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Labor across an Occupational and Gendered Taskscape: Bones and Bodies of the Tiwanaku State (A.D. 500–1100)

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... However, interpretation remains in question within paleopathological literature considering OA's multifactorial etiology, and particularly concerning any biomechanical influences. As adjustments, osteologists suggest using methods oriented toward well-contextualized interpretations, population-level comparisons, and strong statistical methods (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019a(Becker, , 2019bDomett et al., 2017;Jurmain et al., 2012;Nikita, 2014;Pearson and Buikstra, 2006;Schrader, 2019;Weiss and Jurmain, 2007). In addition, as Ortner (2011,2012) suggested, a localized small data approach describing type(s) of bone abnormalities and lesion pattern may provide more accurate knowledge of the incidence, prevalence, and pathology of OA in ancient human skeletal remains. ...
... In southern Peru and highland Bolivia, Becker and colleagues (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2016(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019a(Becker, , 2019bBecker and Goldstein, 2017;Blom et al., 2016) have studied the state-level ...
... These differences were interpreted as reciprocal labor within the heartland of the state, reinforcing that Tiwanaku colonists were not conscripted for the benefit of the state, as had been observed later during the Inka period (AD 1476-1532). Becker (2013Becker ( , 2019b) also reported differences within the city of Tiwanaku's individual neighborhoods for OA and entheses, which supported archaeological interpretations of embedded, guild-like groups living around the ceremonial center of the city (Janusek, 1999(Janusek, , 2004(Janusek, , 2008. Becker and Goldstein's (2017) research on Tiwanaku colonists identified sex and age-related differences in OA, including evidence of this condition in individuals 14 years and younger. ...
Article
Akin to approaches encouraged by Verano (1997) in the Andes, and Ortner (2011, 2012) for general paleopathological studies, this article focuses on accurate descriptions and definitions of osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. By evaluating these conditions as part of biological responses to abnormal skeletal changes and biomechanical stress, the pathogenesis of each condition is discussed. Further, this article emphasizes a "small data" approach to evaluating these conditions in ancient culturally and biologically related human populations, where the study samples must have good skeletal preservation, where estimates of age and sex need to be included as major factors, and where abnormalities need to be described and evaluated. This article also discusses global clinical and osteological research on ways scholars are currently trying to establish industry-wide methods to evaluate osteoarthritis, entheses, and long bone cross-sectional geometry. Recent studies have focused on rigorous evaluation of methodological techniques, recording protocols, and inter-and intra-observer error problems. Additionally, scholars have focused on physical intensity of movement using biomechanics, evaluated burials of known occupation, and used complex statistical methods to help interpret skeletal changes associated with these conditions. This article also narrows to focus on these conditions within "small data" areas throughout the Andes. Finally, this research concludes with describing future directions to understand skeletal changes, such as more multidisciplinary studies between osteologists and pathologists, working with living people to collect CT, x-rays, or computer-aided motion capture, and a stronger focus on how these conditions correlate with intense biomechanical changes in younger individuals.
... In prehistoric human populations where only skeletal remains are present, causation is harder to address. OA has associated pathological bone changes, such as marginal outgrowths or lipping, osteophyte development, sclerosis, porosity, and/or eburnation (Brandt et al., 2009;Dieppe, 1995;Felson et al., 2000;Hunter & Felson, 2006; also contextualize findings with other archeological and bioarchaeological data, such as stress, diet, and lifestyle, as part of the interpretation of these population-level OA changes (e.g., Austin, 2017;Becker, 2013Becker, , 2017Becker, , 2019Becker & Goldstein, 2017;Cheverko & Bartelink, 2017;Domett et al., 2017;Palmer, Hoogland, & Waters-Rist, 2016;Schrader, 2012). ...
... The study sample population is from the prehistoric Tiwanaku state (AD 500-1,100) and split into two groups, the heartland core of the state in the Lake Titicaca region of Bolivia and the Tiwanaku colony in the Moquegua Valley of Peru, to perform these model-based population comparisons (Figure 1). While culturally and genetically linked, the two areas represent a difference in approximately 2,300 m.a.s.l., which have shown contrasts in traditional daily tasks, such as highaltitude farming using raised fields versus lower-elevation riverine farming (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2016(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019Becker & Goldstein, 2017;Berryman, 2011;Goldstein, 2005Goldstein, , 2012Janusek, 2004Janusek, , 2008Knudson, 2008;Knudson & Blom, 2011;Knudson, Goldstein, Dahlstedt, Somerville, & Schoeninger, 2014;Knudson, Price, Buikstra, & Blom, 2004;Somerville et al., 2015). Thus, evaluating OA evidence from these two genetically similar sample populations from disparate climates and elevations can provide a good case study of the GEE statistical approach. ...
... Hence, contingency tables are not strong statistically, nor can they evaluate other factors like age, sex, or multiple areas of the body (Table 8), like GEE can for OA changes. This makes GEE effective to use as multiple combined scores garner a "whole-body" perspective that does not invalidate statistical assumptions of independence or overwhelm with so many data points that very little comprehensive information can be parsed from any significant differences (Becker, 2013(Becker, , 2017(Becker, , 2019Becker & Goldstein, 2017). ...
... The primacy of upland landscapes for structuring and mediating social relationships has led increasing anthropological attention to be paid to these environments, as evidenced by the popularity of Scott's (2009) volume on the deliberate statelessness of highland communities in Southeast Asia, or the recent Institute for European and Mediterranean Archaeology (IEMA) conference at the University of Buffalo on the topic of the "Archaeology of Mountain Landscapes" (IEMA 2017). While bioarchaeologists have grown more invested in elucidating the relationships between people and the social and environmental landscapes they inhabit (Austin 2017;Becker 2019;Berger and Juengst 2017;White et al. 2009), there has not been an edited volume or journal issue devoted to the bioarchaeology of mountain landscapes. This absence has contributed to an incomplete understanding of human-environment interaction at a time when such approaches are growing in importance within the field (see Robbins Schug 2020). ...
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This article blends insights from gender, technology, and development studies with Ingold's concept of taskscape to examine the interrelated nature of farming, food, and craft manufacture practices in Banda, Ghana during the last three centuries. We begin by comparing two ethnoarchaeological studies that were conducted separately by the authors, one that focused on food, and the other on ceramic production, preparation, and consumption. We use these data to analyze gendered taskscapes and how they have changed in recent decades with the introduction of new technologies and major economic and environmental shifts. Building on such insights, we analyze how taskscapes shifted in earlier centuries in Banda through archaeological remains of food and craft practice at the eighteenth- to twentieth-century site of Makala Kataa. Craft production cannot be fully understood without reference to food production, preparation, and consumption; thus, viewing these practices as interrelated tasks in a gendered taskscape yields insight into the rhythms of everyday life and highlights women's often undervalued skills.
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Skeletal measures of activity can be used to reconstruct workload levels, repetitive motions, and mobility in past human societies, but working with multiple data points recorded from an individual’s skeleton can come with some scalar problems. For example, if activity measurement is reduced to an overall present or absent count per individual, the reduction in sample size may result in loss of very specific pathology data, as well as be insufficient to address research questions. However, if activity indicators are calculated on a per data point basis, one individual with multiple positive scores may skew statistical results when looking for patterns of activity, or could be a violation of the independence of data required for many statistical tests. In this paper, these issues were solved by using generalized estimating equations (GEE). GEE was used to model the multiple recorded data points on each joint surface for osteoarthritis and each muscle attachment point for musculoskeletal markers while keeping these data linked with each individual specimen. These data were then tested for significant chronological and spatial differences using the chi-square statistic. Overall, the results correlate well with archaeological artifactual data, helping understand the work and activity that laborers performed in prehistory. Additionally, GEE is flexible enough to accommodate variables that are not normally distributed, small sample sizes, and most importantly, randomly missing or unobservable variables (Ballinger 2004; Ghislatta and Spini 2004; Liang and Scott 1986; Rochon 1998), all of which are very important when studying skeletal samples that vary in actual bones recovered from archaeological sites.
Thesis
The research goal of this thesis is to understand ceramic production at Tiwanaku urban center in the Bolivian Altiplano. Data recovered from excavations at Ch'iji Jawira, a potters neighborhood located in the east periphery of the city, allowed to explore the process of ceramic production, the vessels range and variation, as well as the organization and identity of potters, their relationship with the State, and the possible ways ceramics were distributed for broad consumption.
Article
Objectives: Ethnohistoric accounts and archaeological research from Central California document a shift from the use of lower-cost, high-ranked resources (e.g., large game) toward the greater use of higher-cost, low-ranked resources (e.g., acorns and small seeds) during the Late Holocene (4500-200 BP). The subsistence transition from higher consumption of large game toward an increased reliance on acorns was likely associated with increases in levels of logistical mobility and physical activity. This study predicts that mobility and overall workload patterns changed during this transition to accommodate new food procurement strategies and incorporate new dietary resources during the Late Holocene in Central California. Materials and methods: Osteoarthritis prevalence was scored in the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee of adult individuals (n = 256) from seven archaeological sites in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta region. Comparisons were made between osteoarthritis prevalence, sex, age-at-death, and time period using ANCOVAs. Results: The results of this study indicate significant increases in osteoarthritis prevalence in the hip of adult males and females during the Late Period (1200-200 BP), even after correcting for the cumulative effects of age. No differences were observed between the sexes or between time periods for the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints. Discussion: The temporal increase in hip osteoarthritis supports the hypothesis that there was an increasing need for greater logistical mobility over time to procure key resources away from the village sites. Additionally, the lack of sex differences in osteoarthritis prevalence may suggest that females and males likely performed similar levels of activity during these periods.
Book
Developmental Juvenile Osteology was created as a core reference text to document the development of the entire human skeleton from early embryonic life to adulthood. In the period since its first publication there has been a resurgence of interest in the developing skeleton, and the second edition of Developmental Juvenile Osteology incorporates much of the key literature that has been published in the intervening time. The main core of the text persists by describing each individual component of the human skeleton from its embryological origin through to its final adult form. This systematic approach has been shown to assist the processes of both identification and age estimation and acts as a core source for the basic understanding of normal human skeletal development. In addition to this core, new sections have been added where there have been significant advances in the field. Identifies every component of the juvenile skeleton, by providing a detailed analysis of development and ageing and a detailed description of each bone in four ways: adult bone, early development, ossification and practical notes. New chapters and updated sections covering the dentition, age estimation in the living and bone histology. An updated bibliography documenting the research literature that has contributed to the field over the past 15 years since the publication of the first edition. Heavily illustrated, including new additions.
Chapter
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Attempts to examine the forms of articulation by which regional peasant households, grouped into a complex hierarchy of 'communities' or ayllus are in fact linked with both labour and product markets. It also examines the possibilities for accumulation that exist within the peasant economy. Through the use of quantitative data which focus on the spatial distribution of resources and dispersed forms of tenure, and the examination of legal forms of access to land, the dynamic and economic function of the peasant hamlet, bizonal cultivation and the differentiation of the peasantry, attempts are made to question the empirical base of the dualist scheme which opposes the mining 'enclave' to the 'subsistence economy' of the Andean peasant. Through an historical analysis such dualist schemes are rejected. -D.J.Marsden (CDS)
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The geographic expansion of Tiwanaku people and culture (cal A.D. 500-1150) in the south-central Andes can be viewed as a two-staged diaspora. This article defines and categorizes diasporas, suggests archaeological correlates and theoretical implications, and reconstructs the Tiwanaku diaspora. The first stage was a colonizing diaspora in the context of the functioning Tiwanaku state, limited to a few mid-elevation places such as the middle Osmore drainage near Moquegua and probably Cochabamba. The second stage was a much more extensive victim/refugee diaspora driven by the violent disintegration of the colonies around A.D. 1000, in conjunction with either the collapse of Tiwanaku or its radical reorientation by a militaristic elite. Second-stage diaspora populations that settled in sparsely populated areas such as the upper Osmore drainage or the Carumas - Calacoa region established dispersed, small, defensible villages. Those that settled among a larger or more established host population such as the Chiribaya in the coastal Osmore Valley integrated as a marked, lower-status minority. This explosive collapse suggests that Tiwanaku was composed of multiple groups whose differing interests could not be contained. Supporting evidence is drawn primarily from the Osmore drainage, especially the coastal segment.