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# Light Sources in Europe—Case Study: The COMPACTLIGHT Collaboration

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## Abstract and Figures

The light sources currently existing or under development in Europe address needs in the Central and Northwestern regions, whereas in the Southeastern European region there is no facility of this kind. The CompactLight collaboration, an H2020 funded project, is going to deliver a Conceptual Design Report (CDR) of a novel generation X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility which is compact, innovative, relatively cheap and to be implemented for industrial and medical applications. The CDR will facilitate technological updates of the many European region institutions and enable them to construct a novel light source. Cost and risk analysis, as well as technology transfer and market survey of the project results are also discussed.
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instruments
Project Report
Light Sources in Europe—Case Study:
The COMPACTLIGHT Collaboration
Nikolaos Gazis 1, Eugene Tanke 1, Theodoros Apostolopoulos 2, Katerina Pramatari 3,
Regina Alexandra Rochow-Carbone 4and Evangelos Gazis 5, 6, *
1European Spallation Source, 225 92 Lund, Sweden
2Department of Informatics, Athens University of Economic and Business, 104 34 Athens, Greece
3Department of Management Science & Technology, Athens University of Economic and Business,
104 34 Athens, Greece
4Elettra-Sincrotrone, Trieste S. C. p. A., 34149 Trieste, Italy
5School of Applied Mathematical and Physical Sciences, National Technical University of Athens,
157 80 Athens, Greece
6Institute of Accelerating Systems & Applications, 100 24 Athens, Greece
*Correspondence: Evangelos.Gazis@cern.ch
This work is an invited paper for Physics and Applications of High Brightness Beams Conference 2019.
Received: 24 July 2019; Accepted: 11 August 2019; Published: 18 August 2019
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Abstract:
The light sources currently existing or under development in Europe address needs in the
Central and Northwestern regions, whereas in the Southeastern European region there is no facility of
this kind. The CompactLight collaboration, an H2020 funded project, is going to deliver a Conceptual
Design Report (CDR) of a novel generation X-ray Free Electron Laser (XFEL) facility which is compact,
innovative, relatively cheap and to be implemented for industrial and medical applications. The CDR
will facilitate technological updates of the many European region institutions and enable them to
construct a novel light source. Cost and risk analysis, as well as technology transfer and market
survey of the project results are also discussed.
Keywords:
light source; XFEL; high gradient accelerator facility; industrial and medical applications;
cost and risk analysis; technology transfer and market survey
1. Introduction
There are many large-scale accelerator infrastructures in Europe, building the future in key areas
of research and development for the upcoming decades [
1
]. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) has become
a fundamental and indispensable tool for studying matter, as shown by the large number of facilities
in operation worldwide, which is close to eighty and serves tens of thousands of users every year.
The impact of SR across these disciplines cannot be doubted as evidenced by the ﬁve Nobel prizes that
were awarded in the past twenty years to scientists whose research had been made possible by SR [
2
].
A synchrotron based light source is made up of several key components: a source of electrons,
a linear accelerator, a booster synchrotron and a storage ring. Electrons are generated in an electron
gun, and accelerated in bunches in the linear accelerator before continuing their journey into the
booster synchrotron where they are further energized. Once the right energy is reached, the electrons
are injected into the storage ring where several hundred bunches of electrons circulate at just under
the speed of light. At various points around the storage ring, these electrons pass through specially
designed magnets and emit brilliant synchrotron light. This light is channeled down to the experimental
stations, which are called beam-lines. Many experiments can run simultaneously making a synchrotron
a high-throughput environment with the ability to support a large community of scientists. There are
Instruments 2019,3, 43; doi:10.3390/instruments3030043 www.mdpi.com/journal/instruments
Instruments 2019,3, 43 2 of 11
more than 50 light sources producing synchrotron light with 60,000 users worldwide, as given by
LEAPS (League of European Accelerator-based Photon Sources, https://www.leaps-initiative.eu/) [3].
X-ray Free-electron lasers (XFELs) are also accelerator-based light sources, utilizing electrons
to generate beams of light with unique properties. Unlike circular synchrotrons, XFELs are based
on a linear accelerating structure. The electron beam is passed through magnetic undulators up to
300 m long. These arrays of magnets can be manipulated to enable the production of the required
light for a given experiment. Through complex interactions between the photons and electrons in the
undulator, the electrons arrange themselves into thin disks, which emit light in a highly synchronized
way. The resulting light from these minute electron disks is pulsed and laser-like. This enables the
study of processes at the atomic scale across a range of timescales, reaching the femtosecond, which was
previously inaccessible to researchers. Each XFEL possesses a number of beam-lines enabling research
into physical and life sciences.
Synchrotron Radiation has become a fundamental and indispensable tool for studying matter,
as shown by the large number of these facilities in operation worldwide.
Light sources encompass both the synchrotron light source community, which produce highly
intense continuous beams, and the free-electron lasers community, producing high intensity short
pulsed laser-like beams.
Light source facilities have been working alongside each other in Europe successfully for
years, supporting world-class science. In the recent past alone, light source facilities have welcomed
24,000 direct users, who have had an impact on a wider network of 35,000 researchers, with 23,400 unique
articles published in peer-reviewed journals. (Data from the 1st page of https://lightsources.org)
The LEAPS collaboration oers a step change in European cooperation, uniting 16 organizations
representing 19 facilities through a common vision of enabling scientiﬁc excellence solving global
challenges, and boosting European competitiveness and integration. This will be achieved through
a common sustainable strategy developed in consultation with all stakeholders, including national
policy makers, user communities and the European Commission.
2. Societal Impact of Light Source Applications
New technology, new treatments and the implementation of innovative discoveries for the
social prosperity and security of European citizens today and in the future depend on meeting
increasingly demanding challenges. These can be found in a variety of ﬁelds (e.g., basic science, energy,
transport, healthcare, food, safety, sustainable living, culture heritage and archaeology) and must
all be tackled within a thriving, inclusive economy. The use of X-ray FELs, in the short time that
they have been available, has already led to signiﬁcant insights in a number of scientiﬁc ﬁelds such
as atomic, plasma, solid-state physics, and macromolecular crystallography [
4
6
]. There are many
references [
7
,
8
] suggesting the shortest and brightest pulse for future XFEL facilities. More speciﬁcally.
the shortest pulse duration, down to 1 fs, is exclusively needed for the innovative applications in
femtosecond molecular crystallography in biology [
9
] and in femtosecond chemistry [
10
]. The capability
of single-shot detection of diraction signals using a femtosecond X-ray pulse enables researchers to
obtain intrinsic structures that are free from structural damage caused by the radicals and reactants
produced by X-ray irradiation. This makes it possible to analyze the structures of micro- or nano-sized
protein crystals in physiological conditions [
11
]. Gaining a better understanding of the world around us
demands new technology, all of which points to an increased role and reliance on highly sophisticated
analytical tools like accelerator-based light sources to provide the most incisive means of measuring
and unraveling atomic and molecular structures of the world around us. Researchers are developing
new exploitation techniques, increasingly based upon enhanced output from FELs such as two-color
pulses, femtosecond and sub-femtosecond photon pulse lengths [
12
14
]. The information revealed at
this scale can have a transformational eect on science and technology.
Instruments 2019,3, 43 3 of 11
2.1. Health
Recent successes by researchers include a new synthetic vaccine for polio, a range of therapeutic
drugs for breast cancer, new materials for prosthetics and boundaries of 3D imaging being pushed
down to the cellular level. Synchrotron light source facilities may enable whole cell imaging to
understand the development of disease at this level, while free-electron lasers (FELs) will allow for the
investigation of the dynamics of biological processes on the atomic scale. The academic contribution
made in structural biology is enormous, with over 14,500 protein structures deposited in the open
access Worldwide Protein Databank in the last 5 years by light sources. The pharmaceutical industry
research has concentrated on exploiting protein crystallography to assist drug discovery programs.
2.2. Energy
The light sources have been at the forefront of eorts to develop advanced energy materials such
as those involved in the new generations of solar cells, new energy ecient information technologies
and solutions for energy storage (e.g., the design of lithium-ion batteries has already been improved
and alternatives such as sodium-ion batteries investigated). In addition, signiﬁcant research continues
to be directed towards novel fuel cells, which oer the potential for ‘zero emission’ energy sources.
In the future, brighter light sources and FELs in particular, will enable more measurements to study
the dynamics and function of cleaner energy devices, and to optimize their development under
realistic conditions.
The access to locally available light sources enables Europe to speed up innovation and consolidate
its position as a global leader in science with a detailed understanding of how catalysts work
at the atomic level; by enabling cleaner air, improving health and ensuring more ecient use of
natural resources.
3. Study Case: CompactLight Collaboration
3.1. General
Synchrotron Radiation facilities have seen, during the past decades, an impetuous growth as
they are a fundamental tool for the study of materials in a wide spectrum of sciences, technologies,
and applications. The last generation of Synchrotron Light Sources was based on single-pass Free
Electron Lasers (FELs), driven by linacs, and featured an unprecedented performance in terms of pulse
duration, brightness and coherence.
The demand for new FEL facilities is continuously increasing worldwide, spurring plans for
new-dedicated machines. The lightsources collaboration [
15
] reports that there is no light source from
Czech Republic to the rest of Eastern and Southern Europe, the Middle East (except the SESAME
project) [
16
] and the Scandinavian (except Sweden), Baltic, Iberian and North African countries,
as shown in the map in Figure 1.
A number of other European countries have considered or are actively considering FEL facilities at
the present time, including the UK, Turkey, Sweden, the Netherlands and France. The strong scientiﬁc
case for FEL beams is apparent from the inability of present facilities to meet the demands of the
scientiﬁc community. At the LCLS [
17
] facility, the number of proposals has increased from ~30 in 2009
to close to 200 in 2014, of which only 20% are currently scheduled. Similarly, at the FERMI [
18
20
]
facility, at the research center Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, a little more than 30% of the proposed
experiments are currently scheduled with a similar situation existing at FLASH [21].
This has led to a general reconsideration of costs and spatial issues, particularly for the Hard
X-ray Sources, driven by long and expensive multi-GeV normal conducting linacs.
For these machines the use of an optimum combination of emerging and innovative accelerator
technologies can greatly reduce costs and capital investment, opening the way to the construction of
a multitude of aordable “Regional Facilities”.
Instruments 2019,3, 43 4 of 11
Instruments 2019, 4, x 4 of 11
Figure 1. A map of existing or under construction Light Sources in Europe and surrounding areas
(https://lightsources.org/lightsources-of-the-world/europe/).
The CompactLight [22,23] project intends to design a hard X-ray FEL facility beyond today’s
state of the art, using the latest concepts for bright electron photo injectors, very high-gradient X-
band structures at 12 GHz, and innovative compact short-period undulators, summarized briefly as
follows:
High brightness electron photo-injectors
Very high gradient accelerating structures, 100 MV/m
Novel short period undulators
In addition, CompactLight has options for soft X-rays and for a Compton source.
To put this into perspective, the existing FELs facilities in the European Union (FERMI, FLASH
and FLASH II [24]) are operating in the soft X-ray range, while other two facilities (SwissFEL [25] and
EuroXFEL [26]), which will operate in the hard X-ray scale. The proposed facility will benefit from a
lower electron beam energy due to the enhanced undulator performance, be significantly more
compact, as a consequence both of the lower energy and of the high-gradient X-band structures, have
a much lower electrical power demand and a smaller footprint. The CompactLight facility gathers
the world-leading experts in these domains, united to achieve two objectives: disseminate X-band
technology as a new standard for accelerator-based facilities and advance undulators to the next
generation of compact photon sources, with the aim of facilitating the widespread development of X-
ray FEL facilities across and beyond Europe by making them more affordable to build and to operate.
The CompactLight Collaboration consists of 24 partners, mainly from Europe, including from
Turkey, China and Australia including four associate partners from Europe.
3.2. CompactLight Innovation
Figure 1.
A map of existing or under construction Light Sources in Europe and surrounding areas
(https://lightsources.org/lightsources-of-the-world/europe/).
The CompactLight [
22
,
23
] project intends to design a hard X-ray FEL facility beyond today’s state
of the art, using the latest concepts for bright electron photo injectors, very high-gradient X-band
structures at 12 GHz, and innovative compact short-period undulators, summarized brieﬂy as follows:
High brightness electron photo-injectors
Very high gradient accelerating structures, 100 MV/m
Novel short period undulators
In addition, CompactLight has options for soft X-rays and for a Compton source.
To put this into perspective, the existing FELs facilities in the European Union (FERMI, FLASH
and FLASH II [
24
]) are operating in the soft X-ray range, while other two facilities (SwissFEL [
25
]
and EuroXFEL [
26
]), which will operate in the hard X-ray scale. The proposed facility will beneﬁt
from a lower electron beam energy due to the enhanced undulator performance, be signiﬁcantly more
compact, as a consequence both of the lower energy and of the high-gradient X-band structures, have
a much lower electrical power demand and a smaller footprint. The CompactLight facility gathers
the world-leading experts in these domains, united to achieve two objectives: disseminate X-band
technology as a new standard for accelerator-based facilities and advance undulators to the next
generation of compact photon sources, with the aim of facilitating the widespread development of
X-ray FEL facilities across and beyond Europe by making them more aordable to build and to operate.
Instruments 2019,3, 43 5 of 11
The CompactLight Collaboration consists of 24 partners, mainly from Europe, including from
Turkey, China and Australia including four associate partners from Europe.
3.2. CompactLight Innovation
The main ﬁgure of merit for SR is the brightness, which deﬁnes the intensity of radiation,
within a given bandwidth around the desired wavelength, focused onto a sample of given area,
with a particular solid angle.
A major factor in the cost of the construction of FELs is the accelerator technology adopted.
The majority of existing facilities utilize S-band linear accelerators given the maturity of the technology.
However, this technology, although consolidated through many decades of use is not optimal.
At comparable accelerating ﬁelds, a higher frequency accelerating structure can achieve higher
gradients and lower power requirements than those produced by lower frequency structures.
The successful construction and operation of SACLA [
11
] (Japan) at a C-band frequency is
testimony of the eectiveness of a higher accelerating frequency. In this case, an 8 GeV electron beam
with the characteristics required to drive an FEL can be generated in the space of 400 m compared
to 600 m at the S-Band (inclusive of injector and bunch compressors). Subsequently, SwissFEL also
adopted C-band technology. The use of X-band technology further improves the situation and one
can expect to more than halve the required length of the accelerator and associated infrastructure
compared to these machines. For large-scale accelerator projects such as synchrotron radiation light
sources and FELs the cost breakdown is typically: 70% in civil engineering, accelerator and the ﬁrst
beamlines, and 30% for personnel and management. Parametric scaling of the accelerator length can
result in 20 to 25% savings.
The CompactLight design study, based on validated high-gradient X-band and novel undulator
technologies, will also enable upgrades of existing FELs (e.g., FERMI) to higher energies within
physical space limitations, which would otherwise not be possible due to the limited accelerating
gradients of the S- and C-band structures. It will also allow existing facilities to expand their user
communities and scientiﬁc programs taking advantage of the shorter produced photon wavelengths.
In fact, high-frequency X-band structures can also run at low gradients and at a high repetition rate
(kHz regime), enabling a new set of operational scenarios for high average power X-ray FELs, currently
in high demand for scientiﬁc and technological application.
The expansion of the use of X-band technology, which this design study has the potential to
stimulate, will also beneﬁt the particle physics community such as future energy frontier lepton
colliders (e.g., CLIC [
27
]), or other Higgs factories, through the industrialization of the technology and
the broadening and enhancing of the skill base in this area.
Concerning the industrial applications, many study groups have suggested high-power FELs,
operating at 13.5 nm, as a possible high-volume lithography source for manufacturing computer chips
and electronic components. For this type of application, care needs to be taken to guarantee very high
levels of reliability and availability of the FEL facility.
3.3. Objectives
The key objective of the CompactLight Design Study is to demonstrate, through a conceptual
design, the feasibility of an innovative, compact and cost eective XFEL facility suited for user demands
identiﬁed in the ﬁeld of science.
The main cost driver for every XFEL is the beam energy. By implementing room temperature in
the vacuum device, it is possible to achieve a 0.1 nm wavelength output at 5.8 GeV. A new generation
of superconducting undulators for FELs with very low average beam currents, and consequently much
smaller wakeﬁeld-induced heat loads (taking the much smaller bunch lengths into account) on the
cryogenic vacuum beam screen, are able to operate with a similar magnet beam aperture as permanent
magnet undulators. In this case preliminary calculations suggest that an XFEL could generate 0.1 nm
Instruments 2019,3, 43 6 of 11
wavelength output already at 4.6 GeV, which is an ~20% reduction in the beam energy. A simpliﬁed
layout of the proposed FEL is shown in Figure 2.
Instruments 2019, 4, x 6 of 11
Figure 2. Layout of an XFEL (X-ray Free-Electron Laser) facility.
A strong collaboration of CompactLight with CERN and in particular with the CLIC
Collaboration to make a compact and more affordable XFEL in the next decade, the CLIC X-band
accelerator technology is looking like it will be a very promising solution to fulfill this aim. The
performance requirements for the main linac of CLIC, a TeV-range electron-positron collider, are
quite demanding [27]. The most important parameters are an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m, low
breakdown rate, micron-tolerance alignment and a high RF-to-beam efficiency (around 30%). Figure
3 shows a photograph of a successful high accelerating gradient X-band structure prototype at
gradients above 100 MV/m, an important milestone.
Figure 3. The CLIC T24 X-band accelerating structure, operated up to 120 MV/m, (CLIC CDR Vol1,
CERN, 2012).
The compact and modular CLIC X-band technology can also be exploited to generate 3 GeV
electrons over a short distance and then extended to generate a 6 GeV or greater beam to drive a FEL.
The high-level technical specifications on which the CompactLight will be based are listed in Table
1.
The major novel and innovative advantages can be summarized as follows:
Lower emittance and higher repetition-rate photo-injectors
High-gradient linacs: Gradients in excess of 100 MV/m are now routinely achieved.
High-efficiency klystrons: Techniques to bring efficiencies above 60% at high frequency
have been demonstrated.
Advanced concept undulators: Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators and
superconducting undulators have both been demonstrated and successfully operated on 3rd
generation light sources in recent years.
Improved diagnostics including X-band deflectors for longitudinal bunch dynamics.
Figure 2. Layout of an XFEL (X-ray Free-Electron Laser) facility.
A strong collaboration of CompactLight with CERN and in particular with the CLIC Collaboration
to make a compact and more aordable XFEL in the next decade, the CLIC X-band accelerator technology
is looking like it will be a very promising solution to fulﬁll this aim. The performance requirements for
the main linac of CLIC, a TeV-range electron-positron collider, are quite demanding [
27
]. The most
important parameters are an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m, low breakdown rate, micron-tolerance
alignment and a high RF-to-beam eciency (around 30%). Figure 3shows a photograph of
a successful high accelerating gradient X-band structure prototype at gradients above 100 MV/m,
an important milestone.
Instruments 2019, 4, x 6 of 11
Figure 2. Layout of an XFEL (X-ray Free-Electron Laser) facility.
A strong collaboration of CompactLight with CERN and in particular with the CLIC
Collaboration to make a compact and more affordable XFEL in the next decade, the CLIC X-band
accelerator technology is looking like it will be a very promising solution to fulfill this aim. The
performance requirements for the main linac of CLIC, a TeV-range electron-positron collider, are
quite demanding [27]. The most important parameters are an accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m, low
breakdown rate, micron-tolerance alignment and a high RF-to-beam efficiency (around 30%). Figure
3 shows a photograph of a successful high accelerating gradient X-band structure prototype at
gradients above 100 MV/m, an important milestone.
Figure 3. The CLIC T24 X-band accelerating structure, operated up to 120 MV/m, (CLIC CDR Vol1,
CERN, 2012).
The compact and modular CLIC X-band technology can also be exploited to generate 3 GeV
electrons over a short distance and then extended to generate a 6 GeV or greater beam to drive a FEL.
The high-level technical specifications on which the CompactLight will be based are listed in Table
1.
The major novel and innovative advantages can be summarized as follows:
Lower emittance and higher repetition-rate photo-injectors
High-gradient linacs: Gradients in excess of 100 MV/m are now routinely achieved.
High-efficiency klystrons: Techniques to bring efficiencies above 60% at high frequency
have been demonstrated.
Advanced concept undulators: Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators and
superconducting undulators have both been demonstrated and successfully operated on 3rd
generation light sources in recent years.
Improved diagnostics including X-band deflectors for longitudinal bunch dynamics.
Figure 3.
The CLIC T24 X-band accelerating structure, operated up to 120 MV/m, (CLIC CDR Vol1,
CERN, 2012).
The compact and modular CLIC X-band technology can also be exploited to generate 3 GeV
electrons over a short distance and then extended to generate a 6 GeV or greater beam to drive a FEL.
The high-level technical speciﬁcations on which the CompactLight will be based are listed in Table 1.
The major novel and innovative advantages can be summarized as follows:
Lower emittance and higher repetition-rate photo-injectors
High-gradient linacs: Gradients in excess of 100 MV/m are now routinely achieved.
High-eciency klystrons: Techniques to bring eciencies above 60% at high frequency have
been demonstrated.
Instruments 2019,3, 43 7 of 11
Advanced concept undulators: Cryogenic permanent magnet undulators and superconducting
undulators have both been demonstrated and successfully operated on 3rd generation light
sources in recent years.
Improved diagnostics including X-band deﬂectors for longitudinal bunch dynamics.
Better beam dynamics and optimization tools including those developed for linear colliders.
Table 1. CompactLight accelerator parameters.
Parameter Value Unit
Minimum Wavelength 0.1 nm
Photons per pulse >1012
Pulse bandwidth << 0.1 %
Repetition rate 100 to 1000 Hz
Pulse duration <1 to 50 fs
Undulator Period 10 mm
K value 1.13
Electron Energy 4.6 GeV
Bunch Charge <250 pC
4. Cost and Risk Analysis
4.1. Cost Analysis
Cost and performance models of the technical systems will be based on simulations and prototypes.
These and existing models of other light sources and middle to large size accelerator facilities [
28
31
]
will be taken into account and worked upon by experts from the Athens University of Economics and
Business (AUEB) and the Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications (IASA). The scope of this
work includes the four technical systems, which cover the injector, linac, undulator and beam dynamics
respectively. This activity will also take into account the costs and estimated budgets required for the
construction and operation of these facilities. Comparison of costs will be made with conventional
technologies and will take into account already committed investments. Comparison of costs will also
be made with XFEL facilities worldwide, both planned and under construction. Preliminary estimates,
taking into account the nominal electron energy and hard X-rays production, show lower costs than
for the existing other XFEL facilities.
4.2. Risk-SWOT Analysis
Here, risks are deﬁned as the probability of occurrence times the impact of an event and should
be managed properly, such as to avoid results with a negative impact on project economics, e.g., cost
overruns and time delays. As an example, a properly implemented integrated risk management
process leads to a successful infrastructure project during the design phase.
There are many risk management standards, i.e., PMBOK, CAN/CSA-Q850-97, RISMAN, FERMA
and IRM, IEC 62198:2013, PRAM, BS6079-3: 2000 and ATOM. These standards are studied intensively
based on criteria such as risk identiﬁcation, risk assessment, analysis and treatment, risk response, risk
control, monitor and review, etc. Based on a study of risk management for CompactLight, the need to
improve the factors that inﬂuence the quality of performance of CompactLight became evident.
The risk analysis of our project was examined, primarily, via the Strength–Weakness–
Opportunities–Threats (SWOT) analysis which helps the identiﬁcation of the advantages and
disadvantages of the project, in order to avoid fatal solutions or selections for its integration and
construction procedure.
âThe strengths analysis yielded the following advantages:
New design with improved speciﬁcations than existing facilities
Instruments 2019,3, 43 8 of 11
Active and broad collaboration with experience teams in the project
Industrial partnership
Scientiﬁc, Engineering, Finance & Economical academic partnership
Less expensive ﬁnal product
âThe Weaknesses analysis yielded the following considerations:
Final technological option(s) to various parts yet to be decided
Eort to cover more sub-areas of X-ray production
âThe Opportunities analysis yielded the following possibilities:
Large areas without a light source in Europe and elsewhere for implementation of our
ﬁnal product
Cooperation development with institutions and countries to commercialize our product
Future member of the XFEL network
âThe Threats analysis yielded the following considerations:
Parallel XFEL projects under current development
Dierent technology projects providing S-/C-band X-rays or some of them
As part of this analysis, identiﬁcation nodes and failure modes of the project were deﬁned:
Identiﬁcation Nodes:
RF-gun, Injector, Linac, Bunch Compressor, Undulators, Klystrons, Power
system, Beam control system, Time schedule, Over costing.
Failure Modes:
Construction delay, Commissioning, Operation, Technical failure, Power o,
Time delay, Budget limit.
The Risk Analysis is conducted in two steps. Firstly, for each potential failure a YES/NO decision
is made to retain credible failures only. Secondly, worst case scenarios for the nodes located in the RF,
magnets, undulators, control of the machine and power are identiﬁed and a descriptive probability for
each of the mishaps is assigned. Then a descriptive analysis of the causes and consequences of each
credible failure is made and a gravity number of 1 to 3 is assigned to each event. Failures of gravity 1
do not create any risk, neither to machine nor to other sources. For the failures of gravity 2 and 3, the
associated risks are described and recommendations are formulated [32].
Some preliminary results of the risk analysis for the Compact Light project are listed in Table 2,
including the risk analysis during the various phases of the project. In this table, it is concluded that
there is no gravity failure of size 3 as a well-structured CDR will be delivered. In addition, the gravity
failure with gravity 2 is related to the possible delay of the construction phase; it depends on the
stakeholder that will build this facility and on the opower conditions, during the XFEL operation.
These latter ones in turn depend on the available power structure of the facility.
Table 2. A draft Risk Analysis estimation.
Phase RF-Gun Injector Linac Bunch
Compressor Undulators Klystrons Power
System
Beam Control
System
Time
Schedule
Over
Cost
Construction 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
Commissioning 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Operation 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Technical failure
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1 1
Power o2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Time delay 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Budget limit 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Instruments 2019,3, 43 9 of 11
5. Transfer Technology and Market Survey
One major eort in the CompactLight project is related to the long-term goal of providing a degree
of standardization such that FELs become facilities that can be provided by industry. The “Strategy
Report on Research Infrastructures”, Roadmap 2016, asserts: “SR facilities are very powerful attractors
and contribute to European scientiﬁc and industrial competitiveness” [
33
]. CompactLight has as the
primary project objective a compact hard X-ray FEL facility design, with options for soft X-rays and for
a Compton source, and targets the major technology areas important for an XFEL: the gun and the
injectors, beam acceleration and RF production, and undulators and photon production. Additionally,
technologies for compact, high-precision, diagnostics will also be reviewed and studied. Each of these
R&D areas has large potential for application that go well beyond CompactLight itself.
The innovative results of the CompactLight project can be summarized as follows:
Nano materials, Metallurgy, Electronics, Chemistry, Biology, Protein
structure, DNA radiation damage, Molecular Crystallography, Super Microscopy, Agriculture, etc.
The hard X-ray photons of our XLS collaboration with 0.1 nm wavelength has the privilege of
mapping the atomic structure of materials (including bio-molecules and nanometer scale structures)
and to track ultrafast phenomena of interest with currently available techniques.
Photocathode/Laser, RF Gun/Injector, LINAC,
Undulator, Beam Instrumentation.
The cutting-edge technology components can be fruitfully constructed and distributed to other
labs or industrial units. The total design of the X-FEL can also be provided as a compact, short length
and less expensive powerful special X-ray source for particular applications and science.
In addition to the aforementioned items related to knowledge and technology transfer, it is also
important to get feedback from the users forum and deﬁne new requirements for future users of
our project.
The industrialization and cost reduction of the high-power RF system, klystrons, modulators,
pulse compressor and waveguide network, as well as the tight-tolerance, high-gradient accelerating
structures, will be led by CERN and carried out with the support of a private company (VDL ETG).
It is noted that the VDL ETG Precision Technology is specialized in the co-development of high
precision parts, sub-assemblies, prototypes and modules. Another private company, KYMA S.A.,
established in August 2007 by Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste, has as its primary purpose to design, realize
and install the undulators for the FERMI@Elettra FEL project, including participation in the ﬁnal
speciﬁcation of the undulators. Since its establishment, KYMA became a reference supplier in the light
source community, with almost ﬁfty insertion devices designed and manufactured. KYMA is now
recognized as a qualiﬁed partner for the design and development of this kind of equipment.
The intellectual property (IP) of our project lies at the heart of innovation and competitiveness
around the world as well as in the European Union. The intellectual property rights (IPRs) are protected
mainly through patents, trademarks and copyright. They enable individuals and companies to earn
recognition and/or ﬁnancial beneﬁt from what they invent or create. Taking into account the right
balance between innovators and public interest, IP aims to foster an environment in which creativity
and innovation can ﬂourish. The EU has shaped a framework (EU IPRs Policy for H2020 Projects,
H2020-Annotated Model Grant Agreement Dec 2018.) that deﬁnes and protects innovations and
creations through IP. This framework mainly comprises of directives and regulations protecting
6. Conclusions
This work presents Synchrotron Radiation and XFEL facilities, both existing and under construction
in and around Europe. It establishes the need for more XFEL units to provide tools for science, energy,
health and many other applications; promoter which will proceed with the upgrade of the industrial
product level. The CompactLight project is aimed at the development of an innovative next generation
XFEL of hard X-rays emission that is compact and less expensive; taking advantage of CLIC accelerator
Instruments 2019,3, 43 10 of 11
technology (accelerating structure of 100 MV/m). The risk and cost analysis of the project with the
deﬁnition of a ﬁnal risk table, as well as the transfer technology and market survey work with certain
impacts on scientiﬁc and applied domains, were also presented. The cooperation of academics with
industrial CompactLight partners provides the methodology to disseminate our technological results
to the European industry.
Author Contributions:
Software and methodology, N.G.; methodology and editing, E.T.; validation, formal
analysis and investigation, T.A. and K.P.; project administration and writing—review and editing, R.A.R.-C.;
conceptualization, writing—original draft preparation and supervision E.G.
Funding:
This project is funded by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme
under the Grant Agreement No. 777431.
Acknowledgments:
The contents of this work reﬂects only the view of the authors. The European Commission is
not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.
Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂicts of interest.
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... Infrared based synchrotron radiation provides an efficient technique to characterize chemical compounds crosswise surfaces to determine the sample's chemical composition [93,94]. Synchrotron radiation (SR) is the intense light produced by a synchrotron [95][96][97]. It covers a very wide electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to infrared, visible light, ultraviolet light, X-rays, and gamma rays [98]. ...
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