Technical ReportPDF Available
NIAS/NSE/U/RR/070/2019
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
Bengaluru, India
M. Sai Baba
V.V. Binoy
Tanvi Vasan
H.J. Subhash
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA:
PROMISE, PERCEPTION AND PREPAREDNESS
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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
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http://www.nias.res.in
© National Institute of Advanced Studies 2019
Published by
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NIAS Report: NIAS/NSE/U/RR/070/2019
Artificial Intelligence is finding applications across the disciplines impacting
human life. It is anticipated to realise its potential in major domains such as
healthcare, agriculture, communication, automation along with being a part of our
lives as smart technology that we carry around. The prospect of AI in the field of
entertainment, music, art and video games also opens a wide space for creativity
to evolve with technology beyond human capability. With all the apprehensions
about AI, it would not necessarily replace but be used as an extra super suit to
reach new heights and next big step for human race. The image reflects some of
these thoughts.
Cover page drawn by Sneha Yadla
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Aditi Enterprises
Bengaluru - 560 023
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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are grateful to Prof Shailesh Nayak, Director, National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS),
Bangalore for his support and guidance which made this study possible.
Thanks are due to Prof V. S. Ramamurthy, Former Director of NIAS for the constant encouragement,
timely interventions and inspirational discussions.
Various organisations and people who actively took part in this study and found time to share the
questionnaire with their acquaintance are acknowledged for their support.
We express our sincere gratitude to the members of NIAS SciComm team Ms Sneha Yadla.
Ms S. Aishwarya for their support and assistance during the survey and the preparation of the
report. Special thanks to Ms Sneha Yadla for her efforts in creating the cover page picture. It is hand
drawn by her and her efforts are appreciated.
We thank National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department
of Science and Technology, Government of India for the financial support which made this study
possible.
We fondly recall the support and encouragement given by late Prof. Baldev Raj under whose guidance
this work was initiated.
Team NIAS SciComm
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SUMMARY
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is identified as one of the emerging technologies which would
have bearing on the lives of the people and society in the coming years. As part of a
project titled “Managing Public Perceptions and Public Acceptances of Public Risks Associated
with New and Emerging Technologies Through Science and Technology Communications
funded by the National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC),
Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, National Institute of
Advanced Studies (NIAS) Bangalore, has conducted an online survey to know various
dimensions of the perceptions on AI by the Common man of India. The summary of the
survey is given below followed by the report.
Will AI change the way people live and work in the near future?
Largely optimistic about impact of AI with 76% saying that AI will “positively” change the way we
live and work.
Transport and finance would be experiencing AI induced changes in the coming five years, while
agriculture, education, healthcare, defence and administration may take more time
Is AI a risky technology? If so what are the threats?
Despite the predominant belief that AI would have a positive impact on life and work, there was no
clear judgement on whether it is a risky technology. The primary concern about AI was security, loss
of privacy and loss of jobs. Loss of human control over the AI machines and replacement of humans
by machines have also been of concern.
Cutting across all demographic categories, it was felt that AI would widen the gap between the rich
and poor.
AI, Job loss and New avenues
Majority of the participants believed that AI will eliminate more jobs than it creates.
One in three respondents (34%) felt that their job will be occupied by the AI agents within 10 years.
Medical professionals, academicians and researchers (PhD) were more optimistic and didn’t expect
an invasion of AI into their profession, but those who do management related jobs and run business
believed that their job is at risk.
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Need to Learn New Skills?
The respondents were unanimous (more than 80%), in spite of the demographic group they belongs
to, about the need for acquiring new skills to adapt with the changing environment.
The responsibility of re-skilling the employee was attributed to the employer (51%), government
(20%) and the individuals himself/ herself (20%).
Very few people disagreed with the statement that in India existing education system does not
prepare the youth for occupying AI based jobs. Youth will have to acquire both soft and hard skills as
well as training in ‘coding and programming for adapting with the changing environment.
Can India Develop Cutting-edge AI technologies?
Majority of Indians (66%) were convinced that their nation is capable of competing in the global
playfield of AI development. However, only 36 % believed that India possesses the human resource
capable of it.
Indians are in favour of the government enhancing financial investment in the AI, but only 46%
agreed with tax exemptions for this sector.
Awareness and adoption of the AI
Scientific journals and magazines got maximum vote (64%) as the depended medium for updating
information on the AI. This interesting observation could be result of the domination of post-
graduates and PhD holders in the respondent population.
Newspapers continued as an important medium (57%), in the current flood of various social media
platforms. Only 24% opted WhatsApp as the channel for the information on AI.
People in India consider lack of awareness, shortage of the experience and dearth of trust in the AI
(68%) as the major hindrance for the adoption.
In the opinion of Indians, developing trustworthy and safe AI, enhancing dialogue between public
and AI industry, enhancing familiarity with AI technology and launching more education and
awareness programmes are essential to boost the acceptance and popularisation of AI technology.
Respondents also expected more government intervention to address public concerns and
establishment of an independent agency to ensure transparent and responsible AI.
AI and Responsibility
Indians attributed responsibility of the security of personal data collected by the AI systems as
follows; the company which collects and store such information (48 %), developer of the technology
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
(28%), government (16%) and the individuals (7%).
In an accident involving human and AI machine majority (64%) considered the company that made
the machine as responsible.
AI in day to day life
Amongst the people participated in the present study 39% were comfortable to hand over the tasks
such as making appointments, answering calls, handling purchase etc. to an AI agent. Women
showed more apprehension over men on AI handing these activities.
Elderly people (above 60 years; 59%) and government employees (53%) were more happy in AI
doing such tasks.
Indians preferred the support of AI based personal assistants for online retail (70%) and travel
(69%), but not in healthcare and education. They were not hesitant to have conversation with AI
agents and this trend was consistent across various demographics studied.
It was only 34% felt that there do exists gender a bias in naming the AI agents. Youngsters (below
20 years) and those who have an educational qualification till 12th grade believed in the existence
of such discrimination.
4NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
INTRODUCTION
Technology, through automation and artificial intelligence, is definitely one
of the most disruptive sources
Alain Dehaze
Autonomous robots living with humans would no longer be a feature of science fiction stories or
films; developments happening in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) are empowering machines
to process huge amount of data in a short period of time as well as to learn from experience. AI
means “computers, robots or other technology that can accomplish tasks humans can do, as well as learn
and complete tasks that humans may not be able to do” (Northeastern University and Gallup, 2018).
AI based machines are acquiring more and more cognitive capacities one thought to be unique to
human beings and its superiority in number crunching, image recognition, language processing etc.
makes its presence visible in the natural language processing, decision support systems, diagnosis
of diseases, navigation and a host of other areas which has direct influence on the life of the people
(Ghosh, 2018). The success in achieving compactness and high-speed computation in the devices
today is a boon and catalyst to AI technology (Srivastava, 2018). Predictive search on browsers,
email spam filters, predictive typing on mobile phones, and news suggestions on social networks,
all these use AI in the background and several of the users not being aware of the same. However,
differing from other technological revolutions humanity had seen in the past the disruptiveness of
the AI technology is expected to be reflected on all facets of the human life and failing to adapt
with it could lead to disasters. Many experts even warn that development and popularisation of
AI based technology has to be done carefully since predicting the behaviour of the machines that
have achieved the human level of autonomy and self-awareness is impossible. However if used
judiciously AI could be a good friend to humanity and can help us in achieving goals which are not
possible only with the capacities humans currently possess. For instance, AI based tools have started
helping physicians to detect many diseases at very early stage itself which is not possible using
conventional tools and techniques. It is envisaged that due to the advancements being realized, AI
would revolutionise the fields of health care, education, transportation, commerce etc. It is expected
that research in machine learning, speech recognition, natural language processing, and computer
vision will further enhance the computational power and application of AI in the coming years.
The waves of AI revolution spreading all over the world have not left Indian subcontinent uninfluenced.
Even the people on the lower strata of social pyramid are getting benefit of software with integrated
AI, such as navigation and communication tools and the dependency on these devises, which are
expected to grow in the coming years. Many experts believe that application and popularisation of
AI based technologies can help our nation to reduce the urban-rural divide and inequality prevalent
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in the vital areas such as health, education etc. In the existing scenario, the cost of education in
India is increasingly becoming high, and providing quality education continues to be a challenge,
especially to rural population. Development of AI integrated teaching aids and making it available
to the children from rural and marginalised areas of our nation could help millions to achieve their
dreams.
In villages of our country, there is a need for improved health care. The availability of medical
personnel in the rural regions of India is one fourth of that in the urban regions (World Bank, 2017).
Through AI intervention in health care, there can be a huge improvement in providing health care
for large rural population. The availability of doctors and nurses in India is less than the WHO
guidelines (NITI Aayog, 2018) and applications like MOLLY, a virtual nurse; Watson from IBM
for oncologists etc. can be helpful in obtaining better health care in remote areas of the nation.
Approximately, the high expenditure in healthcare brings about 63 million people to poverty every
year and AI based tools are expected to increase the affordability of healthcare services in the future
thereby contributing to avoiding such slide.
For a country like India, with diverse population in terms of socio-economic backgrounds, it is
important to focus on any growing technology that would help in the inclusive development. Indian
government is also aware of the impact this emerging technology could bring on its population and
had launched many plans to prepare the people to reap benefits as well as for avoiding the science-
society conflict. Programmes such as ‘Digital India’ and ‘Skill India’, initiated by the Government of
India aim for the development of new skills amongst the youth and helping them to cope with the
demands of AI technologies. In February 2018, Ministry of Information Technology has set up four
committees on AI for: Citizen Centric Services; Data Platforms; Skilling, Reskilling, Research and
Development; Legal Regulatory and Cybersecurity (Economic Times, 2018). NITI Aayog (2018)
has identified Agriculture, Transportation, Infrastructure, Education and Healthcare as the five
sectors that can benefit from AI and has also established a Centre of Research Excellence (CORE) for
pursuing advanced research in AI.
Although high technology products and services are no longer the luxury of the rich in this nation,
implementation of AI related technologies should be conducted carefully, since its several possible
implications could disturb the stability of India’s socio-economic base. Many experts fear that
introduction of autonomous and self-learning machines in industry and service sectors could make
thousands jobless. Even with the possibility of AI creating newer employment opportunities, there is
no guarantee that the numbers will balance out. Finding financial and human resources for reskilling
a large employee base and managing transition is a challenge for both employer and employee.
Furthermore, percentage of citizens who may fail to adapt to new skills and the measures to be
taken to help them, continues to be an unanswered question. At the same time, it is impractical for
India not to adopt the emerging AI technology in the current era of globalization (Srivastava, 2018).
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Appearance and popularisation of AI based technologies in the market and its intervention into the
day to day life of common man is raising many concerns. Currently, consumer centric AI innovations
are emerging largely in the private sector and people all over the world are alarmed of one’s
personal data being collected and exploited by unknown agencies for vested interests. Similarly,
many companies are testing autonomous machines such as self-driving cars and drones. The day is
not far when these autonomous machines would play an integral role in dynamics of Indian society.
However, there is no clarity yet on the legal and ethical aspects of undesirable actions or harm from
autonomous AI agents, even though several other nations are actively involved in developing the
regulations for futuristic AI applications like driverless cars (Ghosh, 2017). Is there a possibility of
growing AI technology making the human intelligence obsolete and replacing the creator in the
coming years? Currently, this question resonates repeatedly not only in the debates of philosophers
or but in the minds of educated non-specialists also. However no universal answers for this vital
question have come out yet and the experts and academicians are continuing in two equally strong
but opposing groups keeping the common man confused.
To have a smooth implementation of AI technologies in India and avoid a science-society conflict, it
is important to understand the mindset of the members of various strata of the society. It is essential
to come out with effective strategies for making people aware of the benefits of the emerging
technologies and eliminate fears by documenting (i) the nature of the knowledge people keep on
various AI technologies, (ii) their attitude and expectation from such technologies and (iii) the
origin of fear and risk attribute on them (Bagla and Binoy, 2017). Furthermore, this is essential
for the government to put in place the laws and regulations without causing friction in the society,
before AI applications starts impacting the society (Ghosh, 2017). The educational institutions are
also benefited from research focusing on the perceptions of Indians on AI; designing of effective
and inclusive education programmes for preparing the growing generation to cope with changing
work atmospheres. Also, it would be an easy venture if the beliefs of the receiving end are clear to
the developer. Although such studies focusing the populations of Europe and America are quickly
growing, it is still in its fancy in India. However we cannot wait for a long period to generate this
database, as the influence of this disruptive technology is expected to be intertwined with newer
developments in of various sectors of industry and people of the country in general. A neglect could
catalyse AI- society conflict ending up in people’s protest and hindrance in the economic growth of our
nation. As part of a project titled “Managing Public Perceptions and Public Acceptances of Public Risks
Associated with New and Emerging Technologies Through Science and Technology Communications
funded by the National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCSTC), Department
of Science and Technology, Government of India, National Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS)
Bangalore, has conducted an online survey to know various dimensions of the perceptions on AI by
the common man of India. The methodology adopted and the results of the survey are given below.
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NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
METHODOLOGY
A questionnaire was developed on Google Forms (Appendix 1) to understand various dimensions of
the beliefs of the general public on AI intelligence and its integration with the Indian society. There
were 26 questions in total: 6 were devoted for understanding the demographic characteristics of the
participants and the remaining 20 were related to AI and its impact. Of the 6 demography-related
questions, 4 were mandatory and, 5 AI based questions were of the ‘Tick all that apply’ category and
the remaining 15 were Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The header of the questionnaire was a
request to participate in the survey and share it with the interested parties. The survey covered topics
ranging from the source of information about AI to its expected impact on: education, agriculture,
defence, finance etc. Factors influencing trust and adoption of AI, role of government in terms of the
regulation of AI machines, mitigation of mishaps etc. were also formed the themes of the questions.
The position of the questions on various topics were randomised in order to avoid the bias induced
by the sequential effect on the answers.
The link to the questionnaire was posted on various social media platforms such as Facebook, Google
Plus, WhatsApp, Twitter and LinkedIn, with a request to share. The link to the survey form was
also shared with nongovernmental organizations actively involved in science popularisation and
communication via email with a request to distribute amongst their members.
The survey was well received by the people and the response of 1299 participants obtained during
a period of 27th May to 10th June 2018, which were considered for analysis. Residents from 27
different states of India took part in the current study and shared their views. However, there was a
domination of the respondents from the southern states, Karnataka (32%), Kerala (18%) and Tamil
Nadu (17%). Urban dwellers encompassed (65% from cities and 20 % from towns) major share
of the people cooperated with the study, but the good representation of the rural population 15%,
was also noticed. The respondents were divided into subgroups based on age, gender, educational
qualifications and occupation to get an elucidated picture of views of various demographics of the
society on AI.
8NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
RESULTS
AGE AND GENDER
Young Indians (21- 40 years) outnumbered the other age categories and comprised 74% of the total
respondents. Age class of 40 to 60 years (16%) was the next large group and 3% senior citizens (who
had crossed the age of 60 years) and 6 % teenagers also participated in this survey (Fig. 1). Gender
wise segregation revealed that only 34 % of the total respondents were females. The transgender,
gender queers and those who are not interested in disclosing their sex combined, were 1% (Fig.2).
6%
74%
16%
4%
Below 20 years
21 to 40 years
41 to 60 years
61+ years
Fig. 1 Age distribution of the participants (Q 1)
34%
65%
1%
Female
Male
Transgender
Prefer not to say
Fig. 2 Gender of the participants (Q 2)
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EDUCATION AND OCCUPATION
The respondents were divided into four major categories based on their educational qualification:
up to 12th Grade, Graduates, Postgraduates and PhD. The categories ‘Graduates’ and ‘Postgraduates
were further divided into three sub-categories based on their specialisation; science and technology
formed the first two groups and the third category ‘non - science and technology’ was an aggregation
of those who have studied management, arts and humanities. Amongst the graduates 19% had
technology background, 12% were specialised in science and 6% studied non-science subjects
(Fig. 3). Meanwhile, 21% postgraduates had learned sciences, 13 % technology and 11% non-
science subjects. All participants with PhD were added to one group and not considering their
specialisation and this category formed 14% of the total participants. Participants with an educational
qualification, below 12th grade, comprised 4% of the total respondents.
6%
12%
19%
14%
11%
21%
13%
4%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Tech
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
Fig. 3 Educational qualification of the participants (Q 3)
Although the column ‘Occupation’ was not kept mandatory 80% of respondents filled it. Those
who were not interested in disclosing their job were added to the category ‘Undisclosed’. Out of
those respondents who indicated their profession as ‘academicians’ (23%) - the cluster consisting of
scientists, teachers, researchers and post-doctoral fellows - were the dominant respondent group.
Government employees (4%), medical professionals (2%), people working in various private sectors
such as business (4%), engineering (9%), management (7%) and students (26%) also participated
(Fig. 4). All other professions were put under one category ‘Others’ since none of them crossed 0.5%
of the total respondents.
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
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23%
4%
9%
4%
7%
2%
5%
26%
20%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Fig. 4 Occupations of the participants (Q4)
Will AI change the way people live and work in the near future?
Our result revealed that Indians are largely optimistic about the impact of AI, with 76% of the
respondents believing that AI will “positively” change the way they live and work in the coming 10
years (Fig. 5). Neither gender nor educational qualifications were found to be influencing this belief
significantly. A similar result was obtained when the data was segregated and compared based on
the age of the participants. An interesting response came from medical professionals, 35% of them
confessed that they “Don’t know”, whether AI is going to bring any positive or negative influence in
the coming 10 years.
A poll conducted by Gallop (2018) amongst the Americans also revealed that more than 75% of
participants trust that AI will fundamentally change the lifestyle of the people by helping them to
solve the complex problems faced by the humanity in the coming decade. The result obtained by
a study, which focused only a cross-section of the Indian society - people working in the business
sectors - was also not different (Ghosh, 2018) and more than 70% of the participants resonated with
their American counterparts.
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76%
11%
11%
2%
72% 75% 82% 80%
14% 12% 6% 5%
14% 10% 9% 14%
1% 2% 3% 2%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
70% 80%
15%
9%
14% 9%
1% 3%
Female Male
68%
71%
83%
82%
80%
69%
81%
71%
13%
10%
10%
7%
10%
15%
10%
14%
15%
18%
7%
9%
8%
14%
6%
10%
4%
1%
1%
2%
3%
2%
3%
4%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
80%
82%
77%
81%
81%
65%
76%
74%
73%
10%
13%
14%
9%
10%
12%
10%
12%
10%
8%
5%
8%
6%
9%
19%
12%
13%
13%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Positively Negatively Don't know No change
Fig.5 AI will change the way people live and work in the next 10 years (Q 7)
Which sectors would be impacted by AI and When?
It is an undisputed fact that influence of AI is becoming conspicuous in various realm of the human
life. All over the world scientists are involved in active research to bring AI integrated autonomous
machines in the sectors such as agriculture, health care, administration, defence, finance, transport
etc. Around 60% of the Indians believed that AI is going to make significant impact on these
sectors within 10 years. Interestingly a good share of people participated in the current survey
were expecting an extensive modification of the transport (40%) and finance (40%) by AI within
five years. Nevertheless, such a change in agriculture (42%), education (40%), healthcare (41%),
defence (37%) and administration (35%) was anticipated after 5 to 10 years only (Fig. 6).
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
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17%
33% 34% 33% 40% 32% 40%
42%
41% 40% 37%
37%
35%
36%
34%
21% 19% 24% 18%
25%
20%
7575583
Agriculture Healthcare Education Defence Finance Administration Transport
5 years 5 to 10 years 10 to 20 years Never
Fig.6 Do you think AI can significantly impact these sectors? If Yes, when? (Q 12)
Although, understanding whether public prefers AI machines doing the jobs in these areas is essential
for a friction free implementation of such technologies, till date very few studies explored this
question in India. We got a mixed response: Indians preferred finance and defence being handled by
the AI machines (Fig. 7) while there was an overwhelming preference to humans over AI in education
(83%) and healthcare (75%). This result points to the fact that people prefer ‘human factors’ in the
teaching-learning environments and situations demanding medical care. In this context it should be
remembered that healthcare and education are the two major areas attracting financial investment
for developing AI based autonomy. However, no stark bias towards either AI or human doing jobs in
agriculture (57%), finance (59%), defence (57%) and administration (60%) was noted.
43%
25%
17%
56% 59%
40%
66%
57%
75%
83%
44% 41%
60%
34%
Agriculture Healthcare Education Defence Finance Administration Transport
AI Machines Humans
Fig.7 Who would you prefer to do these jobs? (Q 9)
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Is AI a risky technology?
The risk from AI technology is a hot topic of debate all over the world and scientists, industrialists
and policy makers are equivocal on the negative side of this quickly emerging technology. When
asked whether they consider AI as a risky technology, around one third of the total respondents
either “strongly agreed” or “agreed” (36%). At the same time an almost equal proportion (31%)
of the participants disagreed with this statement and 32% hadn’t a clear opinion. Although, no
influence of the gender, education or occupation was observed on this pattern of response, age wise
comparison revealed that people above 40 years were more optimistic about AI (Fig. 8). Tracing
out the reason behind this chasm in the belief on the risk from AI kept by the elder and younger
generation of the nation is highly important to avoid the disagreements while implementing the new
AI based technologies in India.
11%
25%
32%
24%
8%
16% 9% 18% 25%
22%
23%
32%
32%
32%
34%
27%
34%
20% 26%
16%
9%
10% 8% 7%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
8% 13%
24%
26%
34%
31%
25% 23%
9% 7%
Female Male
14%
10%
11%
14%
15%
7%
11%
10%
18%
29%
27%
32%
23%
23%
19%
27%
39%
36%
31%
25%
33%
32%
35%
37%
13%
19%
24%
25%
20%
28%
27%
14%
17%
5%
7%
4%
9%
10%
7%
12%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
12%
18%
11%
19%
8%
4%
9%
11%
10%
27%
20%
21%
17%
34%
27%
29%
24%
23%
27%
35%
31%
43%
27%
35%
44%
33%
35%
29%
15%
29%
17%
15%
19%
12%
23%
24%
5%
13%
8%
4%
16%
15%
6%
9%
7%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 8 AI is NOT a risky technology (Q 11)
Out of the five different kinds of threats expected from AI, given in the questionnaire, security issues
got maximum vote (68%). Indians are also concerned about the job loss (60%), loss of human control
over the AI machines (58%) and replacement of humanity by autonomous machines (57%) (Fig. 9).
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
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60% 61%
68%
58% 57%
Job loss Loss of privacy Security issues Loss of human
control over the AI
machines
Replacement of
humanity by
machines
Fig. 9 The major risks from AI (Q 13)
Another threat anticipated with the adoption of AI technology by the society is the widening of
the gap between the rich and poor. For instance, more than 60 % of Americans believed that AI
could make rich people richer and poor more vulnerable economically (Northeastern University
and Gallup 2018). Interestingly Indians were not different from their American counterparts and
believed that AI would enhance inequality in the society. Approximately one in two Indians who
took part in the current study felt that AI would increase economic disparity in the society. Further
analysis revealed that approximately 40% of the participants from the management background,
non-science graduates and having education up to 12th standard kept their answer neutral (neither
agreed nor disagreed) to this question. No noticeable variation was observed when the data was
analysed after segregating based on the age, sex, profession and education, but only less than 10%
from management profession differed with the notion that AI would increase economic divide, in
comparison in other groups of occupation (average 17%; Fig. 10).
15
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
27%
28%
29%
13%
4%
17% 28% 22%
39%
35%
27% 29%
20%
33% 28% 31%
34%
11% 13% 15%
7%
4% 4% 3%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
29% 25%
29% 27%
28% 30%
12% 13%
Female Male
29%
27%
23%
21%
31%
32%
28%
18%
22%
23%
27%
36%
30%
26%
27%
24%
38%
32%
28%
28%
27%
26%
29%
41%
11%
16%
15%
12%
10%
12%
11%
14%
2%
7%
3%
3%
5%
5%
2%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
25%
27%
30%
28%
26%
31%
28%
26%
28%
32%
31%
21%
28%
28%
19%
25%
27%
27%
28%
22%
26%
30%
37%
35%
32%
27%
31%
11%
15%
15%
13%
9%
15%
13%
16%
11%
4%
5%
8%
2%
1%
1%
5%
4%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 10 AI will widen the gap between Rich and Poor (Q 16 D)
AI: Job Loss and New Avenues
In many contexts AI and automation is considered as the synonym for mass termination of job
opportunities. According to a study conducted by Frey et al. (2013) 47% of all traditional jobs in US
are under the risk of being replaced by the AI machines. By contrast the belief, AI will generate new
kinds of jobs and people will not be left unemployed, though sometimes they may have to update
their skills, is also prevalent amongst the academicians and general public. According to majority of
the respondents (28% strongly agreed and 39% agreed) AI will eliminate more jobs than it creates.
The age group who was more concerned about this important issue was below 20 years (81%;
Fig. 11). Amongst male participants 15% believed that AI will bring more job opportunities, but only
7% females kept such a notion. There were few differences in the perceptions on job security across
other demographics studied.
16
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
28%
39%
21%
10%
2%
41%
28% 20% 27%
40%
38%
41% 30%
16%
20% 25% 32%
2% 10% 12% 11%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
27% 28%
42% 37%
23%
20%
7% 12%
Female Male
28%
29%
30%
26%
31%
28%
22%
29%
38%
42%
35%
37%
40%
41%
40%
39%
24%
21%
20%
22%
17%
21%
25%
27%
11%
8%
13%
12%
9%
9%
10%
4%
1%
3%
3%
3%
1%
4%
2%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
23%
31%
21%
32%
25%
31%
31%
30%
33%
40%
35%
39%
38%
42%
31%
38%
40%
35%
23%
18%
27%
21%
24%
35%
18%
20%
18%
12%
13%
9%
9%
10%
4%
12%
8%
11%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 11 AI will eliminate more jobs than it creates (Q 16a).
We got a mixed response to the question, whether the respondent feared that his/her job is facing a
threat from AI. One in three participants (34%) felt that their job will be occupied by the AI agents
within 10 years, meanwhile 37% were confident that the occupation in which they are involved
would never be lost to AI. Amid different professionals, those who are from the field of medicine,
academics and research (PhD) were more optimistic and didn’t expect an invasion of AI into their
profession. Unexpectedly those who are in management (45%) related jobs and run businesses
(54%) believed that their job is at risk (Fig. 12).
17
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
12%
22%
15%
14%
37%
14% 12% 11% 5%
23% 22% 23%
25%
14% 15% 15% 16%
17% 15% 11% 9%
32% 37% 40% 45%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
11% 12%
22% 23%
17% 14%
13% 14%
36% 38%
Female Male
17%
10%
15%
10%
16%
7%
12%
4%
29%
23%
27%
17%
29%
17%
20%
29%
15%
14%
15%
13%
13%
18%
14%
14%
7%
12%
12%
17%
12%
14%
18%
18%
32%
40%
31%
43%
31%
44%
35%
35%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
8%
16%
17%
17%
17%
4%
12%
8%
14%
18%
38%
25%
19%
28%
19%
25%
21%
23%
14%
13%
15%
21%
19%
8%
15%
16%
12%
18%
4%
15%
11%
9%
27%
3%
12%
18%
42%
29%
28%
32%
27%
42%
46%
43%
33%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
5 years 10 years 20 years More than 20 years Never
Fig. 12 My profession will be replaced by AI tech within (Q 19)
The respondents were unanimous (more than 80%), in spite of the demographic group they belong
to, about the need for acquiring new skills to adapt with the changing environment. Only 3% kept
the notion that one would not have to gather new sets of skills to work in an AI integrated work
environments (Fig. 13).
18
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
43%
47%
7%
3%
36% 44% 47%
32%
58% 46% 43%
59%
5% 8% 5% 9%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
42% 44%
49% 45%
7% 7%
Female Male
44%
36%
46%
44%
52%
40%
46%
29%
38%
51%
45%
51%
41%
46%
44%
63%
13%
8%
6%
4%
6%
10%
7%
8%
6%
4%
2%
1%
1%
3%
4%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
43%
49%
40%
51%
48%
23%
46%
40%
47%
48%
45%
48%
36%
44%
54%
43%
49%
45%
6%
2%
9%
13%
4%
19%
7%
8%
7%
3%
4%
3%
2%
4%
4%
3%
2%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 13 One will have to acquire new skills to adapt with AI based jobs (Q 16b)
This strong belief of Indians that they will have to learn new skills to work in an AI enabled
ecosystem is a hint to the policy makers and the higher education institutions to contemplate and
come out with policies and courses to make the workforce our nation ready to face the phase shift.
Differing from the Americans who suggested that the responsibility of preparing employees to cope
with the demands of AI workplace lies with the Federal Government (Northeastern University and
Gallup 2018), only 20% of Indians kept such an opinion. In the present survey, the respondents
51% of them believed that the employer should make sure that the skills of employee is updated
and for 25% it is the duty of the individual to be up to date. In India though state governments
also play key role in providing education and skill development training very few people (4%)
attributed such a responsibility to this institution of governance. With regards to the demographic
group ‘occupation’, government employees (62%) and academicians (59%) felt that the obligation
19
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
lies with the employer. In the opinion of age group below 20 years both central government (35%)
and employer (40%) share the responsibility while other age groups as well as the non-science post
graduates (57%) and PhD holders (61%) attributed greater responsibility to the employer (57%).
Here also no noted variation was observed in the response of males and females.
20%
51%
25%
4%
35%
20% 16% 11%
40%
51% 57% 57%
25% 25% 24% 30%
1% 4% 3% 2%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
20% 19%
50% 52%
23% 26%
6% 2%
Female Male
19%
23%
19%
19%
13%
21%
20%
33%
54%
43%
50%
61%
57%
49%
52%
45%
19%
30%
30%
17%
25%
26%
25%
20%
7%
5%
2%
3%
6%
5%
3%
2%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
17%
20%
10%
15%
18%
23%
21%
26%
20%
59%
51%
54%
62%
57%
50%
40%
46%
47%
19%
27%
32%
21%
23%
19%
35%
25%
28%
4%
2%
3%
2%
2%
8%
4%
3%
4%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Central Government Employer Individual State Government
Fig. 14 Preparing employees to adapt with new AI tech in the workplace is the responsibility of the
There was a very feeble disagreement with the statement that ‘in India existing education system
does not prepare the youth for occupying AI based jobs’ and 44% strongly agreed and 37% agree
with it (Fig. 15). This opinion was consistent across different demographical groups focused.
20
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
44%
37%
14%
5%
1%
51% 44% 44%
30%
28% 37% 37%
50%
15% 14% 13% 16%
4% 4% 6% 5%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
41% 46%
38% 36%
15% 13%
6%
4%
Female Male
54%
40%
49%
38%
51%
41%
43%
37%
21%
38%
36%
43%
36%
38%
37%
27%
21%
16%
10%
13%
11%
13%
16%
29%
3%
4%
4%
5%
1%
8%
4%
6%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
42%
51%
38%
38%
54%
46%
50%
42%
46%
41%
33%
46%
36%
32%
38%
32%
34%
35%
12%
9%
14%
21%
10%
12%
12%
17%
15%
6%
7%
3%
4%
3%
4%
6%
4%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 15 Indian education system is not preparing youth for AI based jobs (16 C)
Respondents strongly believed that, in order to adapt with the changing job requirements brought in
by the AI revolution, youth would have to acquire soft skills (66%) such as arts, communication etc. as
well as mathematics and science (hard skills 68%). Moreover 70% opined that, in order to empower
the young generation providing training in ‘coding and programming’ is also essential (Fig. 16)
66% 68% 70%
"Soft” skill training “Hard” skill training Coding and Programming
Fig. 16 The youth could be empowered to adapt with the forthcoming AI
revolution by providing training in (Q 18)
21
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
Can India Develop Cutting-edge AI technologies?
Majority of Indians (68%) are convinced that their nation is capable of competing in the global
playfield of AI development (Fig. 17). With regards to the age groups, degree of agreeability with
this statement was stronger amongst the participants elder than 40 years. There was no distinction
noticeable with educational qualifications but engineers, business persons, and managers were
more confident about the capacity of the nation (more than 75%) than medical professionals (58%).
24%
44%
21%
9%
2%
21% 22% 31% 36%
42% 44%
45%
45%
30% 21%
18% 16%
7% 10% 4% 2%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
18% 27%
46%
43%
25% 18%
9% 8%
Female Male
24%
23%
29%
25%
26%
19%
25%
18%
43%
44%
41%
49%
41%
45%
46%
41%
28%
22%
19%
16%
22%
21%
18%
33%
6%
8%
10%
7%
6%
12%
7%
8%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
25%
38%
32%
15%
32%
23%
31%
21%
17%
47%
38%
43%
53%
45%
35%
32%
44%
44%
15%
15%
15%
23%
16%
27%
28%
24%
25%
9%
5%
9%
6%
3%
15%
6%
9%
12%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 17 India can compete with AI development globally (Q 23a)
Even though a strong faith in the competence of their nation to come out with the state of the art AI
technology was conspicuous, only 36 % of the respondents believed that India possesses the human
resource capable of it. A good share of the academicians and engineers (42% in both groups Fig.
18) were in agreement with the statement - ‘India doesn’t have the human resource to develop cutting
edge AI tech’. Majority of the participants present on the lower strata of the category education (less
than 12th standard; 40%), and medical professionals (42%) were neutral in their response (neither
agreed nor disagreed).
22
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
14%
25%
25%
22%
14%
16% 14% 14% 16%
31% 24% 26% 30%
30%
24% 27% 20%
10%
23% 23% 18%
14% 15% 10% 16%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
12% 16%
26% 24%
28% 23%
23% 21%
11% 16%
Female Male
15%
12%
17%
12%
12%
15%
14%
20%
29%
29%
25%
26%
22%
23%
26%
18%
29%
30%
19%
26%
27%
27%
17%
37%
18%
21%
22%
21%
29%
19%
27%
8%
8%
9%
17%
16%
10%
16%
16%
16%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
12%
20%
10%
15%
14%
12%
15%
14%
18%
23%
27%
27%
21%
32%
23%
18%
24%
25%
22%
15%
21%
32%
18%
42%
41%
26%
27%
27%
29%
20%
26%
25%
12%
18%
19%
19%
15%
9%
22%
6%
11%
12%
9%
17%
11%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 18 India doesn’t have the human resource to develop cutting edge AI tech (Q 16 E)
Indians are in favour of the government enhancing financial investment in the AI sector; an aggregate
of 77 % (29% strongly agreed and 48% agreed) of the total respondents preferred an increment in
the financial intervention from the government to boost the development of AI technologies. This
trend was found consistent across the focal demographical categories (Fig. 19).
23
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
29%
48%
16%
5% 2%
31% 29% 31% 27%
38% 48% 48% 59%
25% 16% 16%
14%
5% 5% 5%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
19%
34%
51%
46%
22%
14%
6% 4%
Female Male
32%
20%
37%
30%
30%
23%
35%
29%
39%
50%
45%
51%
48%
47%
52%
45%
19%
23%
13%
14%
16%
19%
12%
20%
8%
5%
4%
3%
4%
8%
1%
4%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
28%
35%
36%
28%
40%
23%
26%
29%
26%
49%
42%
48%
49%
42%
50%
49%
49%
47%
15%
16%
11%
17%
13%
23%
21%
16%
20%
7%
7%
3%
4%
4%
1%
4%
5%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 19 Indian government should enhance financial investment for AI development (Q 23b)
Although a positive attitude toward the government spending more money for the promotion of
AI sector was observed, answer was equivocal to the question whether AI developers and start-ups
should be provided any tax breaks? Only 46% of the participants agreed with tax exemptions and
34% were neutral in their opinion. Age group above 61 years stood out with 62% supporting, while
the categories post graduates (science), academicians and medical professional had lesser number
of members supporting this idea (Fig. 20).
24
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
16%
29%
34%
15%
6%
17% 15% 20% 23%
27% 28%
35% 39%
37% 34%
33% 30%
10% 17%
9% 9%
9% 7% 3%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
11% 18%
31%
28%
38% 32%
15% 15%
Female Male
18%
12%
20%
17%
16%
9%
20%
20%
25%
29%
33%
30%
28%
27%
31%
20%
43%
39%
26%
33%
36%
37%
30%
39%
10%
14%
13%
16%
13%
21%
13%
10%
4%
6%
9%
3%
6%
6%
6%
10%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
14%
22%
16%
21%
29%
12%
7%
15%
15%
27%
33%
28%
34%
26%
27%
32%
29%
31%
35%
31%
28%
30%
30%
46%
43%
33%
36%
17%
11%
19%
6%
10%
12%
12%
16%
14%
7%
4%
9%
9%
5%
4%
6%
7%
4%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 20 Tax break for AI developers (Q 23C)
Awareness and adoption of AI
In order to develop effective awareness programme on any topics it is indispensable to understand
the sources of information on which the public is relying on. As per the result of current study
scientific journals and magazines got maximum vote (64%; Fig. 21) as the depended medium for
updating information on the AI. This interesting observation could be result of the domination
of post-graduates and PhD holders in the respondent population. Newspapers continued as an
important medium (57%), in the current flood of various social media platforms. 41% disclosed that
they are getting information from their family members and friends. Amongst various social media
channels YouTube (49%) was the leader, followed by Facebook (37%). Even though WhatsApp has
evolved as a major medium of communication in India, only 24% were using this channel for the
information on AI.
25
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
57%
37%
42%
49%
24%
64%
34%
41%
Newspaper Facebook Magazines YouTube WhatsApp Scientific
journals/
magazines
TV Family and
friends
Fig. 21 Your source of information regarding AI tech is (Q 14)
Participants had a pretty good knowledge of AI being utilised in various Information Technology
(IT) based services. All the five technologies utilising AI at various levels, given as the possibilities
were recognised by the majority (Fig. 22). For instance 83% knew that tools of AI are integrated
in ‘virtual assistants’ and other applications they use in day to day life, such as ‘predictive search’
mechanisms (80%), email spam filters’ (66%) etc.
66%
80%
70% 76%
15% 9% 6%
16% 13%
19%
11% 11% 14% 12%
Email spam filters Predictive search Virtual assistants News
recommendations
Google Maps
Yes No Not sure
Fig. 22 Do these commonly used technologies use AI? Q 8
Although both traditional and modern media is actively involved in publicising the developments
happening in the field of AI, people in India considers lack of awareness (74%) and experience with
the AI based technology (75%; Fig. 23) as the major hindrance for the adoption. Lack of trust in
the AI based machines (68%) and unavailability of government regulations (44%) were also chosen
26
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
by a good share of the population as reasons behind the hesitation to embrace AI. The respondents
believed that media is doing their duty to promote AI and only 29% disagreed with this notion.
74%
29%
44%
75%
68%
Lack of awareness
amongst public
Inefficient media
coverage
Lack of government
regulations
Unfamiliarity with AI
tools
Lack of trust in AI
based machines
Fig. 23 Adoption of AI tech by people is hindered by (Q 15)
If the industry and policy makers aim to boost the acceptance and popularisation of AI technology,
in the opinion of Indians, it is essential to come out with trustworthy and safe AI (91%; Fig. 24)
and enhancing the effective dialogue with public (86%; Fig. 25). They resonated their answer for
the question ‘which factor blocks the adoption? (Q 15)’ and confirmed that enhancing familiarity
with AI tech (89%; Fig. 26) is the key to increase in the acceptance. An overwhelming number of
respondents felt (53% strongly agreed and 39% agreed; Fig. 27) that India should launch more
education and awareness programmes on AI. These opinions were unwavering through age, gender
and education and occupation.
27
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
49%
42%
8%
1%
51% 47% 53% 50%
35% 43% 40% 39%
12% 9% 5% 9%
2% 1% 1% 2%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
45 50
46 39
89
2
Female Male
40%
44%
52%
51%
53%
46%
51%
49%
47%
43%
39%
41%
38%
46%
41%
37%
13%
13%
7%
7%
9%
7%
7%
12%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
51%
56%
46%
55%
42%
50%
47%
50%
45%
42%
33%
38%
36%
55%
31%
44%
40%
45%
5%
9%
14%
9%
3%
19%
7%
9%
9%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 24 Developing Trustworthy and safe AI tech (Q 20a)
28
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
35%
51%
11%
2%
33% 36% 35% 41%
49% 50% 55% 50%
15% 12% 9% 9%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
33% 37%
55% 49%
10% 12%
Female Male
40%
25%
37%
37%
37%
33%
41%
39%
39%
58%
51%
53%
50%
53%
43%
53%
18%
15%
9%
7%
13%
12%
12%
6%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
34%
47%
32%
26%
38%
23%
29%
38%
37%
54%
35%
53%
62%
47%
62%
57%
49%
50%
9%
11%
13%
13%
14%
12%
10%
12%
11%
3%
7%
3%
1%
4%
1%
1%
2%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 25 Effective interaction between AI industry and public (Q 20c)
29
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
39%
50%
9%
1%
38% 40% 37%
50%
49% 50% 54%
43%
11% 9% 8% 7%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
36% 41%
54% 49%
8% 9%
Female Male
36%
37%
40%
42%
45%
37%
39%
35%
47%
52%
51%
49%
42%
54%
51%
55%
17%
9%
7%
7%
13%
7%
9%
8%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
39%
45%
36%
40%
38%
23%
35%
43%
39%
53%
38%
47%
53%
55%
69%
54%
47%
51%
6%
13%
15%
6%
8%
8%
10%
8%
9%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 26 Making public familiar with AI (Q 20b)
30
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
53%
39%
6%
1%
58% 50% 61% 52%
33% 41%
34% 43%
7% 7% 5% 5%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
48% 55%
44% 37%
6% 7%
Female Male
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 27 India needs more education and awareness programmes on AI (Q 23 E)
Respondents also expected more government intervention to address public concerns (76%;
Fig. 28) arising from this novel technology to make them confident to embrace it. Indians were keen
to establish an independent agency to ensure transparent and responsible AI technology and only
5% of the respondents disagreed with this suggestion (Fig. 29). Similar result was obtained across
the demographical categories, age, gender and educational qualifications. However, only one out
of the two medical professionals agreed with having such an institution to observe the AI and stood
apart from the other occupation classes.
31
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
35%
41%
18%
5%
1%
33% 34% 37% 41%
38% 42% 41% 41%
23% 17% 17% 11%
4% 5% 4% 7%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
32% 36%
45% 40%
17% 18%
1% 1%
Female Male
29%
26%
33%
43%
34%
33%
43%
37%
36%
38%
41%
45%
44%
47%
34%
35%
26%
28%
17%
10%
17%
14%
18%
24%
6%
6%
7%
3%
5%
5%
4%
4%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
36%
36%
35%
36%
31%
35%
26%
36%
36%
46%
40%
41%
51%
47%
42%
46%
38%
36%
12%
16%
16%
11%
18%
23%
22%
19%
22%
5%
5%
5%
2%
3%
3%
5%
5%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 28 Government intervention to manage and address public concerns (Q 20d)
32
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
34%
44%
17%
3%
2%
22%
34% 40% 45%
46%
44%
44%
45%
25%
17% 12%
9%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
28% 38%
47%
43%
20% 14%
3% 3%
2% 2%
Female Male
28%
31%
36%
36%
29%
37%
41%
27%
53%
47%
46%
45%
43%
40%
39%
47%
14%
20%
12%
14%
24%
17%
15%
24%
4%
1%
4%
3%
3%
5%
4%
2%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
37%
36%
42%
38%
37%
35%
38%
33%
28%
41%
38%
42%
47%
48%
23%
41%
46%
47%
16%
20%
13%
13%
12%
35%
13%
17%
19%
4%
2%
2%
2%
2%
4%
3%
3%
5%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 29 An independent agency to ensure transparent and ‘responsible’ AI tech (Q 23d)
In order to elucidate the picture of trusting and accepting AI by Indians, a couple of queries on
the two topics being debated all over the world - security of the personal data collected by the
AI systems and machines with autonomy – were also added to the questionnaire. The answer to
the question, who is responsible for the ‘security and protection of private information collected by
AI machines? (Fig. 30) 48% Indians answered that it is the duty of the company which collects
and store such information. People also voted for the developer of the technology (28%) and the
government (16%) for taking care of this task. It was only 7% suggested that user/consumer of
the technology is responsible for the security and protection of the information. One out of the two
people participated in the current study put this responsibility on the company who collects and
stores the data, across different the age groups. However 43% of the respondents below 20 years
felt that it is the obligation of the company who developed the technology and medical professionals
(38%) resonated this opinion. Interestingly very few (15%) government employees supported this
idea, and preferred the the responsibility to lie with the company handling the data. Interestingly
there were respondents who suggested that “no one is responsible” for the security of the private
33
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
data collected by AI (less than 3%); they were from the demographics students, graduates (both
science and technology), engineers, government employees.
1%
48%
28%
7%
16%
43% 49% 48% 50%
40% 28% 25% 30%
6% 7% 8% 5%
11% 15% 18% 16%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
52% 46%
29%
28%
5%
7%
12% 17%
Female Male
43%
49%
48%
55%
43%
51%
46%
41%
24%
29%
31%
24%
34%
25%
27%
41%
8%
8%
7%
4%
6%
8%
5%
8%
25%
10%
11%
17%
17%
16%
21%
10%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
50%
44%
44%
64%
41%
38%
40%
52%
47%
25%
29%
28%
15%
35%
38%
32%
27%
31%
6%
13%
6%
4%
4%
12%
7%
8%
5%
17%
15%
19%
15%
19%
12%
19%
11%
16%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
No-one The company who collects and stores the data
The company who developed the AI tech The consumer/ user
The government
Fig. 30 Security and protection of private information collected by AI machines is the
responsibility of (Q 22)
Autonomous machines are expected to hit the market very soon and India is not going to be an
exception. In response to the query who holds the responsibility in an accident involving human and
AI machine majority of the Indians (64%) pointed towards the company that made the machine.
Some respondents believed that human involved (13%), machine (8%) and government (4%) also
could be blamed for such an accident. Noticeably 10% of the participants felt that responsibility
of such incidents cannot be put specifically on any one. Although the notion of responsibility of
accidents to be borne by the company made the machine remained the same across the gender
34
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
and other demographics there was a good representation of the people attributing the blame on AI
machine (19%) in the age group below 20 years. Differing from other demographic categories very
few people above 60 years (2%), PhD holders (4%) and management professionals (6%) supported
the idea ‘no one is responsible for such mishaps’ (Fig. 31).
11%
8%
64%
4%
13%
9%
11%
9%
2%
19%
8%
5%
5%
62%
64%
62%
73%
2% 4% 7% 2%
9% 12% 17% 18%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
14% 9%
6% 9%
63% 65%
4% 5%
13% 13%
Female Male
14%
14%
10%
4%
10%
13%
10%
8%
6%
12%
10%
4%
10%
8%
5%
12%
54%
59%
66%
72%
55%
62%
71%
65%
8%
2%
3%
5%
5%
5%
5%
2%
18%
14%
11%
14%
20%
12%
8%
12%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
9%
11%
9%
17%
6%
12%
15%
12%
10%
6%
9%
5%
4%
5%
8%
7%
9%
12%
66%
55%
70%
57%
66%
65%
54%
66%
61%
5%
5%
5%
4%
4%
4%
7%
3%
4%
14%
20%
11%
17%
18%
12%
16%
10%
13%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
No-one The AI machine
The company who makes the AI machine The government
The human involved in the incident
Fig. 31 In event of an accident caused by an AI machine, who is responsible? (Q 21)
AI in day to day life
Fourth industrial revolution and AI based autonomous machines supporting human beings in
various realms of life is not far away. Having knowledge of whether Indians are comfortable with AI
intervening their day to day activities, and the situations they resist the presence of such machines
35
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
could be useful for industry and policy makers to prioritise their goals and educational institutions to
come out with training programmes making people fit for adapting with the AI integration. Amongst
the people participated in the present study, 39% were comfortable to hand over the tasks such as
making appointments, answering calls, handling purchase etc. to an AI agent. Women showed more
apprehension over men on AI handing these activities. Respondents over the age of 61years (59%;
Fig. 32) were happier in AI doing such tasks, while postgraduate in science, graduates (non-science
and tech) and education category till 12 grade were divided almost equally into the comfortable,
uncomfortable and neutral groups and were with lesser number of members supporting the AI doing
their routine jobs. Amongst various occupation categories medical professionals were the most
uncomfortable (38%), whereas 53% of government employees responded positively.
39%
38%
23%
40% 37% 43%
59%
38% 39% 36%
25%
22% 24% 21% 16%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
31%
43%
39%
37%
30% 20%
Female Male
32%
42%
43%
44%
41%
29%
44%
29%
40%
35%
40%
32%
33%
43%
37%
45%
28%
23%
17%
24%
27%
28%
19%
27%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
37%
44%
47%
53%
45%
38%
38%
36%
36%
39%
35%
32%
30%
37%
23%
31%
43%
38%
24%
22%
21%
17%
18%
38%
31%
21%
27%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Comfortable Neutral Uncomfortable
Fig. 32 How would you feel about an AI Agent handling your daily activities (such as making
appointments, answering calls, handling your purchases, etc.)? Q 24
36
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
Indians preferred the support of AI based personal assistants for online retail (70%) and travel
(69%). Even though the healthcare and education are projected as the areas expecting more AI
integration and attracts the attention of the developers, our results show that people are not much
in favour of AI personal assistants (38% and 34% respectively; Fig. 33) in these sectors.
70%
34%
69%
46%
38%
Online retail Healthcare Travel Finance Education
Fig. 33 I would opt for an AI based personal assistant for (Q12)
Respondents were asked, would they continue the conversation after knowing that it is an AI
agent on the other side. This question is relevant since the new conversation agents such as Google
Assistant which holds the potential to initiate and maintain conversation with near human accuracy
is expected to have more popularity in coming years. Indians (67%) were not hesitant to have
conversation with AI agents and this trend was consistent across various demographics studied
(Fig. 34).
37
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
19%
48%
21%
7%
5%
21% 19% 18% 9%
41% 47% 50% 68%
23% 21% 22%
20%
9% 7% 7%
6% 5% 3% 2%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
14% 21
48%
48%
25% 19%
8% 6%
5% 5%
Female Male
14%
14%
23%
24%
19%
14%
20%
16%
46%
53%
44%
48%
45%
50%
52%
43%
25%
22%
21%
20%
22%
21%
19%
27%
8%
6%
6%
7%
8%
8%
5%
12%
7%
6%
4%
1%
6%
7%
4%
2%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
15%
25%
27%
15%
18%
8%
13%
19%
19%
52%
44%
38%
55%
49%
65%
50%
48%
46%
20%
22%
22%
21%
19%
15%
28%
20%
23%
6%
2%
8%
4%
8%
4%
6%
9%
8%
6%
7%
5%
4%
5%
8%
3%
4%
4%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Strongly disagree
Fig. 34 You will continue if you KNEW you were having a conversation with an AI
based agent (Q 26)
Virtual assistants developed by different companies are famous in the names given to them. Some
of them hold a feminine name while others are masculine in nature. Gender neutral names are also
not rare. Siri (Apple), Alexa (Amazon) Echo (Google) are a few to name. Although 42% of the
respondents noticed no bias, 34% felt that there exists gender difference in naming the AI agents.
Youngsters (below 20 years; Fig. 35) and those who have an educational qualification till 12th
grade believed in the existence of such discrimination. The medical professionals and government
employees stood out in the demographic category, occupation; the former had only 4% and the latter
13% of members believing in the gender bias while giving names to the AI personal assistants, which
was noticeably lesser than other groups. Interestingly one out of the two medical professionals
participated in the present study 54% were not sure whether there is any bias in naming AI agents.
38
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
24%
42%
34%
37%
25%
14% 11%
36%
40%
48% 50%
27% 34% 38% 39%
Below 20
years
21 to 40
years
41 to 60
years
61+ years
23% 24%
40% 43%
37% 33%
Female Male
26%
18%
26%
17%
21%
25%
27%
43%
31%
47%
42%
43%
44%
42%
40%
31%
43%
35%
32%
40%
35%
33%
33%
27%
Grad - Non Science/Tech
Grad - Science
Grad - Tech
PhD
Postgrad - Non Science/Te ch
Postgrad - Science
Postgrad - Tech
Till 12th Grade
22%
25%
28%
13%
22%
4%
18%
28%
24%
40%
40%
40%
62%
44%
42%
49%
40%
40%
38%
35%
32%
26%
34%
54%
34%
31%
36%
Academicians
Business
Engineer
Government
Management
Medical Professionals
Others
Students
Undefined
Yes No Not sure
Fig. 35 Is there a gender bias in naming an AI based personal assistants? (Q 25)
39
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
CONCLUSION
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a quickly emerging disruptive technology which is expected to
influence humanity in an unprecedented way. Its friction free integration into the society requires
the convergence of the expertise of scientists, social scientist, industrialists and policy makers and
a clear understanding of the mindset of the consumers of this technology, the general public. The
present study provides insights into the perception and preparedness of people from various strata of
the Indian society to accept this novel and emerging technology. However, it is undisputed that India
is a ‘cultural mosaic’ where people vary in their expectations, acceptance and values, attributed to
any interventions from the side of the science and technology. Hence, it is expected that in the near
future more studies focusing various socio-economical and cultural groups in India and elaborating
their perceptions and attitude towards various AI based devices, will be taken up and would work as
the pointer for the industry and policy makers to catalyse the conflict free incorporation of this vital
technology into the Indian society.
40 NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
FURTHER READING
Bagla P. and Binoy V. V. (Eds.) (2017). Bridging the communication gap in science and technology:
Lessons from India. Springer.
Economic Times (2018). https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/economy/policy/it-ministry-
forms-four-committees-for-artificial-intelligence-ravi-shankar-prasad/articleshow/62853767.
cms . Accessed on 23 December 2018.
Frey C. B. and Osborne M. A. (2013). The future of employment: how susceptible are jobs to
computerisation? http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_
Employment.pdf ). Accessed on 27 December 2018.
Ghosh S. (2017). Artificial Intelligence and Robotics – 2017: Leveraging artificial intelligence and
robotics for sustainable growth. https://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/publications/2017/
artificial-intelligence-and-robotics-2017.pdf . Accessed on 30 December 2018.
Ghosh S. (2018). Artificial intelligence in India – hype or reality Impact of artificial intelligence
across industries and user groups. https://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/consulting/technology/
data-and-analytics/artificial-intelligence-in-india-hype-or-reality/artificial-intelligence-in-
india-hype-or-reality.pdf Accessed on 13 January 2019.
NITI Aayog (2018). National strategy for artificial intelligence. http://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/
files/document_publication/NationalStrategy-for-AI-Discussion-Paper.pdf. Accessed on 27
December 2018.
Northeastern University and Gallup (2018). Optimism and anxiety : Views on the impact of
artificial intelligence and higher education’s response
https://www.northeastern.edu/gallup/pdf/OptimismAnxietyNortheasternGallup.pdf. Accessed on
8 January 2019.
Srivastava, S. K. (2018). Artificial Intelligence: way forward for India. JISTEM-Journal of
Information Systems and Technology Management, 15.
Vempati S. S. (2016). India and the Artificial Intelligence Revolution. Carnegie Endowment for
International Peace.
World Bank (2017) https://data.worldbank.org/ Accessed on 30 December 2018.
41
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
APPENDIX 1
42
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF ADVANCED STUDIES
43
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) AND INDIA
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DOCUMENT CONTROL SHEET
1. Document No. and Date: NIAS/NSE/U/RR/070/2019
2. Title: Artificial Intelligence (AI) and India: Promise, Perception and Preparedness
3. Type of Document: Research Report
4. No. of Pages and Figures: 46, 35
5. No. of References: 11
6. Authors(s): M. Sai Baba, V.V. Binoy, Tanvi Vasan and H.J. Subhash
7. Originating School: Natural Science and Engineering
8. Programme: None
9. Collaboration: None
10. Sponsoring Agency: National Council for Science and Technology Communication
(NCSTC), Department of Science and Technology
11. Abstract:
AI is identified as one of the emerging technologies which would have bearing on the
lives of the people and society in the coming years. As part of a project “Managing Public
Perceptions and Public Acceptances of Public Risks Associated with New and Emerging
Technologies through Science and Technology Communications” funded by the NCSTC,
DST, NIAS, has conducted an online survey to know various dimensions of the perceptions
on AI and the results are reported in this report.
12. Keywords:
Artificial Intelligence, Public Perception, AI a Risky Technology, Awareness, Adoption
13. Security Classification: Unrestricted
14. ISBN: None
Conference Paper
During the evolution of the COVID-19 outbreak, the necessity for companies to re-evaluate and restructure themselves is still not greater. It will make sense for things to change in the business operations. Most companies redesigned current existing ways of running business operations and capacity to make choices to benefit. The present condition sees Artificial Intelligence as a significant facilitator for companies to make their existing situation better (recover from their economic crisis), reconsider (prepare for a long-term change) and reinvent (completely re-engineer) their business model for long-term gain. Automated bots that could identify items and carry out duties that were previously reserved for people would make companies and other infrastructures operational around the clock, through more significant numbers, and at a lower cost. Simulated actual working conditions, including labour forces, would be created by using Artificial intelligence platforms. Businesses would use machine learning and sophisticated business intelligence to use artificial intelligence to explore better market dynamics and provide consumers with "hyper-personalized" goods. Some of the most compelling case studies can have human intelligence and expertise mixed with AI. Many firms should revamp current business processes and capacity to benefit the company in the near future. In this research paper, we have showcased how artificial intelligence would benefit businesses as they adopt with these current developments and during a condition of pandemic without inhibiting their activities. The research is carried in a descriptive way, choosing the diverse sectors in the economy like Banking & Finance, Manufacturing, Education, Retail, Telecommunications, Entertainment and media to make the research more robust and reliable.
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Article
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is likely to transform the way we live and work. Due to its high potential, its adoption is being treated as the fourth industrial revolution. As with any major advancement in technology, it brings with it a spectrum of opportunities as well as challenges. On one hand, several applications have been developed or under development with potential to improve the quality of life significantly. As per a study, it is expected to double the annual economic growth rate of 12 developed countries by 2035. On the other hand, there is a possibility of loss of jobs. As per the available reports, the loss of jobs during the next 10-20 years is estimated to be 47% in the US, 35% in the UK, 49% in Japan, 40% in Australia, and 54% in the EU. In the era of globalization, no country can isolate itself from the impact of the advances in technology. However, the benefits can be maximized and losses can be minimized by putting necessary infrastructure and policy in place. Though several countries have decided their strategy for AI, India has not yet formulated its strategy. The report reviews the international as well as national scenario and suggests way forward for India. © 2018 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.
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We examine how susceptible jobs are to computerisation. To assess this, we begin by implementing a novel methodology to estimate the probability of computerisation for 702 detailed occupations, using a Gaussian process classifier. Based on these estimates, we examine expected impacts of future computerisation on US labour market outcomes, with the primary objective of analysing the number of jobs at risk and the relationship between an occupations probability of computerisation, wages and educational attainment.
Artificial intelligence in India -hype or reality Impact of artificial intelligence across industries and user groups
  • S Ghosh
Ghosh S. (2018). Artificial intelligence in India -hype or reality Impact of artificial intelligence across industries and user groups. https://www.pwc.in/assets/pdfs/consulting/technology/ data-and-analytics/artificial-intelligence-in-india-hype-or-reality/artificial-intelligence-inindia-hype-or-reality.pdf Accessed on 13 January 2019.
National strategy for artificial intelligence
  • Niti Aayog
NITI Aayog (2018). National strategy for artificial intelligence. http://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/ files/document_publication/NationalStrategy-for-AI-Discussion-Paper.pdf. Accessed on 27 December 2018.
India and the Artificial Intelligence Revolution. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
  • S S Vempati
Vempati S. S. (2016). India and the Artificial Intelligence Revolution. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.