mixed use urban arterial roads

Authors:
  • Corben Consulting
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Urban arterials and intersections account for a large proportion of high severity crashes in Australia and New Zealand, particularly involving vulnerable road users. Safety gains appear to be slower in these ‘mixed use’ environments than in other areas. Austroads commissioned research to help identify solutions that might be applied on mixed use arterial roads to improve safety through the provision of Safe System infrastructure. The project involved assessment of six case studies around Australia and New Zealand. Concept designs were developed for each of the routes based on analysis of safety issues and the likely safety benefits were assessed. This paper presents information on the safety solutions identified, as well as the broader issues that need to be considered when addressing safety on mixed use urban arterial roads.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Thesis
Road trauma is a major source of death and disability which can be addressed by improving the safety of roads. Despite higher crash rates on urban roads than rural roads, less is known about the characteristics of the built urban environment (the road, surrounding environment and road user activity) that influence crash risk. It is essential to identify risk factors for crashes and to understand the underlying mechanisms driving risk before effective countermeasures can be developed. The overall aim of this thesis was to develop and apply a multidisciplinary approach to identify and understand the aspects of the built urban environment that influence crash occurrence. Research Component 1 of this thesis sought to identify characteristics of the built environment that were associated with crashes on complex urban roads. Beyond the effect of traffic volume and intersections, there was a lack of strong evidence regarding the influence of the built urban environment on crash risk, in particular, the effect of the surrounding environment was largely neglected. A comprehensive list was developed of characteristics of the built urban environment that were potential risk factors for crash occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted using a novel phased modelling approach. It identified that, in addition to traffic exposure and road design, the roadside environment and facilities and amenities were associated with the frequency of multi-vehicle, single-vehicle and pedestrian-vehicle crashes on strip shopping centre road segments in metropolitan Melbourne. Risk factors differed by crash type. Research Component 2 of this thesis comprised a case study to demonstrate how behavioural research methods may be employed to investigate the behavioural mechanisms underlying crash risk. Driving simulation was used to investigate the effect of roadside parking (identified as a risk factor for multi-vehicle crashes in Component 1) and speed limit on driver behaviour. Drivers chose a lane position further away from the kerb and weaved less within their lane as the number of cars parked on the roadside increased. Perceived risk, discomfort, task difficulty and effort also increased. Increasing the speed limit of the road caused increases in perceived risk, discomfort, task difficulty, mental effort and physical effort. An increase in speed beyond that preferred in a given parking environment led to significant increases in the effort required to drive at that speed. No such threshold relationship with speed was discovered for ratings of risk, discomfort or task difficulty. As the number of parked cars varied, neither drivers’ change in behaviour nor their choice of preferred speed served to maintain a stable level of risk or workload. Recommendations for countermeasures to address crash risk on urban roads with roadside parking were made. This thesis demonstrates a rigorous scientific process for applying two complementary methodological approaches to identify risk factors for crashes and understand their mechanisms. The innovative contribution of this thesis was the synergistic combination of cross-sectional modelling and driving simulation to identify and further investigate risk factors for crashes. Implications for future road safety research and practice were discussed. http://arrow.monash.edu.au/vital/access/manager/Repository/monash:168211
Road fatalities and serious injuries in Australia and New Zealand
  • Austroads
Austroads (2015a), Road fatalities and serious injuries in Australia and New Zealand 2001-10, AP-R478-15, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Safe system assessment framework
  • Austroads
Austroads (2016a), Safe system assessment framework, AP-R509-16, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Achieving safe system speeds on urban arterial roads: compendium of good practice
  • Austroads
Austroads (2016b), Achieving safe system speeds on urban arterial roads: compendium of good practice, AP-R514-16, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Guide to road safety: part 8: treatment of crash locations, 2 nd edn
  • Austroads
Austroads (2015b), Guide to road safety: part 8: treatment of crash locations, 2 nd edn, AGRS08-15, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Mixed priority routes: results update and cost review, Department for Transport
  • G Gordon
Guide to traffic management: part 4: network management, 4 th edn
  • Austroads
Austroads (2016c), Guide to traffic management: part 4: network management, 4 th edn, AGTM04-16, Austroads, Sydney, NSW.
Linking mobility and safety - Building on the mixed use arterials project
  • B Turner
  • L Steinmetz
  • Han
  • I Espada