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Social Media Effect on Divorce

Authors:

Abstract

Social network sites offer many advantages to interact and communicate. On the other side it also increased the risk especially on personal communication. In this descriptive qualitative study we examine the marital privacy information disclosure on Facebook, online infidelity, and the effect of both on divorce. We conducted online interviews to 16 Facebook users of single man/woman who have divorced in last 5 years. We investigated the content of their status and the disclosure on Facebook, their online infidelity, and the effect of both on divorce. The expected finding is to understand how the disclosure of marital privacy on Facebook encourage an online infidelity that eventually become the cause of divorce cases.
Social Media Effect on Divorce
1st Maria M Widiantari
Dept.of Communication
Sebelas Maret University
Surakarta, Indonesia
ryaristunugroho@student.uns.ac.id
3th Prahastiwi Utari
Dept. of Communication
Sebelas Maret University
Surakarta, Indonesia
prahastiwi@staff.uns.ac.id
2nd Pawito
Dept. of Communication Sebelas Maret
University
Surakarta, Indonesia
pawito_palimin@staff.uns.ac.id
4rd I.D.A Nurhaeni
Dept.of Sociology
Sebelas Maret University
Surakarta, Indonesia
ismidwiastuti@staff.uns.ac.id
Abstract Social network sites offer many advantages to
interact and communicate. On the other side it also increased the
risk especially on personal communication. In this descriptive
qualitative study we examine the marital privacy information
disclosure on Facebook, online infidelity, and the effect of both
on divorce. We conducted online interviews to 16 Facebook users
of single man/woman who have divorced in last 5 years. We
investigated the content of their status and the disclosure on
Facebook, their online infidelity, and the effect of both on
divorce.
The expected finding is to understand how the disclosure of
marital privacy on Facebook encourage an online infidelity that
eventually become the cause of divorce cases.
KeywordsSocial media, marital privacy disclosure, online
infidelity , divorce
I. INTRODUCTION
The daily lives of Indonesian people today are
inseparable from the internet and social media. Social media
is one of the results of technological developments that have
a great contribution on communication and socialization.
Everyone has a social media account, even more than one
social media account, which allows one to communicate,
interact, and establish relationships with other people around
the world. This new technology has been widely accessed
and has become a daily necessity, becoming a lifestyle, even
increasing one's standard of living.
The development of gadgets and smartphones allows
everyone to access information and interact whenever and
wherever. Research conducted by We Are Social, a British
media company that works with Hootsuite, shows that the
average of Indonesian people takes 3 hours 23 minutes a day
to access social media. Indonesia's total population is around
265.4 million, and 130 million are active social media users.
The most downloaded applications are WhatsApp, Facebook,
Instagram and Line. Facebook became the most visited
social media with an average online duration of 12 minutes
27 seconds per visitor. The average age of Facebook users is
24-48 years old, 44% of them are women [1].
Every technological development produces two different
sides. Social media is a very effective medium of
communication and interaction to achieve communication
goals. On the other hand, we cannot avoid the negative
effects. Communication using internet media has an impact
not only on communication behavior but also on the flow
and variety of communication message content. Every day,
we face the invasion of messages in various forms, contents,
and ways, even information that might not be useful for us
[2].
The development of information and communication
technology have a positive impact on build and maintain
relationships with other people throughout the world. It can
be used to share information anytime and anywhere,
communicate without borders, fill the leisure time, or online
learning. While the negative impacts are reducing face to
face interactions, reducing physical activity so that it has a
negative impact on health, costs both to buy gadgets and
internet packages, eliminate some jobs because of being
replaced by technology, and also loss of privacy especially
on the use of social media [3].
Divorce rates in Indonesia increased rapidly year to year.
Since 2000, the increase in divorce cases has reached 15-20
percent of total marriages each year. Many factors encourage
increased divorce rates, such as economic problems,
domestic violence, marital conflict, unpreparedness due to
early marriage, and infidelity. The presence of social media
is also suspected to be one of the factors supporting the
increase of divorce cases in Indonesia. Although it is not the
main factor that significantly causes divorce, online infidelity
is one of the supporting factors. In several studies, it was
found that infidelity both in real life and on social media can
occur when a person faces problems in the household [4].
In this study we investigate the disclose of marital
privacy information on Facebook, online infidelity, and the
effect of both on divorce. The expected findings of this
study is to understand how the disclosure of marital privacy
on Facebook encourage an online infidelity that eventually
become the cause of divorce cases.
We conducted online interviews to 16 Facebook users of
single man/woman who have divorced in last 5 years, and
investigated the content of their status and the disclosure on
Facebook, their experience on online infidelity, and the
effect of both on divorce
.
1st Annual Internatioal Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (AICOSH 2019)
Copyright © 2019, the Authors. Published by Atlantis Press.
This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/).
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 339
160
II. LITERATURE REVIEW
A. Online Interpersonal Communication
Information technology allows everyone to communicate
with each other wherever and in any situation. Since the
world wide web era found by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991,
communication patterns have changed from face to face
communication and verbal communication, becoming media
communication. The advantages of media communication
include, in terms of time, being more effective and efficient,
requiring no physical presence, and thus overcoming
geographical constraints.
Some experts say communication media has weaknesses
in terms of expressing expressions, which are not easily
represented in the form of words. This assumption is denied
that the obstacle can be overcome by the presence of
emoticons, even though the use of emoticons is still
questionable. The use of emoticons can be for reasons of
writing style, language preference, or ease of describing
moods. Whatever the reason, communicating using media
does not eliminate the essence of the meaning of the
message.
Communication is not only about sending message but
also about producing and exchanging meanings. While
interpersonal communication refer to communication
between two people that take place face-to-face (dyadic
communication), where the process takes place
spontaneously and informally, with maximum feedback
between the participants, and the role of each participants
are flexible.
Interpersonal communication can be viewed in a variety
of ways, each of which can help us to better understand the
overall communication process. Interpersonal
communication can occur in any environment, be it formal
or informal. Most of the interpersonal messages are informal
and face-to face encounters. With the exception of telephone
conversations, most of the interpersonal communication
involves people close enough to see and touch each other
[5].
In the era of internet, we connected with lot of essential
things in our everyday life, and by the use of gadget, many
task has becomes easier and social contacs has been
increased. We can access and share any information anytime
and anywhere, with people from different parts of the world
together to communicate with each other across the world. It
gives an opportunity to improving communication, to meet
new people online and establish a friendship, even to share
the personal information online.
The development of social networking sites has
consequences on communication patterns using computer
media. Communication with computer media can occur in
the context of mass communication or interpersonal
communication. In this study, the focus is on interpersonal
communication through Facebook.
B. Social Media : Facebook
The new communication technologies are actually an
extensions and convergences of communication technologies
that make possible for human to do business, share
information, even sustain personal relationship. It makes
interconnectivity between various devices that enhance the
convenience to interact with others around the world. In
collaborate with internet technology, social media being one
of innovations in communication technology that also
crucial in people’s nowadays life. As noted before,
Facebook became the most visited social media with an
average online duration of 12 minutes 27 seconds per visitor
[1].
The growth of social media users, has attracted the
attention of researchers especially related to the effects of
media on human life. Social media are used to find friends,
(re)connect with old friends, family and relatives, maintain
relationships, share information, join group, create and
manage events, pass time, and much more. It is not only
allows people to know more about others but also provides
an opportunity to tell about themselves and socialize with
others.[6] Facebook provide the user the ability to disclose
and share their information including personal information
such as birthday, favorite activities, hobbies, place of work,
education, daily activities, status updates, photos/videos,
wall posts, links to their favorite websites, associations and
interactions with other user and groups, relayed thoughts
and conversation between others users and more [6].
Many researcher noted social media has negative effect
on people’s life, such as reduced face to face interaction,
enhance social cohesivity, and even loss of privacy [3].
Interpersonal disclosure used to be something that was
intimate and private. Facebook has changed that perception
And Facebook become one of the causes of divorce
because it provides an opportunity to disclose personal
information to public areas including marital private
information and the opportunities for online infidelity.
C. Privacy Disclosure on Social Media
Communication on social media complements face-to-
face conversations and other mediated forms of
communication, and even reinforce communication in other
channels. However, it also involves privacy risk of sharing
private information.Westin in [7] defined privacy as the
claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for
themselves when, how, and to what extent information about
themselves in communicated to others”. While Altman in [6]
define privacy as “ selective control of access to the self”, or
interpersonal boundary control through which individuals or
larger social unit aims to achieve a temporarily desired level
of interpersonal contact.
Privacy is necessary to maintain personal autonomy,
emotional release, and self-evaluation as well as limited and
protected communication, so it is linked to self-disclosure.
Sandra Petronio have developed Communication Privacy
Management (CPM) theory that shows us how someone
controls privacy information, whether it is hidden from
others, how much information can be shared with others,
and to whom privacy information will be shared [8].
Communication Privacy Management (CPM) theory
stated : (a) People believe that they own and have a right to
control their private information; (b) People control their
private information through personal privacy rules; (c)
Others that given access for the private information become
co-owners; (d) The owner and co-owners negotiate a
mutual privacy rules of telling others; (e) Private turbulence
occurs when the privacy rule is violated.
The management of privacy consist of three main parts
of model : privacy ownership, privacy control, and privacy
turbulence. Privacy ownership refers to who owns the
information, including the second party namely co-owner of
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 339
161
the private information. Privacy control is the negotiation
among the owners of private information about the rule in
order to keep or disclose to others. Moreover, privacy
turbulence is the condition where the owners of private
information lose control, break the rule and disclose the
private information to other party.
In the context of social media, privacy turbulence may
happen wider and faster because everyone may participate in
the conversation. Once the private information disclosed via
social media, the owner can not stop the spread. The
different from human face-to face communication is that in
the face-to-face communication, this private information can
be managed by the rule negotiated between the owner and
co-owners. In computer mediated communication, the
control of privacy information-being disclose or not- is on
the owner’s hand. Once it is reveal, then the effort to stop the
wider spread will be useless [.9]
Grenee in [6] define self-disclosure as an interaction
between at least two individuals where one intends to
deliberately divulge something personal to another.
Meanwhile, Derlega in [6] said that self-disclosure acts are
both voluntary and intentional and comprise verbal and non-
verbal acts, thought, feelings, experiences, aspirations, fears,
likes and dislikes. Self-disclosure has been reported to be
generally rewarding in terms of forming intimate
associations, social contacs and friends, receiving social
acceptance and approval.
The degree of intimacy in communication shows on the
amount of disclosure - the frequency and duration of user’s
disclosure- and the depth of disclosure. We assumed that if
someone believe that the others with whom the information
is being shared on social media will take appropriate
decisions or not, the will develop a boundary structures with
high ownership possibilities and disclose more information
(amount and depth) about themselves.
In the CMC context, Jiang in [6] reported that the amount
and depth of self-disclosure is directly related to their
percieved value of the desire outcome. So did Cho and
Walrave found that the motive of using social media
influences the disclosure and privacy settings.
III. RESEARCH METHOD
In this qualitative descriptive research, we conducted
online interviews to 16 Facebook users of single
man/woman who have been divorced in last 5 years. We
investigated the content of marital privacy information
disclosure on Facebook, their experience on online
infidelity, and the effect of both on divorce. The condition,
process, and the connection of any important aspect that
found in this research being studied and described in this
paper.
This study applied Petronio’s Communication Privacy
Management (CPM) theory and exploring the disclosure of
marital privacy information of an active social media users
and its consequences on online infidelity and divorce.
Data analyzed in 3 part. The first is the marital privacy
disclosure, the second is online infidelity experience, and
then the impact of both on divorce.
IV. FINDING AND DISCUSSION
Social media that dominates nowadays human
interaction, need to manage the privacy. The management of
privacy consist of three main parts of model : privacy
ownership, privacy control, and privacy turbulence.
A. Marital Privacy Disclosure in Facebook
The privacy ownership refers to who owns the
information about the person. It is not about the original
owner, but also the second party that has shared information
because the original owner reveals them [10]. Previous
studies conducted by Chennamaneni and Taneja [6] found
that self disclosure on social media is particularly
rewarding in terms of forming and fostering relationship,
building social capital, and managing identity.
According to boundary management perspective, a
marital couple manage their talking about private matters
each other, manage the ballancing need for disclosure and
the need for privacy. Any prerequisite condition needed for
disclosure and the strategies of disclosing may use to tell and
to reply private information, such as setting, reciever, sender,
and the relationship characteristic [11]
A personal information does not mean esspecially
sensitive, privacy, or embarrassing [12]. In this study,
marital privacy information refers to all information about
the spouse relationship, that should be kept as unpublish
information. In relation with sharing information in
Facebook, we asked participants to remember and describe a
recent situation involving a marital privacy disclosure.
First, we asked participants about the information they
considered as privacy information, including about the self
(feeling, thoughts, opinion), family affairs and romantic
relationship, problem and conflict of any kind, personal
achievements and experiences, health conditions, and
financial situation. Meanwhile, the concept of privacy
information according to participants varies, between
information that must be kept alone or may be shared with
limited people
For example, Fitri (38)- two years divorcee- described
privacy as keeping information to herself and not sharing to
others at all : “ There is so many things in our life that I
want to keep on myself, and be my concern only... If I want
to share this privacy information, I have to choose someone I
trust”. Contrast with Fitri, Dicky (34) – six months having an
affair with an office mate- described privacy as a bounded
sphere with limite person in this boundary, to whom he share
privacy information.
Then, we asked participants about information they
considered as marital privacy information, and the answers
are sex and romantic (intimacy), achievements, and marital
conflict. Some participants added work, personal
information, and personal stuffs as privacy information that
should not be share to public.
As mentioned earlier, the willingness to disclose privacy
information depended on the need for disclosure, trust in the
partner, and the availability of alternative communication
channels. The rules of sharing information is different
between online and face-to-face communication. In online
context, participants seem like stronger to control their
privacy than in face-to-face context, because of the risk
being wider spread and the opportunity to reconsider before
disclose. Social media audiences are potentially large and
anonym even can not be physically perceived. And as a
digital data, the information shared in social media are
persistent, replicable, searchable so that the concept of co-
owners in this context is unavailable, except they consider
the depth and breadth of disclosure through interpersonal
communication with trusted online friends, and moving to
Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 339
162
private channels such as Messenger. This following
paragraph will discuss about marital privacy information
disclosure in Facebook according to participants.
Sex and romantic (intimacy)
Sex and romantic (intimacy) considered as the most
private of marital privacy information which must be
carefully considered before disclose it in social media. For
couples, sex and romantic relationships (intimacy) is
something that is not feasible to disclose to public.
According to some participants, speaking about sex,
romanticism, and intimacy even though in a relationship with
a married couple is culturally taboo. They are more
comfortable discussing about this with close friends in face-
to-face communication context, with limited boundaries.
Furthermore, participants also considered that disclosing
sex, romantic, and intimacy issues on Facebook must
consider the norms adopted by the community, what was
generally accepted by public, considered the politeness, and
did not result moral and law problems. For example
uploading images or intimate photos, or expressing romantic
feelings for their spouse.
This participant's view also applies to the relationship of
cheating partner, in a much more controlled level. Usually
information about relationship status with spouses and
cheating partners is expressed differently. The status of
spouse is usually revealed in a Facebook account profile,
while information about a special relationship with a
cheating partner is usually revealed from comments or
"likes" on someone's status, or not responding at all but
communicating in private through private channels.
Achievements
Achievements are also described as a privacy
information, but not really connected with marital status or
marital privacy information. For some people, assets are not
need to be revealed on social media. Besides unethic, they
don't want to invite criminals. Some participants argued,
revealing personal achievements arouse pride, show family
success, and get praise. But it feels better to keep it as private
information and it is not something that should be known by
public.
In the family, husband and wife may have their own
income. One of the participant's considerations to avoid
revealing income and property through social media is not to
create a feeling of rivalry between husband and wife
Marital Conflict
Many studies found that disclosing domestic conflicts
can lead to divorce. As mentioned earlier, the participants in
this study were divorcee who have been divorced in the last 5
years, both men and women.
We explore participant’s experiences in using social
media before, during the process, and after divorce, whether
they reveal marital conflicts on Facebook or not. Participants
argued that revealing a husband and wife conflict on
Facebook is embarrassing and also opened the chance for a
third party to involve in conflict which might actually make
things worst.
Fig 1. How participant express their felling on Facebook
Instead of revealing on Facebook, participants choose to
talk to their closest friends - not close family - in a face-to-
face communication.
Three participants said that during and until the divorce
process, they chose to close their Facebook account in order
to avoid the divorce process being known by public, because
divorce always considered as a failed marriage and it is
embarrasing, and did not want to involve many people (even
close friends or family) during the problem.
During a marital conflict, participants express feelings
on Facebook with symbolic language, wise words, or
emoticons that represent feelings. For example, Fitri, who
just found her husband being involved with another woman,
wrote a status like shows on Fig. 1.
That simbolic sentences represent her feeling. Although
did not disclose clearly, public could suspect that this
participant was in conflict with her husband, but can not be
sure whether Fitri was truly in marital conflict or not.
Meanwhile, a different way to disclose done by Nissya
who prefers to share a link that represents her feeling when
she were in conflict with her husband. According to Nissya,
the links she shared not only to express feelings but also to
motivate herself to be stronger. Sometimes she also hopes
that her husband will read the shared link - although it is less
likely- to see what Nissya feels.
As mention earlier, privacy disclosure needs any
conditions and strategies for participants, not only when
uploading status, but also in responding by comments or
answering questions. Likewise in responding the status of
others, it also need any conditions that support whether to
clearly disclose privacy information, use symbols, or share
links.
The relationship closeness with someone is also one of
the factors that influence the disclosure of marital privacy
information. Being closer and more often communicating
with friends by online, increasing the trust to others so that
more convenient to disclose their privacy information.
B. Online Infidelity
Internet brings the change on today’s personal
relationship in the context of social media. The uses of
social media had given arise to a new challenge in married,
namely online infidelity. Commonly, infidelity understood
as a violation of the marital agreement, a betrayal of one's
trust, and a threat to the marital bond. There were two types
of infidelity: sexual and emotional infidelity. The increasing
of the use of social media, produced a new type of infidelity:
online infidelity.
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163
Fig. 2. Express feeling by share a link
The concept of online infidelity refers to a romantic
and/or sexual relationship with someone other than the
spouse, which begins with an online contact and is
maintained mainly through electronic conversations that
occur through online media.
First, we asked participants about their concept of online
infidelity, then we classified the answer on three condition :
(1) Violations of marriage institutions that exclusively
involve emotional and sexual aspects, so that engaging
emotionally and sexually with other people who are not
their spouse is a form of infidelity ; (2) Intimate
conversations carried out in a confidential context and
hidden from their spouse are a form of infidelity ; (3)
Intimate relationships that involve intimate conversation
and/or sexual intercourse with other people that hidden from
their spouse and violate the principles of trust between
husband and wife are a form of infidelity.
From the definition above, then we asked the
participants about their experience with online infidelity.
Four participants -they are men- said that they have an
experience on online infidelity. Aldo (37) had his infidelity
ended in divorce but he did not marry his cheating partner.
The remaining three participants claimed that they have an
affair by online, but their affair considered as not a serious
affair, only in the form of intimate chat. When this
infidelity caught by their wife, it cause a temporary quarrel
but it have not been ending in divorce.
While another six participants were women, and had
experience with online affairs. The two women participants
(Fany, 29 & Yuli, 34) committed an online infidelity and
ended in divorce. Nevertheless, they remain in a secret
relationship, but they did not marry with their cheating
partner who is still in marriage with another woman.
The remaining 4 participants claimed that they have
never involved in an affair, but they ask for divorced
because they found their husbands having an affair and two
husband finally marry the women with whom they had an
affair.
Further, the participants were asked, when they were in
conflict with their spouse -in relation with online infidelity-
to whom they disclosed their privacy and whether they
expressed their feelings by uploading status on Facebook.
Most participants claimed not to disclose the conflict
through a Facebook account. Even if they want to write
status, they use certain sentences that they thought will not
directly understood by public. Fig. 3 shows the way
participants express their feelings on Facebook while they
were in marital conflict.
When they were in marital conflict with spouse, usually
the participant disclosed to their closest friend -not to one of
their family members- in the context of face-to-face
communication. Generally, the information they reveal to
closest friends was not detail about the conflict except they
did it to a friends who are very close and someone they can
trust.
In the context of online disclosure, they disclose just a
little information about this marriage conflict only to online
friends they can trust based on their experiences before and
through personal message. When participants asked whether
participants chose same-sex friends or not while they
disclose their marital conflict, most participants chose the
Fig. 3. Feeling expression while in marital conflict
same-sex friends, but some participants chose based on trust
in close friends whether they were same-sex or not.
Then we asked participants their opinions about the risk
of disclosing privacy information in Facebook about online
infidelity and furthermore the risk of online infidelity
towards divorce. Most participants stated that not all
disclosures of marital privacy information could lead to
online infidelity. But it can happen if it is followed by
intensive personal communication and involves emotional
aspects. According to participants, the risk of privacy
disclosure on Facebook on online infidelity is not
significant.
While the participants' opinions about the risk of online
infidelity on divorce were also not significant. Infidelity is
believed cause hurt and eliminate trust, but it is not a main
factor in causing divorce. Only online infidelity that
involves emotional and sexual aspects has the potential to
cause divorce, unless the spouse cannot accept the online
infidelity and ask for divorce.
Disclosing marital privacy information on Facebook and
online infidelity is considered not the direct cause of divorce.
Other conditions are needed that encourage divorce.
V. CONCLUSION
In this article, we examine the marital privacy
information disclosure on Facebook, online infidelity, and
the effect of both on divorce. The expected findings of this
study is an understanding of how the disclosure of marital
privacy on Facebook encourage an online infidelity that
eventually become the cause of divorce cases.
The result suggest the disclosure of marital privacy
information have no relation with online infidelity and there
are many other conditions needed before social media is
considered as the cause of divorce.
Our participants define the most privacy information in
marital relationship is sex and romantic (intimacy),
achievements, and marital conflict. The reveal of these on
Facebook considered as taboo, useless, and have any
negative impact. The disclosure of marital privacy
information done using symbolic language, sentences that
are not vulgar or share links that represent the feelings.
Disclosure of marital privacy information is not directly
related to online infidelity, unless followed by intensive
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164
interpersonal communication through private message. And
the online infidelity is not directly causing divorce, unless
involving emotional and sexual aspects, or the spouse could
not accept the infidelity and asked for divorce.
In sum, this study demonstrates the importances of
investigating management disclosure of marital privacy
information by marital couples on social media, disclosure
of private information between marital couples, and
communication strategy to improve relations that have been
damaged by online infidelity.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I would like to thank my comittee members Prof. Pawito,
Prahastiwi Utari, PhD., and Prof. I.D.A Nurhaeni who have
guided the research process and writing this article.
I would also like to express my gratitude to all
participants who gave me the trust to hear their privacy
information regarding the issue of marriage and divorce for
the sake of the continuation of my dissertation research
process.
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Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research, volume 339
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... In addition, recent studies have shown OSN use can play a negative role in current and former social and sexual relationships. Widiantari et al. (2019) found that the marital privacy/status information disclosure on Facebook, and online infidelity, both affect divorce rates in Indonesia. Their finding argues the disclosure of marital privacy/status on Facebook encourages online infidelity that eventually becomes the cause of divorce. ...
Article
Research on online social networks (OSNs) has focused overwhelmingly on their benefits and potential, with their negative effects overlooked. This study builds on the limited existing work on the so-called 'dark side' of using OSNs. The authors conducted a systematic review of selected databases and identified 46 negative effects of using OSNs from the users' perspective, which is a rich spectrum of users' negative experiences. This article then proposed nomenclature and taxonomy for the dark side of using OSNs by grouping these negative effects into six themes: cost of social exchange, cyberbullying, low performance, annoying content, privacy concerns, and security threats. This study then conducted structured interviews with experts to confirm the sense-making and validity of the proposed taxonomy. This study discusses the confirmed taxonomy and outlines directions for future research.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In today's interrelated world, information and communication technology (ICT) is extensively used by our country and it affects our lives everyday. In the current digital age everyday new technology comes as ICT riot. These new technologies have been accessible by people in their everyday life and increase their living standards. Now days, many ICT gadgets are used in our life and they facilitate with mobility thus used anywhere and anytime. These gadgets operate for Information, Speed, and Communication and reduce the physical and mental human work load. By that principles, modern day gadgets truly helped mankind in daily life. ICT has contributed a lot to change our everyday life such as letter to e-mail, market shopping to on-line shopping, classroom learning to e-learning, etc. This paper present's the effects of ICT as Home and Domestic Activities, Social Networking, Education, Health, Commerce, Banking, and Employment. Based on this review, positive and negative impacts to use ICT in our day to day life are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
New communication media such as social networking sites (SNSs) and instant messengers (IMs) challenge users’ privacy perceptions. Technical infrastructures and the flow of digital information lead to novel privacy risks that individuals are often not acquainted with. Users’ subjective perceptions of privacy may thus be flawed and lead to irrational behavior. In this work, we investigated a concept that has been addressed only implicitly in academic research on privacy: the user’s subjective perception of a given level of privacy. We examined the literature on how privacy perceptions have been conceptualized in traditional theories of privacy and how these conceptualizations are challenged in social media communication. We first qualitatively explored laypeople’s privacy concepts and investigated their subjective perceptions of privacy levels and subsequent private disclosures in different mediated and nonmediated communication settings. Interviews with N = 33 Germans revealed that, similar to academic privacy theories, they tend to conceptualize privacy as control over social, physical, and psychological boundaries. However, trust and other-dependent privacy emerged as important novel aspects for understanding privacy regulation in online communication. We further found that individuals consistently perceived a high level of privacy in face-to-face situations and a low level of privacy in public communication on SNSs. With regard to IMs, however, their answers were mixed: Uncertainty regarding digital communication properties and audiences as well as limited control over the communication setting prevented a reliable and shared perception of the privacy level. With regard to privacy behavior and private disclosures, we found that people tend to adapt their sharing of private information to the perceived level of privacy.
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Article
Communication privacy management theory: Significance for interpersonal communication Lauren was a 20-year-old college student who seemingly had everything. During her junior year, she was voted football Homecoming Queen, made exceptional marks in her classes, and had a “full ride” scholarship to the university she had always dreamed of attending. Life was good. However, during the summer between her junior and senior year of college, Lauren's dreams were altered. Immediately following her junior year, her college sweetheart broke off their romantic relationship. Surprised and broken hearted, Lauren began drinking and partying heavily, and found herself having a string of regrettable sexual encounters. At the beginning of the fall semester of her senior year, Lauren and her college sweetheart rekindled their relationship. Lauren was as happy as she had ever been. However, as she did every fall, Lauren donated blood during the university's blood drive. Four weeks after donating blood, Lauren was ...
Article
This article presents a theoretical approach that may be used to understand the way individuals regulate disclosure of private information. The communication boundary management perspective, while more generally applicable, in this presentation focuses on the way marital couples manage talking about private matters with each other. This theoretical perspective presents a boundary coordination process representing couples’management of communication boundaries in balancing a need for difclosure with the need for privacy. The theory identifies the prerequisite conditions for disclosure and the message strategies a disclosing spouse may use to tell private information, as well as the strategic messages the marital partner may use to reply. In addition, a proposal for the way the disclosing spouse and receiving partner manage the coordination of their communication boundaries is presented.
The Effect of Technology on Face-to-Face Communication
  • E Drago
E. Drago, "The Effect of Technology on Face-to-Face Communication", in The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, Vol. 6, No.1, Spring 2015, pp.13-19
Communication Principles
  • T J Yesudhasan
T. J. Yesudhasan, " Communication Principles" http://164.100.133.129:81/econtent/Uploads/Communication_Principl es.pdf, Malaysia: Rai Technology University Campus (handout)