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Effects of Temperature on the Growth and Anthocyanin Content of Echeveria agavoides and E. marcus

Abstract Few studies have reported how temperature
influences growth and development of succulents, including
anthocyanin production, which could fetch better prices in
the market, and understanding the factors influencing such
pigments would benefit farmers. The present study investigated
the effect of temperature (10°C, 20°C, and 30°C) on the
growth, development, and anthocyanin concentrations in
Echeveria agavoides
E. marcus
. In
, similar
growth performance was observed at 10°C and 20°C based
on plant height and diameter. However, subjecting the
species to a high temperature of 30°C resulted in a decrease
in plant height. In
E. marcus
, optimal growth performance was
observed at 20°C. Different temperatures did not significantly
affect succulent quality and color hues. Only L* values were
significantly different among the Hunter’s Lab values. Similar
results were observed following anthocyanin and image
analyses, both of which were not significantly affected
by temperature. However, an intense red pigment was
observed at 20°C compared with the green pigment observed
at 10°C and 30°C based on the image analysis. The results
suggest that temperature influences growth, development,
and anthocyanin content of
succulents, and 20°C
could be the optimal temperature for the cultivation of the
Additional key words: anthocyanin, CIELAB, image analysis,
segmentation, succulents, temperature
Echeveria species are succulent species that belong to
the Crassulaceae family which has a worldwide distribution
with over 1,500 species with 33 genera and has been
characterized due to its rosette succulent leaves (Jimeno et
al. 2013). Because of its easy propagation and beauty of its
leaf rosettes and colorful flowers, this genus has been
growing in popularity among houseplant and botanical
collectors. This genus has over 130 species which have
diversity and has been found to be natives of Mexico to
Southern America and Northern Argentina (Eggli and Taylor
Although succulent crops have a high market demand
due to its water-sufficient trait (Sevilla et al. 2012), there are
many questions as to what appropriate environmental
conditions these ornamentals would thrive on and enhance
the plant quality (Rowley 1978). Succulents under this
genus are known for the development of gradient colors on
the margins of the lower or mature leaves of the plant
(Fischer and Schaufler 1981). The colors range from light
pink to red and even deep red hues that are already close
to brown or black. This change in color may be due to the
presence of the anthocyanin pigments (Welch et al. 2008).
One of the primary environmental factors that affect the
rate of plant development is temperature. It plays a
predominant role in the control and proper growth of
plants (Khodorva and Conti 2013). Different crop species
respond to temperature for their phenological growth such
their height, diameter, leaf structure, and color as well as
completion of their reproductive stages (Hatfield and
Prueger 2015).
*Corresponding author: Sang Yong Nam
Tel: +82-2-3399-1732
ORCID: htt
Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90
DOI htt
ISSN 1225-5009(Print)
ISSN 2287-772X
Effects of Temperature on the Growth and Anthocyanin Content
of Echeveria agavoides and E. marcus
Raisa Aone M. Cabahug
, Young Jin Choi
, and Sang Yong Nam
1Department of Environmental Horticulture, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01759, Korea
2Natural Science Research Institute, Sahmyook University, Seoul 01759, Korea
Received 2 November 2018; Revised 19 December 2018; Accepted 4 June 2019
Copyright © 2019 by The Korean Society for Floricultural Science
Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90 81
A defined range of maximum and minimum temperatures
for each species comes as a boundary for observable
growth. It is deemed that there must be a certain level in
which the plant will achieve its optimum growth (Hatfield
et al. 2011). Results of researches suggest that the level of
temperature is a key player in the assimilation of nutrients,
hormones and even pigments that would affect the plants’
growth rate (Adams et al. 2001). Aside from growth
parameters, studies of Rabino and Mancinelli (1986)
revealed that temperature affected the total amount of
anthocyanin in cabbage seedlings. Studies also showed that
temperature affects the biosynthesis of anthocyanin in
apples (Ubi et al. 2006), grapes (Yamane et al. 2006) and
also in roses (Lo Piero et al. 2005).
In plants, the presence of anthocyanin usually adds
beauty and colors to the ornamentals, however, in human
health, anthocyanin has an important role and considered
to be a source for dietary compounds and antioxidants
(Devi et al. 2012). Thus, the study aimed to determine the
effects of temperature levels on the growth, development,
and quality as well as the anthocyanin content of two
Echeveria species in controlled environments.
Materials and Methods
Planting materials
Two Echeveria species were chosen, namely E. agavoides
and E. marcus species, for the conduct of the study. These
succulent species were purchased from a succulent nursery
farm in Anseong Province in South Korea.
E. agavoides possesses mainly of a greener tone leaf
color while E. marcus has seen to be mainly on the blueish
green leaf color. Healthy and disease-free succulents
approximately sixty-days old grown from the said succulent
nursery and were grown at an average temperature of 18°C
(± 5°C). Experimental plants that were chosen were
standardized in both maturity and size. Succulents were
then transferred in the greenhouse of Sahmyook University,
Seoul, South Korea at the start of the experiment.
Experimental design, treatments and growth
The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized
design having three treatments with four replications (six
plants per replication), a total of seventy-two plants per
species. Three temperature levels were 10°C, 20°C, and 30°C
(± 1°C). All experimental plants were placed inside three
plant growth chambers (KGC-175 VH, Koenic Ltd., South
Korea). The relative humidity was set at 65%. There was a
14-hour light period and 10-hour dark period. The light
condition was set at 75 μmolm
Data gathered
Plant height and diameter
The succulents’ height and diameter data were obtained
using a digital Vernier caliper (SR 44, Blue Bird Co.,
Japan). The plant height was taken from the base of the
soil to the highest part of the plant. The plant diameter was
taken from the largest possible measurement from each
opposing leaf tips. The data was taken at the termination of
the study which was about 6 weeks.
Visual quality rating
After the exposure of succulents to their respective
treatments, plants were subjected to the visual quality rating
(VQR). Twelve (12) respondents or judges were asked to
rate the representative plants per treatment and case study.
A modified visual score (Wang et al. 2005) was used with
the corresponding visual grading (1 - 5) where, 1: very
poor (leaves are chlorotic or irregular in color), 2: low
(leaves are light green and no red color), 3: good (leaves
are green with pinkish color), 4: very good (leaves are
green, with light red color), 5: excellent (leaves are rich
green with intense or distinguishable red color. Visual
quality rating (VQR) is a sensory analysis, which has been
widely used in horticultural crops such as fruits, vegetables,
and ornamental crops. The use of visual quality rating has
been adapted as a tool for measurement as a perception of
the human eye (Boumaza et al. 2009).
82 Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90
Hunter’s Lab
The color quality of leaves was determined using the
Hunter’s Lab. This was gathered with the use of a hand-held
spectrophotometer (Konica Minolta Spectrophotometer CM2600d,
Japan) which determines three color coordinates namely the
L* a* b* color space to indicate lightness hue and saturation
of colors. Lightness is indicated by the L* while the chromaticity
coordinates are represented by a* and b* values. The lightness
of the color is represented by the L* color value with a 0
to 100 value range. A higher positive value would indicate
a lighter color and a lower value indicates a darker color.
Positive a* values indicate the red direction while a negative
a* value indicates the green direction. On the other hand,
a positive b* value indicates a yellow direction while a negative
value indicates a blue direction.
One leaf of each plant was tagged to trace color
changes. The color value was measured by choosing the
area within the tagged leaf which were located at 1cm from
the margin of the top leaf surface (adaxial) and the
underside of the leaf (abaxial).
Anthocyanin analysis
A modified quantitative method for anthocyanin (Fuleki
and Francis 1968) was used in this study by gathering 1
inch from the tip of a tagged succulent leaf. One-gram
fresh-cut leaf samples were macerated using a mortar and
pestle. The macerated sample was added with 1 ml of 95
% ethanol and 1.5 N HCl (85:15) which served as the
extracting solvent. The mixed solution was transferred to a
separate container. Samples were then centrifuged at 13,000
rpm at 4°C using the Micro Refrigerated Centrifuge Smart
R17 (Hanil Science Co. Ltd., Seoul, South Korea). Samples
were then stored and refrigerated overnight at 4°C to
solidify the pulp residues at the bottom of the tubes after
the centrifuge process. This procedure was made in order
for the residues to remain at the base at the tube and easy
extraction of the liquid extract alone.
Samples were taken out of the refrigerator and were
fluids from the tubes without plant residues were placed in
a microplate that was then analyzed for a full-spectrum
UV/Vis absorbance at 535nm using the Fluostar Optima
Microplate Reader (BMG Labtech, Ortenberg, Germany). A
solution was placed at the primary or first plate entry.
Image analysis
Photos were taken using a digital single-lens reflex camera
(Canon 750D, Japan) with the same aperture, brightness, and
contrast at the same distance with a pixel size of 1080 p.
Individual images were cropped to show the succulents alone
without the pots and were processed using the Image-Pro
Premier ver. 9.3 (Media Cybernetics, Inc., USA). Smart
segmentation was applied to individual representative images
to determine the ratio of the colors green and red pigments.
Colored overlays of identified colors were presented as bases
for color identification.
Statistical analysis
Data gathering was done every two weeks for a month.
Aside from the Hunter’s Lab and anthocyanin content
analysis, growth and development parameters were also
collected. Statistical analyses were conducted using Statistical
Product and Service Solutions for Windows, version 16.0
(SPSS Inc., Japan). The data were analyzed using analysis of
variance (ANOVA), and the differences between the means
were tested using Duncan’s multiple range test (p < 0.05).
Plant height and diameter
Based on the statistical analysis, plant height and
diameter was highly affected by temperature levels for both
species. Data for plant height is shown in Table 1 while
plant diameter is shown in Table 2.
Results revealed that succulent plant species of E.
agavoides that were subjected under high temperatures of
20°C and 30°C which had 42.36 mm and 42.33 mm. These
temperature levels did not significantly differ from each
other. Shortest plants were observed from the lowest
temperature level of 10°C which gave 41.72 mm. Different
Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90 83
results were observed with those of E. marcus wherein the
lowest and highest temperatures of 10°C and 30°C gave the
shortest plants with 40.30 mm and 41.81 mm. Tallest plants
were observed from those of 20°C having 42.54 mm which
significantly differed from other temperature levels.
In these results, it may be noted that despite belonging
to the same family, E. agavoides has a higher tolerance for
high temperatures. While E. marcus plant height may be
hindered by too low or too high temperatures.
E. agavoides species plant diameter was significantly
affected by different temperature levels. Results showed that
plants that were exposed to 20°C and 30°C were not
significantly different from each other having a plant
diameter of 94.46 mm and 93.40 mm, respectively. Shortest
plant diameter was measured from those plants subjected to
10°C with 79.42 mm. For E. marcus, it was observed that
those grown under 20°C highly gave the largest plants with
79.94 mm. Results also suggested that a low temperature of
10°C and a high temperature of 30°C were not significantly
different from each other which had 73.72 mm and 72.53
mm, respectively.
A similar trend can be observed for both parameters of
each succulent species. Although with different significant
levels, it was also noted that 20°C was consistent with the
results for growth parameters. It may be said that E.
agavoides is sensitive to colder temperature while E.
marcus may is sensitive to both lower temperature and too
high temperatures.
Visual quality rating
The results for the visual quality rating of Echeveria
species in response to temperature levels are shown in
Table 3. Results revealed that temperature levels highly
affected the visual quality rating of Echeveria species.
For E. agavoides, 10°C and 20°C were not significantly
different from each other with the highest visual quality
rating of 3.67 and 3.75, respectively, and these ratings are
described as very good quality. The results for 10°C and
20°C, however, did not significantly differ from each other.
These were followed by those treated with 30°C with a
visual quality rating of 2.08 described as a low quality
which was significantly lower compared to the two
previously mentioned temperature levels.
For E. marcus, succulents that were exposed to 20°C had
a rating of 3.75 followed by those treated under 10°C which
had a visual quality rating of 3.67. The lowest visual quality
rating was observed from in those grown under 30°C with
2.42 described as low quality.
able 1. Plant height (mm) of Echeveria species in response to different temperature levels at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels E. agavoides E. marcus
10°C 41.72 b
40.30 b
20°C 42.36 a 42.54 a
30°C 42.33 a 41.81 b
** **
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at p = 0.05.
NS, *, **Non-significant, significant, highly significant at p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
able 2. Plant diameter (mm) of Echeveria species in response to different temperature levels at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels E. agavoides E. marcus
10°C 79.42 b
73.72 b
20°C 94.46 a 79.94 a
30°C 93.40 a 72.53 b
** **
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at p = 0.05.
NS, *, **Non-significant, significant, highly significant at p = 0.05 and
= 0.01, respectively.
84 Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90
Hunter’s Lab
Statistical results of the analysis showed that only L*
value was significantly affected by the different temperature
levels. Results of the Hunter’s Lab of Echeveria species are
shown on two separate tables below.
Succulent plants that were grown under 20°C gave the
highest value for the brightness of color or hunter L* value
with 47.36. These were then followed by those plants
exposed with 10°C with 40.31 for hunter L* value and 30°C
with an L* hunter value of 37.95. However, these two
treatments did not significantly differ from each other for E.
agavoides species in an adaxial portion of the leaves.
Hunter a* was significantly affected by the temperature
which had a similar trend to those of L* value. However,
b* values were not significantly different from each other
(Table 4).
On the abaxial portion of the tagged leaves, the highest
hunter L* value was taken from those of 10°C and 20°C
which did not significantly differed from each other. These
were then followed by those succulents grown under 30°C
with a Hunter L* value of 35.72 which means that it had a
darker color value compared to other temperature levels.
For E. marcus, similar results were also observed
whereby only hunter L* values were significantly affected
by the temperature levels (Table 5). Results revealed that
low and high temperatures had a higher lightness value
with 42.12 for 10°C and 40.51 for 30°C which did not
significantly differ with each other for the top portions of
the leaves. For the bottom portions, 10°C and 20°C did not
significantly differ from each other with 34.34 and 34.25
hunter *L values. Hunter a* was significantly affected by the
temperature which had a similar trend to those of L* value.
However, b* values were not significantly different from
each other.
Anthocyanin analysis
Results of the anthocyanin analysis of Echeveria species
in response to different temperature levels are shown in
Table 6. The average anthocyanin content was significantly
affected by temperature levels for both E. agavoides and E.
marcus species.
Results showed that exposure of E. agavoides plants to
low temperatures of 10°C had the highest anthocyanin
content with an amount of 0.92 µg/g FW. This result,
however, was significantly the same with plants that were
subjected to 20°C with 0.89 µg/g FW. The high temperature
of 30°C gave the lowest anthocyanin content among
temperature levels with an amount of 0.54 µg/g FW which
significantly differed from the other temperature levels.
Succulent plants of E. marcus were also significantly
affected with the use of different temperature levels on its
anthocyanin content. E. marcus species which were grown
under 20°C had the highest anthocyanin content amounting
to 0.63 µg/g FW which was significantly higher compared
with those of 10°C and 30°C with more or less the same
able 3. Visual quality rating of Echeveria species in response to different temperature levels at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels E. agavoides E. marcus
10°C 3.67 a
3.67 b
20°C 3.75 a 3.75 a
30°C 2.08 b 2.42 c
** **
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at p = 0.05.
NS, *, **Non-significant, significant, highly significant at p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
isual quality score (Wang et al. 2005):
1 : very poor (leaves are chlorotic or irregular in color).
2 : low (leaves are light green and no red color).
3 : good (leaves are green with pinkish color).
4 : very good (leaves are green, with light red color).
5 : excellent (leaves are rich green with intense or distinguishable red color).
Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90 85
average amount of 0.49 µg/g FW. Statistical analysis also
revealed that the use of 10°C was significantly different
from those results of 30°C. Thus, the use of too low
temperatures or too high temperatures is found to reduce
the anthocyanin content of the species.
It may be evident that higher anthocyanin content is
taken from those with E. agavoides compared to those of
E. marcus by a few percentages. This may be due to the
fact that E. agavoides may be more sensitive to temperature
levels, thus more production of the anthocyanin has been
taken. On the other hand, E. marcus has been known as
a succulent that is more tolerant of cooler or hotter
Image analysis
The image analysis was done to determine the ratio of red
and green pixels and to quantify these data from a raw image
taken at the termination of the study. The image was subjected
to the smart segmentation and histogram of the image.
Smart segmentation of images coupled with the original
able 4. Average Hunter’s Lab values (L*, a*, b*) using a spectrophotometer of E. agavoides leaves at adaxial and abaxial leaf orientatio
in response to different temperature levels at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels Adaxial leaf Abaxial leaf
a* b* L* a* b*
10°C 40.31 b
1.81 15.23 47.41 a 1.23 11.88
20°C 47.36 a 0.51 12.34 47.41 a 0.57 12.31
30°C 37.95 b 0.80 12.06 35.72 b 3.73 10.26
** NS NS ** NS NS
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at p = 0.05.
NS, *, **Non-significant, significant, highly significant at p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
L*, a*, b* represent lightness from 100 (white) to 0 (black), redness (negative values indicate green, positive values indicate red),
yellowness (negative values indicate blue, positive values indicate yellow), respectively.
able 5. Average Hunter’s Lab values (L*, a*, b*) using a spectrophotometer of E. marcus leaves at adaxial and abaxial leaf orientation
in response to different temperature levels at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels Adaxial leaf Abaxial leaf
a* b* L* a* b*
10°C 42.12 a
-0.59 10.95 34.34 b 1.16 10.32
20°C 34.18 b -1.77 11.23 34.25 b -3.20 10.74
30°C 40.51 a -0.36 12.05 42.68 a -1.19 13.00
** NS NS * NS NS
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at p = 0.05.
NS, *, **Non-significant, significant, highly significant at p = 0.05 and p = 0.01, respectively.
L*, a*, b* represent lightness from 100 (white) to 0 (black), redness (negative values indicate green, positive values indicate red),
yellowness (negative values indicate blue, positive values indicate yellow), respectively.
able 6. Anthocyanin content (µg/g FW) of Echeveria species in response to temperature levels at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels E. agavoides E. marcus
10°C 0.92 a
0.49 b
20°C 0.89 a 0.63 a
30°C 0.54 b 0.49 b
** **
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at p = 0.05.
NS, *, **Non-significant, significant, highly significant at p = 0.05 and
= 0.01, respectively.
86 Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90
images for three temperature levels and their corresponding
histogram results is presented on Fig. 1 for E. agavoides
and Fig. 2 for E. marcus.
The results for smart segmentation for the red and green
pixels including the ratio of pixels in a raw image is shown
in Table 7. Results suggest that the smart segmentation
results of green and red pixel ratio were significantly affected
by the different temperature levels for both Echeveria
E. agavoides succulents subjected to 20°C gave the
highest red pixel count of 936.6 which accounts to 33.45%
of the total pixel in an image. However, these results did
not significantly differ from those of 10°C with a 532.9-pixel
count which accounts for 30.31% of the total pixel. The
lowest recorded number of a pixel was found in the plant
that was exposed to 30°C which has 37.3-pixel count
accounting for only 0.04% of the total image. This means
that there are more prominent green pixels compared to
the red ones. An increase of green pixels was noticed
when there was a lower temperature for succulents.
Temperature level Segmented image Histogram
Fig. 1. Smart segmentation analysis showing original image, processed segmentation image and histogram graph determining area rati
of green and red pigments using number of pixels of E. agavoides in response to different temperature levels.
Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90 87
Temperature level Segmented image Histogram
Fig. 2. Smart segmentation analysis showing original image, processed segmentation image and histogram graph determining area rati
of green and red pigments using number of pixels of E. marcus in response to different temperature levels.
able 7. Red and green pigment ratio and color percentages of using smart segmentation as an image analysis tool in response to
different temperature levels of Echeveria species at 6 weeks after treatment.
Temperature levels Green pixels Red pixels Sum of pixels Green pixel (%) Red pixel (%)
E. agavoides
10°C 1225.3 ± 4.09
532.9 ± 6.23 1758.2 69.69 b
30.31 a
20°C 1863.3 ± 5.07 936.6 ± 5.69 2799.9 66.55 b 33.45 a
30°C 87008.9 ± 4.08 37.31 ± 7.32 87046.2 99.96 a 0.04 b
E. marcus
10°C 930.3 ± 2.82 388.0 ± 4.16 1318.3 70.57 b 29.43 a
20°C 970.4 ± 2.35 632.5 ± 8.30 1602.8 60.54 b 39.46 a
30°C 5562.6 ± 4.49 52.9 ± 7.80 5615.6 99.06 a 0.94 b
Mean ± SE (Standard error).
Mean separation within columns by Duncan’s multiple range test at
= 0.05.
88 Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90
Succulent species of E. marcus pixel count and percentage
of red and green pixel ratio was significantly affected by
temperature levels. Among temperature levels that were
used to grow E. marcus plants, the highest pixel count was
taken from those that were subjected to 20°C with a pixel
count of 632.5 which accounts for 39.46%. This result was
not significantly different from those of 10°C with a red
pixel count of 388.0 which accounts for 29.43%. The
lowest amount of pixel count of 52.9 only was taken from
those succulents that were grown under 30°C which
accounts for 0.94% of the total segmented image.
It was noted that the green pixel increases when the
temperature is too low or when too high for E. marcus.
However, higher temperatures would significantly increase
green pixel compared to lower temperatures.
Many environmental factors act singly or interact to affect
plant productivity (Haferkamp 1988) thus, basic knowledge
on the changes or manipulation of this environmental factor
must be taken to advantage to provide an optimum and
conducive growing conditions for the crop. Temperature is
considered one of the vital component as an environmental
factor for plant growth and development.
Based on the study, results revealed that for E. agavoides,
succulents grown in 10°C had the shortest and smallest in
diameter compared to those of 20°C and 30°C. A review done
by Hatfield and Prueger (2015) stated that the rate of
phenological development in warm temperatures, especially
in controlled environment studies, has found to increase
height, weight, diameter, and other growth parameters. This
is because most plant species require a higher optimum
temperature for vegetative development such as corn
(Warrington and Kanemasu 1982), sweet orange (Ribeiro et
al. 2012) and pineapple (Friend and Lydon 1979) among
others. Studies of Gent and Enoch (1983), using a mathematical
model, revealed that increased temperature or warm
environments coupled with nonstructural carbohydrate has a
corresponding increased dry matter. They added that with
reaching the high optimum temperature levels will also
increase rates of photosynthesis, growth and maintains
respiration. This was the same case in Pineapple wherein the
use of 30/20°C presented higher carbon metabolism,
photosynthetic rates, higher shoot growth and increased root
growth rates compared to lower temperature levels. Went
(1953) further discussed the effects of temperatures on plant
growth of which he stated that very low and very high
temperatures affect the physio-chemical process involved in
its development and at times may cause injury effects.
According to Pennisi et al. (2016), there are significant
negative effects that may harm plants in low temperatures
including damaged foliage, wilted stature, produced misshapen
new growth, discolored foliage and had a portion or the
whole plant dies. They also added that the effects of low
temperature may also be unseen by the naked eye but may
manifest in the later part of growth and development
through delayed flowering or stunted growth. This may be
due the interruption and damage along pathways of water,
nutrients and other important caused by freezing of plant
cells. On the other hand, high temperatures or heat stress,
plants are said to go through three mechanisms including
excessive membrane fluidity, disruption of protein function
and turnover, and metabolic imbalances (Farrell 2015). With
these mechanisms occurring in the plant, the net photosynthesis
is first to be inhibited (Allakhverdiev et al. 2008). In the
case of E. agavoides, low temperature at 10°C prompted
delayed or stunted growth in succulents.
Results showed that growing E. agavoides in temperatures
lower than 20°C had the highest anthocyanin content. It is
an established theory that temperature affects the gene
expression of enzymes involved in producing anthocyanin
(Christie et al. 1994; Leyva et al. 1995; Shvarts et al. 1997).
Rehman et al. (2017) reported that exposure to high
temperatures of Malus profusion induced anthocyanin
inhibition and activated its degradation. Proponents of the
study explain that exposure to high temperatures of 33 -
25°C increased the expression of anthocyanin repressors
MYBs and MpMYB15 and reduced MpVHA-B1 and
Flower Res. J. (2019) 27(2) : 80-90 89
MpVHA-B2 transcriptors which are involved in the vascular
transportation of anthocyanin. These were evident in the
studies of Mori et al. (2007) which suggested that the
exposure of grapes in high temperature of a maximum of
35°C reduced the total anthocyanin content to less than half
of the control (20 - 25°C).
In the studies of Lo Piero et al. (2005) with red oranges,
it was concluded that low temperatures could also reduce
the expression of anthocyanin, especially during long exposures.
On the other hand, Solecka et al. (1999) reported that
anthocyanins have increased when subjecting oilseed rape
leaves to low temperatures which were explained to be
involved in the process of protecting mesophyll cells against
cold environments. This may be the reason for which there
was a high anthocyanin content for plants treated at 10°C
that was comparable to those of 20°C in E. agavoides.
The anthocyanin content in plants are generally the
reason for the change in color in plants and have been
specifically studied in ornamental plants as changes of color
in the foliage or inflorescence can increase visual quality.
The use of Hunter’s Lab is able to differentiate the lightness
of the color and the difference between two opposing
colors such as that or red/green and yellow/blue (Konica
Minolta 2018). Results showed that there was no significant
difference between a* and b* values both adaxial and
abaxial leaf. This may be because the difference was
exiguous between the hues, however, this was not true to
the intensity (lightness or deepness) of the colors which
was found to be significantly different between temperature
levels. Studies of Shisa and Takano (1964) suggested that
the effects of temperature on the epidermal cells have
affected the lightness or deepness of red coloration of rose
flower petals.
This work is supported by Succulents Export Innovation
Model Development towards Chinese Market (514006-03-1-
HD040)’, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affair and
Sahmyook University Research Fund.
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... Therefore, determining the suitable growth temperatures for each succulent species is necessary. Previous studies have investigated the effect of temperature on flowering in S. bellum (Heinze, 1971), and the impact of temperatures on the growth and anthocyanin content in Echeveria species (Cabahug et al., 2019). However, studies on the optimal day/night temperature setting for cultivating Senecio species are virtually nonexistent, necessitating research to address this knowledge gap. ...
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Senecio haworthii is a succulent plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Optimal growth conditions for this species have not been well-established. In this study, we investigated the optimal day/night temperature range for enhancing the growth and ornamental quality of S. haworthii. Four day/night temperature treatments were designed as follows: 20/15, 24/19, 28/23, and 32/27°C. Based on the plant sizes and biomass analysis, the best growth performance was determined to be achieved under a relatively low-temperature treatment of 20/15°C. Conversely, the 32/27°C treatment resulted in the lowest growth rates, likely attributed to decreased leaf function caused by prolonged exposure to high-temperature conditions. Additionally, leaf color analysis using the CIELAB color space revealed that CIELAB L* , representing lightness, and CIELAB a* , indicating green-red opponent colors, proportionally increased with the rise in day/night temperature levels. Previous studies have reported an inverse relationship between L* and plant growth parameters. Consistent with previous research, the treatment at 32/27°C, which exhibited the lowest growth, showed higher L* values. Conversely, the CIELAB b* value, representing blue-yellow opponent colors, was highest under the 20/15°C treatment, suggesting leaf-yellowing tendencies in relatively lower temperature conditions. Based on the color difference analysis using CIE76 color difference (ΔE*ab), temperatures of 20/15 and 24/19°C were used as reference points; under these conditions, the temperatures of 28/23 and 32/27°C were evaluated as having a ‘small color difference’. Therefore, even with significant differences in day/night temperatures, no noticeable differences were concluded to be found in leaf color. Based on these findings, cultivating S. haworthii in relatively low-temperature conditions of around 20/15°C is concluded to be advantageous for enhancing both plant growth and ornamental quality compared to higher temperature conditions such as 32/27°C.
... . 이 CAM 광합성 방식은 이전 에 알려진 C 3 이나 C 4 광합성을 수행하는 식물들과 비교했을 때 최대 5배의 수분 활용 효율을 가지는 것이 특징이다 (Drennan and Nobel 2000). 그러나 (Cabahug et al. 2019;Heinze 1971;Palta and Nobel 1989;Sakanishi et al. 1980 ...
Kalanchoe pumila is a succulent species belonging to the family Crassulaceae, which is highly valued for its ornamental pink flowers despite being relatively unknown in academic circles. In this study, we investigated the growth and flowering characteristics of K. pumila under different temperature treatments. Day/night temperatures were applied at 20/15, 24/19, 28/23, and 32/27℃, respectively. The results showed that K. pumila exhibited the highest values for shoot width, stem diameter, ground cover, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, shoot and root biomass, flower stem length, number of flowers, flower length, and flower width under the 20/15℃ treatment. Therefore, it can be speculated that K. pumila performs carbon assimilation more effectively under relatively low-temperature conditions. Additionally, the 24/19℃ treatment showed the highest values for shoot height and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), while the 28/23℃ treatment exhibited the highest values for root length and anthocyanin reflectance index 2 (ARI2). Most parameters were lowest under the 32/27℃ treatment, indicating that plant growth was almost suspended. Specifically, CIELAB L* and b*, which have been used as stress indices in previous studies, showed the highest values under the 32/27℃ treatment. In the correlation analysis, L* was negatively correlated with shoot and root biomass, suggesting that leaf lightness increases when plant growth is negatively impacted by the relatively high temperature. Similarly, b* showed similar results. Therefore, for significant increases in plant sizes of K. pumila and to promote high-quality flowering for maximum ornamental value, we recommend cultivation at 20/15℃. This temperature range is considered relatively favorable for the desired outcomes.
... CAM 광 합성은 C 3 나 C 4 광합성에 비해 최대 5배의 수분 활용 효율을 나타내지만 (Drennan and Nobel, 2000), 많은 탄수화물 CIELAB는 원예분야에서 여러 방면으로 사용되며, 각각 명도(lightness)와 적색도, 황색도의 색 좌표를 나타내는 L * , a * , b * 로 표기한다. CIELAB는 엽채류의 품질 평가 (Kim et al., 2022;Lee et al., 2022d), 약용식물의 품질평가 (Lee et al., 2022b), 관상용 식물의 품질평가 (Cabahug et al., 2019;Cabahug et al., 2020;Cabahug et al., 2017;Shim et al., 2021) ...
Phedimus takesimensis is a succulent species indigenous to the Korean Peninsula and is found in Ulleungdo and Dokdo islands. It has potential medicinal properties; thus, it should be protected in South Korea. However, the optimal shading level for mass cultivation of P. takesimensis is unknown. In this study, we subjected P. takesimensis cv. Atlantis, a variegated leaf cultivar, to different shading levels (0, 35, 45, 60, 75, and 99%) and investigated its effect on the growth and leaf color of the plants. The results revealed that the potted plants grown under 45% shading exhibited the highest shoot length, width, and shoot fresh and dry weights. Moreover, the plants grown under 0-45% shading exhibited the highest root length and root fresh and dry weights. However, leaf length and width were higher in the plants grown under 35-60% shading, and the moisture content of the shoot and root was the highest in the plants grown under 60% and 75% shading, respectively. Chlorophyll content analysis revealed a subsequent increase as the shading level decreased; the L* and b* CIELAB values were higher as the shading levels increased. The CIE76 color difference (ΔE* ab) was the highest at 75% shading (ΔE* ab = 7.08) compared to that at 0% shading level. The plants that were grown under 0-45%, 60%, and 75% shading had the following RHS values: 147B and 148A; 147B and 148B; and 147C and 148B, respectively. This suggests that the leaves of the plants were relatively yellow at 60-75% shading. Thus, potted plants of P. takesimensis cv. Atlantis should be grown under 45% shading to attain a significant increase in plant size and improve leaf color.
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Peperomia, the commonly cultivated house plants, are known for their superior shade tolerance, and suitability as ornamental indoor plants. Here, the effects of different color temperatures of white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were experimentally investigated on Peperomia. Three white LEDs with different color temperatures of 3000, 4100, and 6500 K, respectively, were used in the cultivation of Peperomia species and cultivars namely: P. obtusifolia, P. caperata cv. Napoli Nights (‘Napoli Nights’), and P. caperata cv. Eden Rosso (‘Eden Rosso’) for experimental purposes. Results showed that the sizes of the plants P. obtusifolia and ‘Napoli Nights’ were optimal under 4100 and 6500 K white LEDs, whereas, ‘Eden Rosso’ exhibited optimal growth under 6500 K white LED. Compared to the other plants, P. obtusifolia exhibited superior biomass production under 4100 K white LED. Conversely, ‘Eden Rosso’ and ‘Napoli Nights’ had the highest biomass under 6500 and 3000 K white LEDs, respectively. Regarding the leaf color, L* and b* values demonstrated an inverse relationship with plant biomass, suggesting that leaves turn yellow when the growth of a plant is inhibited. Fv/Fm ranged from 0.77 to 0.81 across all treatments, and these values are generally acceptable. Compared to the other plants, P. obtusifolia and ‘Eden Rosso’ had higher ΦDo, ABS/RC, and DIo/RC under 6500 and 3000 K white LEDs, respectively, contradicting the results observed for plant sizes. In addition, PIABS values were higher for P. obtusifolia under 4100 and 6500 K white LEDs and the highest for ‘Eden Rosso’ under 6500 K white LED. In conclusion, P. obtusifolia can be cultivated under 4100-6500 K white LEDs, whereas, ‘Eden Rosso’ and ‘Napoli Nights’, under 6500 and 4100 K white LEDs, respectively.
Sedum album is a succulent species that has a creeping growth habit and blooms in groups in its native habitat. S. album is known to produce many flavonol glycoside compounds that are useful in the pharmaceutical industry. This succulent also has a high resistance to abiotic stressors and is thus widely used in green roof systems. Aside from its medical use, it has the potential as an ideal ornamental indoor plant due to its high vitality and unique appearance. However, in order to be utilized as an indoor plant, a suitable light quality for the succulent is deemed necessary. In this study, commercially available 3000, 4100, and 6500 K white T5 LEDs were used as artificial light sources to determine the growth and leaf color changes of S. album cv. Athoum. Results indicated that the plant sizes, i.e. shoot length, shoot width, ground cover, root length, and the number of branches, were significantly increased when grown under 4100 K white LED treatment. Likewise, the fresh weight and moisture content of plants increased in 4100 K white LED, however, the dry weight increased in 3000 K white LED. Among CIELAB color values, L* value (lightness), was highest in 4100 K white LED, which may be attributed to the expansion of cells due to the high moisture content of plants or the development of epicuticular waxes. The CIE76 color difference (ΔE* ab) was found highest between 4100 and 6500 K white LED treatments, with ΔE* ab = 5.51. Upon RHS values analysis, all treatment groups were determined to be in color groups N137A and 147A. Based on the results, it is recommended to use 4100 K white LED for the purpose of selling large-sized succulents or to improve its ornamental value. On the other hand, when extracting secondary metabolites for medicinal purposes, it is recommended to use 4100 K white LED for fresh plants, and 3000 K white LED for dried by-products.
There are about 20 known species of Hylotelephium distributed within Eurasia and North America. Some Hylotelephium species have been reported to have a potential medicinal effect and have been used to remove cadmium from soil. Additionally, various cultivars have been sold and used as ornamental plants for aesthetic purposes. Although Hylotelephium species are used as indoor plants and are considered high shade tolerance, literature to support this information is lacking. Hence, this study investigated the growth and leaf color response of Hylotelephium cultivars, namely H. telephium cv. Lajos and H. sieboldii cv. Mediovariegatum (hereinafter referred to as ‘Lajos’ and ‘Mediovariegatum’) are grown under various shading environments using polyethylene shade films. It was shown by the results of the analysis that the use of a 75% shading level significantly affected the highest plant size, including its shoot, root, and leaf parameters for both cultivars compared to other shading levels. For the fresh and dry weight, ‘Lajos’ favored a 45% shading level, while ‘Mediovariegatum’ favored a 75% shading level. The chlorophyll content in ‘Lajos’ showed the highest at 75% shading level, while ‘Mediovariegatum’ showed the highest values at 35% shading level. In the CIELAB analysis of the leaves, L* and b* values of ‘Lajos’ were highest at 99% shading level, which significantly differed from other shading levels indicating a more yellow tint and a lightness of leaf color. On the other hand, ‘Mediovariegatum’ had the highest L* and b* values at a 60% shading level. In the evaluation of the RHS values, 'Lajos' was evaluated as 146A and 147B at the shading levels from 0% to 75%. Therefore, the leaf color can be maintained uniformly in those shading levels. On the other hand, ‘Mediovariegatum’ was evaluated as 194A and 195A at the 0% shading level and 148A and 152A at the 99% shading level. If the light intensity is too high or too low, the distribution rate of the variegated pattern seems to have decreased. The conclusion is that ‘Lajos’ is recommended to be cultivated at shading levels between 45–75%, and ‘Mediovariegatum’ is recommended to be cultivated at a shading level of 75% after the above information was combined.
Sedum nussbaumerianum, a succulent plant belonging to the Crassulaceae family, exhibits various leaf colors, including red, yellow, and green, and produces white to pinkish flowers, making it a species with high ornamental value. However, it is a relatively unknown species with little scientific research. In this study, we designed four different day/night temperature treatments applied: 20/15, 24/19, 28/23, and 32/27℃, respectively, to determine the optimal temperature range for the growth and development of S. nussbaumerianum. The results showed that the 20/15℃ treatment exhibited the highest values for shoot length, stem diameter, leaf width, shoot fresh weight, shoot moisture content, number of flowers, and CIELAB a* values for both leaves and flowers, indicating superior color quality. On the other hand, the 24/19℃ treatment showed the highest values for plant width, root length, ground cover, number of leaves, leaf length, root fresh weight, dry weight of shoot and root, flowering rate, flower stalk length, and flower length and width. However, it had a relatively lower color quality compared to the 20/15℃ treatment. However, the growth rate was relatively better compared to 24/19℃. The 32/27℃ treatment resulted in lower growth performance, with high CIELAB L* and b* values indicating pigment bleaching due to plant stress, and 0% flowering rate due to suppressed growth and development. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis showed that L* had a negative correlation with shoot fresh weight, while b* had negative correlations with fresh and dry weight of shoot and root, confirming the inverse proportion between plant growth and L* and b*, as reported in previous studies. In conclusion, for significant growth enhancement and promotion of flowering development of S. nussbaumerianum, we recommend cultivation under the 24/19℃ treatment, However, for the production of plants with relatively red leaf and flower colors, cultivation under the 20/15℃ treatment is recommended.
Petrosedum rupestre is a succulent plant growing throughout Europe, except for Western Europe, and is one of the most preferred plants for rock gardens and green roof systems. P. rupestre has a beautiful blue appearance and may be used for medicinal purposes. This study was conducted to determine the optimal light conditions using white LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for indoor cultivation of P. rupestre and P. rupestre cv. Angelina (hereinafter referred to as ‘Angelina’) using three commercial white T5 LEDs with color temperatures of 3000, 4100, and 6500 K, respectively. Shoot length, fresh weight, moisture content, and CIELAB b* values increased under 3000 K white LED due to the relatively large ratio of red to blue wavelengths (approximately 3.3:1), whereas the CIELAB a* value decreased. The 4100 K white LED, in which the ratio of red to blue wavelength was lower by approximately 1.8:1, produced increased shoot width, plant ground cover, and number of branches. The RHS values of P. rupestre were N137D and 147A in the 3000 K white LED treatment, and ‘Angelina’ was evaluated as 146A and 148A in the same treatment, indicating that the leaf color was relatively yellow compared to other treatments. In the Pearson correlation coefficient, P. rupestre showed a positive correlation with fresh weight, and L* value was r = 0.510, and it was found that the more vigorous the plant growth, the higher the leaf lightness. Previous studies have shown that an increase in epicuticular waxes positively affects plant growth and development. Accordingly, epicuticular waxes on the surface of P. rupestre also seem to occur during vigorous plant growth. Taken together, the results suggest that 3000 K white LED is optimal for growing P. rupestre and ‘Angelina’ indoors, whereas 4100 K white LED is preferable for low growth with a creeping type.
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The red fleshed fruits of Malus profusion represent gradual color loss during high temperature in summer, potentially due to active degradation of anthocyanin. The objective of this study was to examine both physiological and molecular evidence of anthocyanin degradation. Malus crabapple fruits were exposed to either room temperature (RT = 18 ± 2°C: 25 ± 2°C) or high temperature (HT = 33 ± 2°C: 25 ± 2°C) regimens (12 h: 12 h) under hypoxic (2%) or normoxic (21%) oxygen levels. The results showed that the concentration of cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy-3-gal) was dramatically reduced following HT treatments due to a significant down-regulation of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes (MpCHS, MpDFR, MpLDOX, MpUFGT, and MpMYB10). Among other repressor MYBs, MpMYB15 expression was high following HT treatment of the fruit. HT led to the generation of a substantial concentration of H2O2 due to enhanced activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), methane dicarboxylic aldehyde (MDA) content and cell sap pH value. Similarly, transcript levels of MpVHA-B1 and MpVHA-B2 were reduced which are involved in the vacuolar transportation of anthocyanin. The enzymatic degradation of anthocyanin was eventually enhanced coupled with the oxidative activities of peroxidase (POD) and H2O2. Conversely, the RT treatments potentially enhanced anthocyanin content by stabilizing physiological attributes (such as MDA, H2O2, and pH, among others) and sustaining sufficient biosynthetic gene expression levels. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that the transcription of MpPOD1, MpPOD8 and MpPOD9 genes in fruit tissues was up-regulated due to HT treatment and that hypoxic conditions seems more compatible with the responsible POD isoenzymes involved in active anthocyanin degradation. The results of the current study could be useful for understanding as well as elucidating the physiological phenomenon and molecular signaling cascade underlying active anthocyanin degradation in Malus crops.
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Temperature is a primary factor affecting the rate of plant development. Warmer temperatures expected with climate change and the potential for more extreme temperature events will impact plant productivity. Pollination is one of the most sensitive phenological stages to temperature extremes across all species and during this developmental stage temperature extremes would greatly affect production. Few adaptation strategies are available to cope with temperature extremes at this developmental stage other than to select for plants which shed pollen during the cooler periods of the day or are indeterminate so flowering occurs over a longer period of the growing season. In controlled environment studies, warm temperatures increased the rate of phenological development; however, there was no effect on leaf area or vegetative biomass compared to normal temperatures. The major impact of warmer temperatures was during the reproductive stage of development and in all cases grain yield in maize was significantly reduced by as much as 80−90% from a normal temperature regime. Temperature effects are increased by water deficits and excess soil water demonstrating that understanding the interaction of temperature and water will be needed to develop more effective adaptation strategies to offset the impacts of greater temperature extreme events associated with a changing climate.
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Among several naturally occurring environmental factors, temperature is considered to play a predominant role in controlling proper growth and flowering in geophytes. Most of them require a "warm-cold-warm" sequence to complete their annual cycle. The temperature optima for flower meristem induction and the early stages of floral organogenesis vary between nine and 25 °C, followed, in the autumn, by a several-week period of lower temperature (4-9 °C), which enables stem elongation and anthesis. The absence of low temperature treatment leads to slow shoot growth in spring and severe flowering disorders. Numerous studies have shown that the effects of the temperature surrounding the underground organs during the autumn-winter period can lead to important physiological changes in plants, but the mechanism that underlies the relationship between cold treatment and growth is still unclear. In this mini-review, we describe experimental data concerning the temperature requirements for flower initiation and development, shoot elongation, aboveground growth and anthesis in bulbous plants. The physiological processes that occur during autumn-winter periods in bulbs (water status, hormonal balance, respiration, carbohydrate mobilization) and how these changes might provoke disorders in stem elongation and flowering are examined. A model describing the relationship between the cold requirement, auxin and gibberellin interactions and the growth response is proposed.
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Citrus plants were grown under two thermal conditions for evaluating carbon metabolism acclimation to moderate warm temperature (30/20ºC, day/night), and its likely impact on plant growth. As reference, plants were grown at 25/20ºC, in which they were subjected to optimum temperature for photosynthesis during the diurnal period (25ºC). Higher photosynthetic rates were found at 30/20ºC as compared to 25/20ºC in both mature and young leaves, being this response associated with higher stomatal conductance. After 30 days of thermal treatment, plants grown at 30/20ºC presented higher shoot growth as compared to those at 25/20ºC. The carbohydrate concentration decreased in stem and root tissues, while it increased in leaf tissues under moderate warm conditions. Both mature and young leaves showed higher photoassimilate consumption/exportation at 30/20ºC than at 25/20ºC. In this paper, we have proven that citrus plants present a positive balance in carbon metabolism as an acclimation mechanism to temperature changes, withplants presenting increased photosynthesis. Such photosynthetic acclimation was associated with improved vegetative growth, being both mature and young tissues sensitive to changes in thermal regimen.
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During the ongoing studies of the Crassulaceae family for the Flora of Veracruz (Mexico), we found two new species of Crassulaceae (Echeveria uxorium and Sedum jarocho), and eight new records for the state: Crassula connata var. connata, Echeveria bifida, E. coccinea, E. halbingeri, Sedum corynephyllum, S. ebracteatum, S. guatemalense, and Villadia patula. Data on the distribution and habitat of each species are given.
Although coloration of grape berry skins is influenced by temperature, the details of its effects have not been reported. To find temperature sensitive stages for coloration and to clarify the mechanisms that underlie the effect of temperature on anthocyanin accumulation, two-week treatments at temperatures of 20degreesC and 30degreesC were carried out at four different stages of development and ripening using each of three potted vines of Aki Queen (Vitis labrusca x V. vinifera). Anthocyanin accumulation in the skins was significantly higher at 20degreesC than at 30degreesC after the temperature treatment, and the most sensitive stage for the temperature treatment was from one to three weeks after coloring began (stage III). Furthermore, at harvest, the grapes treated at 20degreesC in stage III contained the highest concentration of anthocyanin. After temperature treatment in stage III, the concentration of abscisic acid (ABA), a plant hormone related to anthocyanin accumulation, in the berry skins was 1.6 times higher at 20degreesC than at 30degreesC. The copy numbers of accumulated mRNA of anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme genes and a myb-related regulate gene, VvmybA1, were also higher at 20degreesC than at 30degreesC. These results and previous reports indicate that the high and low temperatures during ripening, especially in stage III, likely affect the production and/or degradation of ABA in berry skins and that the endogenous ABA level affects the expression of VvmybA1; the product of VvmybA1 then controls the expression of the anthocyanin biosynthetic enzyme genes.
The efficient breeding and selection of corn (Zea mays L.) genotypes for different climatic regions requires a quantitative understanding of the plant's developmental responses to environmental factors such as temperature and photoperiod. This information is also essential if reliable and meaningful crop simulation models are to be developed. Plants of two corn hybrids, XL45 and W346 were grown in controlled environments under 18 day/night temperature combinations ranging from 16/6 to 38/33°C (12-h photoperiod) and under three photoperiods (12,14, and 16 h) at two selected temperatures (constant 18 and 28°C). Data defining the temperature response curves, including the minimum and optimum temperature limits, for germination and emergence and for the development periods from sowing to tassel initiation and sowing to anthesis were obtained. A minimum temperature of 9°C was predicted for germination and emergence, and a requirement of 62.5 degree-days was determined for this growth stage. The optimum temperature was approximately 30°C. Minimum temperatures of 8 and 7°C were determined for tassel initiation and anthesis, respectively, and the optimum temperature for both was 28°C above which the development rates declined. These temperature limits compared with minima and maxima of 10 and 30°C, respectively, used in most current heat-sum methods. Between the limits of 7 and 28°C, the number of degree-days required to reach tassel initiation and anthesis were, respectively, 208 and 736 for hybrid W346, and 245 and 816 for XL45. Tassel initiation occurred at approximately one-third of the time between sowing and anthesis when calculated either on the basis of heat-sums (degree-days) or from calendar-days under the steady-state temperature conditions used. An increase in photoperiod lengthened both the time between sowing and tassel initiation and that between tassel initiation and anthesis in a similar, almost equal, manner for both cultivars. Sensitivity to the photoperiod response was not altered by temperature. Please view the pdf by using the Full Text (PDF) link under 'View' to the left. Copyright © . .