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Etruscan heritage, renowned among ancient Mediterranean cultures for its high level of development and originality, is praised, inter alia, for its contribution to antiquity and, especially, to Roman civilization. Roma Etrusca (“Etruscan Rome”) sheds light on this issue. Revealing the role of Etruscan heritage in Roman culture is important for studying formation of Roman civilization and it is even more compelling to research its impact on development of European culture via Roma. It is essential to identify what were the meanings of different elements in Etruscan realm and what value and meaning have they gained in other cultural environments and chronological periods. The information is compiled and analyzed based on sources from antiquity, as well archeological data and current studies. Due to multifaceted nature of the research problem, the paper relies on thematic principle, which implies compilation of materials around specific substance-based groups. Along with theoretical reflection each group is supplemented by linguistic material, more specifically, by analysis of terms, which either undoubtedly, or presumably are of Etruscan origin. The borrowed Etruscan elements served as determining and fundamental factors in formation of a range of institutions in Roman world. Hence, the Roman polity, religious cults, military system, language, culture, and everyday life have been influenced by Etruscan component, which, importantly enough, the Roman world adopted while forming its own conceptions. On this background it is valid to conclude that Etruscan element represents a substrate for Roman culture as distinct from, for instance, Greek culture, which can be viewed as adherent layer At the same time the Etruscan component, having constituted an integral part of Roman civilization, via Roma had an important influence on formation and development of European cultures.
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Unter den Religionen des Altertums ist die griechische Religion mit am lebendigsten bezeugt. In Verbindung mit großartiger Literatur und bildender Kunst hat sie auf die Entfaltung der abendländischen Kultur immer wieder Einfluss genommen. Das vorliegende Buch stellt griechische Religion im Zeitraum 800-300 v. Chr. dar, von Homer bis Aristoteles, in ihren historischen und sozialen Bezügen sowie auf dem Hintergrund der minoisch-mykenischen und der orientalischen Hochkulturen. Es gibt die primären Zeugnisse an die Hand und zeigt thematische Zusammenhänge auf. Dabei bleibt es auch für Laien lesbar. Die Neuauflage ist unter Einbezug der neueren Literatur durchgehend überarbeitet und aktualisiert.
Twentieth-century research demonstrated that Homer's Iliad and Odyssey began as part of an ancient Greek oral tradition, and were passed down by word of mouth through generations of oral poets before and for some time after the invention of the alphabet. As the twenty-first century dawns, the modern (re)discovery of these unwritten origins is exerting an enormous influence on how we understand and teach the poems, presenting new answers to the ages-old "Homeric Question"–Who was Homer?–and suggesting comparisons with living oral epic traditions on five continents. By paying attention to the trademark structures and idiomatic values of Homer's language, the bequest of oral tradition, we can "read" the poems more faithfully. The perspective from oral tradition solves such stubborn and longstanding challenges as the heavy repetition of phrases and scenes, as well as the non-chronological order and anti-climactic ending of the Odyssey. Oral tradition can also show how Penelope emerges as a full-fledged hero–in some ways even more central a figure than her husband Odysseus.
Publications Oboulo. com. Brumble, H. D. 2013. Classical myths and legends in the Middle Ages and Renaissance: a dictionary of allegorical meanings
  • N Benjamin
Benjamin, N. 2010. "Motivations for characters in the Iliad". Publications Oboulo. com. Brumble, H. D. 2013. Classical myths and legends in the Middle Ages and Renaissance: a dictionary of allegorical meanings. Routledge.