ResearchPDF Available
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 605
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
Anti Diabetic Effect of Artemisia.sieberi In
Rabbits that Induced Diabetic by Alloxan
Hussein Ali Khayoon , Ali Hasanain Ali , Taisir Abdulelah Kadhim, Haider Abdulameer Abdulhadi
Abstract The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of some of the material extract-
ed from the plant Artemisia . sieberia and their impact on the reduction of diabetes in rabbits that have
been injected with alloxan induced diabetic rabbits , Where was the study on rabbits, which were divided
into three groups, each group of three rabbits group 1 normal rabbits received 1ml day -1 of dimethyl
sulphoxide [control ]; group 2 diabetic rabbits received asingle dose [80 mg kg -1 b.wt.] of essential oil
aqueous extract of Artemisia .sibberi ; group 3 diabetic rabbits received single dose [80 mg kg -1 b.wt.] of
essential oil coholex extract of Artemisia.sieberi .all treatments were orally administered once aday for
three weeks .changes in blood glucose concentration ,body weight and food and water intake were meas-
ured and the data obtained were compared with that of control .the essential oil extract significantly
[p0.05] lowered blood glucose level as well as food and water intake in diabetic rabbits accompanied by
an increase in body weight again with no apparent side effect when compared with untreated diabetic
rabbits .these effects were found to be closely similar to that of aqueous extract and coholix extract and a
metaphormin ,acommon anti diabetic drug .on other hand ,no apparent improvement on body weight
again in diabetic rabbits treated with metaphormin . in addition , for all parameters measured , the oil
extract showed no effect in normal rabbits .in conclusion ,the essential oil of Artemisia . sieberi exhibited
anti diabetic activity in alloxan –induced diabetic rabbits . In recent times it has become dependent on
medicinal plants as a treatment for diabetes in humans and various types of diseases and published re-
search on the plant Artemisia .sibberi proved that
Index Terms Artemisia .sibberi , alloxan , Diabetes mellitus , blood glucose, pancreas, Anti-diabetic
—————————— ——————————
Hussein Ali Khayoon: currently pursuing masters de-
gree pro-gram in pharmacology and toxicology de-
partment in nursing college , Al- Muthanna university
Ali hasanain Ali. is currently pursuing masters degree
pro-gram in physiology,department of basic medical
science, Nursing College,University of Almuthanna,
Iraq. E-mail:
Taisir Abdulelah Kadhim: is currently pursing master
degree program in Microbiology, department of basic
medical science,Nursing College ,University of Al-
muthanna ,Iraq.
Haider Abdulameer Abdulhadi is currently pursing
master degree in organic chemistry
1. Introduction Diabe-
tes mellitus is achronic condition which af-
fects ±10% of the general population, characterized by
serumglucose and a relative or absolute in pancre
atic insulin production, or tissue responsiveness to i
lin; if not properly controlled, theexcess glucose dama
ges blood vessels of the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart T
ypes Insulin dependent–type I and non-
insulin dependent–
typeII diabetes Symptoms type 1 DM is associat-
ed with urine output, thirst, fatigue,+
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 606
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
and weight loss ; type 2 DM isassociated with, in +
addition, non healing ulcers , oral and bladder infec-
tions, blurred vision, paresthesias in the hands
and feet, and itchingCardiovascular MI, stoke Eyes
Retinal damage, blindness Legs/feet Nonhealing ul-
cers, cuts leading to gangrene and amputation Kidney
sHTN, renal failure Neurology Paresthesias, neuropat
hy Diagnosis Serum glucose above cutoff points after
meals or when fasting; oncetherapy is begun, serum le
vels of glycosylated Hb are measured periodically to a
ssess adequacy of glucose control Management Thera
flects type of DM; metformin andtriglitazone have eq
ual and additive effects on glycemic control Prognosis
A function of stringency ofglucose control and presen
ce of complications.
Oral medications are available to lower blood glucos
e in Type II diabetics Konuklagil , B,Deniz, G,Yildiz ,
O,Senoz,s and saygi, s, 1997 . In 1990
, 23.4 outpatient prescriptions for oral antidiabeticag
ents were dispensed. By 2001, the number had incre
ased to 91.8 million prescriptions. Oral antidiabetic a
gents accounted for more than$5 billion dollars in w
orldwide retail sales per year in the early twenty-
first century and were the fastest-
growing segment of diabetes drugs.The drugs first
prescribed for Type II diabetes are in a class of
compounds called sulfonylureas and include tol-
butamide, tolazamide,acetohexamide, and chlor-
mide. Newer drugs in the same class are now availa
ble and include glyburide, glimeperide, and glipizid
e.How these drugs work is not well understood, ho
er, they seem to stimulate cells of the pancreas to pro
ce more insulin. Newmedications that are available t
o treat diabetes include metformin, acarbose , and
troglitizone . The choice of medication
depends in part onthe Individual patient profile .
All drugs have side effects that may make them in-
ate for particular patients. Some for example, maysti
mulate weight gain or cause stomach irritation, so
they may not be the best treatment for some-
one who is already overweight or whohas stom-
ach ulcers. Others, like metformin, have been shown
to have positive effects such as reduced cardiovascu
lar mortality, but butincreased risk in oth-
er situations. While these medications are an import
ant aspect of treatment for Type II diabetes, they are
not asubstitute for a well planned diet and moderate
exercise. Oral medications
have not been shown effective for Type I diabetes,
in which thepatient produces little or no insulin.
Since olden days, plants are used to treat many
ailments. India has about 45,000 plant species and
several thousands have been claimed to possess
medicinal properties ( Grover JK, et al. J Eth-
nopharmacol. 2002;81:81). Medicinal plants used
to treat hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic condi-
tions are of considerable interest for ethno-
botanical community as they are recognized to
contain valuable medicinal properties in different
parts of the plant and a number of plants have
shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-
hyperglycemic activity. (Grover JK, et al. J Eth-
nopharmacol. 2002;81:81) The active principles of
many plant species are isolated for direct use as
drugs, lead compounds or pharmacological
agents.( Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. Environ
Health Perspect. 2001;109:69) Several species of
medicinal plants are used in the treatment of dia-
betes mellitus, a disease affecting large number of
people world-wide. Traditional plant medicines
or herbal formulations might offer a natural key
to unlock diabetic complications ( Nammi S, et
al. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003;3:4)
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 607
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
Essetial oils are commonly used in traditional
medicine as antiseptic, antimicrobial, virucidal,
fungicidal, analgesic, seedactive, anti-
inflammatory, spasmolytic and anesthesia as well
as in food industry as preservative (Zareba et al.,
2005; Burt, 2004; Bakkali et al., 2008; Sabu and
Kuttan, 2002). Essential oils were firstextracted
from aromatic plants by steam or hydro-distillation
by Arabs. Biochemical analyses showed that essen-
tial oils are mixture of a variety of lipid soluble and
volatile compounds such as terpenes and terpe-
noids , phenol-derived aromatic and aliphatic
components that are characterized by their strong
odor(Zareba et al., 2005; Burt,2004;Bakkali et al.,
2008; Sabu and Kuttan, 2002).These analyses also
characterize most of them as antioxidants. Essen-
tial oils extracts have also been known to contain at
least 100 alkaloid compounds as well as other
pharmacologically active compounds. Moreo-
ver,their quality and quantity were (shown King ,
H R,E. Auburt and W. H .Herman, 1998 ; Global burden of
diabetes 1995-2005 ) to vary according to method of
extraction, climate, soil composition, plant organ,
age and vegetative cycle stage.
Furthermore, ethanobotanical studies reported
that at least 1,200 species of plants with anti hy-
perglycemia or hypoglycemia activity have been
identified as remedies for DM around the world
(Marrif et al., 1995; Khalil, 1995; Afif and Irmaileh,
2000; Irshaid and Mansi,
2009a,b).Artemisia.sieberi (A. sieberi)is one of
them which grows wild in Jordan and it is com-
monly known as sheeh (Khalil et al., 1995; Afif
and is becoming very popular in Jordan for the
treatment of DM and other aliments (Afif and Ir-
maileh, 2000, Amr, 1995). According to a recent
study by Hudaib and Aburijai (2006), forty differ-
ent compounds have been identified in the essen-
tial oils of this plant by GC/MS analyses. These
include phenol, alcohol, ketone and monotepenes
compounds. Recently , its hypoglycemic activity
in aqueous extract has been reported in diabetic
animals (Mansi and Lahham, 2008). Howev-
er,prior to our current study, the effects of essen-
tial oils extract obtained from A. sieberi have not
yet been evaluated in Jordan. Furthermore,there
is no report on the antid iabetic activity of essen-
tial oil derived from A.sieberi in the available lit-
erature. Therefore, the present research work was
oil extract from A.sieberi and metaformin on blood
glucose concentration, water intake, food in-
takeand body weight in alloxan induced diabetic
1.1. Artemisia .sieberi plant
For thousands of years ago, plants have been exten-
sively used to treat numerous ailments. In Jordan,
about 2500plant species belonging to seven hun-
dred genera are recorded (Al-Eisawi, 1982) of
which around 485 species from 99 plant families
are categorized as medicinal plants (Affix and
Abu Iramileh, 2000). Medicinal plants used to
treat hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions
are of considerable interest for ethno-botanical
community. They contain valuable medicinal
properties. A number of plants have shown vary-
ing degrees of hypoglycemic and anti-
hyperglycemic activities (Grover et al., 2002). The
active principles of many plant species were iso-
lated fordirect use as drugs or pharmacological
agents (Fabricant et al., 2001). Several species of
medicinal plants are being. One of anti diabetic
phytotherapies is Artemisia sieberi which is a
well-known medicinal plant that has been used in
the Middle East traditional medicine for treating
various diseases including diabetes mellitus. It is
used as an anthelminthic by the local population.
The plant is also used as antimicrobial, poison an-
tidote, and emmenagogue (Ziyyat et al., 1987).
Others (Suleiman et al., 1988; Gharaibeh etal.,
1988; Tanira et al., 1996; Konuklugil et al., 1997)
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 608
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
reported that Artemisia sieberi to possess antidi-
abetic effects and have been used in many coun-
tries of Middle East and Turkey as an herbal med-
icine for treatment of diabetes, high blood pres-
sure and gastrointestinal ailments. Administra-
tion of aqueous extract of Artemisia sieberi nor-
malized serum lipids, secondary to the diabetic
state. Diabetes-induced hyperlipidaemia is at-
tributable to excess mobilization of fat from the
adipose due to the under utilization of glucose
(Krishna Kumar et al., 2000).
2 Material and Methods
2.1 material
plant of Artemisia .Siberia
Distilled water
Ethanol 70%
2.2 Instruments and Equipments
Oven in ( 45%)
Refugerg . for freezing
Sense balance
Refugerg . for freezing
Sense balance
ACCU CHEK Active(diabetic appearterus )
2.3 Plant collection
Aerial parts of Artemisia sieberi were collected in
the spring 7fromAl-Mafraq (68 KM North-East
Amman). The plant was identified by Prof. Jamil
Lahham (Plant Taxonomist, Department of Bio-
logical Sciences; Yarmouk University). Voucher
specimens were deposited in the Department of
Biological Science, Faculty of
Science, Al-aLBayt University (NO.AHE-2-
007).(Kameswara Rao, B, Kesavulu, MM, Giri,R.and Appa
Rao, CH. 1999 ) The whole plant was air-dried,
ground mechanically, and preserved in a deep
freezer until use.
2.4. Blood collection and glucose determination
For blood glucose level determination, blood
samples were collected from fasted rabbits of the
three groups prior to the treatment with above
schedule and three times per weeks after oral
administration of treatments up to 3 weeks.
Blood samples were collected by snipping ear
with sharp razor and blood glucose level was
then measured immediately by Haemo-Glukotest
(20_800Rglucose strips supplied by M/S
Boehringer Mannheim India Ltd .
2.5 Extraction preparation
We take ( 300 gm ) from Artemisia . Siberia in
powdered from after we and put (150 gm ) in all
flask and preparation of a ethanol cohol in (70 % )
of concentration by add ( 30 %) of distiller water
water to it to become the concentration ( 100%)
and we add it to the plant in the flask and we
covered it and leave it in the dark room for 2 days
then we put it in oven in ( 45 C) for 9 hours and
we out it and put it in sub-freezing for (24 hours)
then we get it to extraction it by ( ethanol) and
purification in other flask and we in putted in Pe-
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 609
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
tri dish and we put it in incubator in (45C ) for (
2days ) we get it on( 4gm)from extract plant
then we out it to collection by removing it from
petridish by knaive and put it in container then
we put it in freezing or cold place to use it .
extract by distiller waters: we take (150 gm ) from
Artemisia . siberia in powdered from then add
distiller water warm ( 500ml ) and began to ex-
traction it and purification that we kept it in glass
flask with good cover closed to use it later .
To preparation the dose extraction of alcohol . we
take( 1gm ) and add it (10ml) from distiller water
and then take (10ml) to anther container add to it
( 10ml ) from distiller water and it ready to use it
for injection rabbits orally
The mount dose is (80mg kg-1 b.wt.) for three
weeks and we recorded the result .
To preparation of dose from water extraction
we take ( 10 ml)and add (10 ml)from distilled wa-
ter in then we take ( 10 ml) from the mix and (
10ml) distilled water to it then it become ready to
use it .
2.6 Induction of diabetes in rabbits
Male Wister rabbits weighing 1.5g to 2g were
used for this study .all rabbits were obtained from
the animal house of al muthanna university of
science in biology department . the rabbits were
harbored in stainless steel cages under standard
laboratory condition of 12 h light/dark cycle
throughout the experimental periods .they had
access to normal food .the animals were carefully
checked and monitored every day for any sign of
toxicity or changes during entire period of exper-
imental .alloxan monohydrate was purchased
from market ltd [Poole ,England ]and was dis-
solved in sterile normal saline [8.5 nacl ].to induce
diabetes , the rabbits were injected intraperitonial-
ly with freshly prepared aqueous solution of
alloxan following a24 h fast in adose of 150 mg
kg bwt. after measuring fasting blood sugar , dia-
betic status was determined ,rabbits with blood
glucose of 250 mg dl-1 or more were classified as
diabetic rabbits and were used for the subsequent
experimental non- diabetic control rabbits were
injected with normal saline [0.5 ml kg -1 b.wt.] in-
stead of alloxan .
2.7 Experimental design
Rabbits were divided in to three experimental
groups of rabbits each group .group 1 consisted
of normal rabbits as contrall group .group 2 con-
sisted of alloxan –induced diabetic rabbits that re-
ceived A. seiberia oil ethanol or alcohol extraction
group III consisted of alloxon induced diabetic
rabbits that received A. Siberia oil water extrac-
tion . Rabbits were minted in these treatment reg-
imens dose of (80mg kg-1 b.wt.) gave to the Rab-
bits daily for 3 weeks with free access to food and
water ad libitum . these experiments complied
with guidelines of our animal ethics committee
which was established in accordance with the in-
ternationally accepted principles for laboratory
animal use and care . Dialy measurement of body
weight and food and water intake were .
The extract had no effect on the weight of the
studied animals. In Table I , the extract produced
significant decrease (p<0.05) in blood glucose lev-
el in diabetic rabbits after 10 days of treatment by
significantly increasing (p<0.05) the secretion of
insulin and decreasing the serum level of glu-
cagons(Table II). The hypoglycemic effects of Ar-
temisia sieberi on the diabetic rabbits were ob-
served within 2 h, continued for about 8 h, and
lasted to the end of the experiment (10 days). The
administration of Artemisia sieberi indicates sig-
nificant decrease (p<0.05) of blood glucose con-
centration and increase of serum insulin was
found to be anti-diabetic. None of the animals
treated with Artemisia sieberi showed any visible
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 610
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
serious symptoms of toxicity; however, there
were mild signs of respiratory distress, diarrhea,
and convulsions, as shown in these tables:
Table 1 : effect of oral administration of Atrmisia
sieberi essntal oil cholics extract (80 mg kg 1- b.
wt)for third week an body week gain in alloxan
diabetic rabbits
Serum glucose concentration (mg/dl-1) :
Table 2 : effect of oral administration of Atrmisia
sieberi essntal aqueous extract (80 mg kg 1- b.
wt)for third week an body week gain in alloxan
diabetic rabbits
Alloxan induces diabetes by damaging the in-
sulin secreting cells of the pancreas leading to
hyperglycemia (Szuldelski, 2001) .
Our observations in this study correlates with the
previous research findings, in that the
blood glucose levels significantly increased in
alloxan untreated diabetic rabbits .
Alloxan induces damage and death of pancre-
atic islet-cells in several experimental animal
models, thus causing diabetes mellitus and de-
creasing the secretion of insulin. The cytotoxic ac-
tion of this diabetogenic agent is mediated by re-
active oxygen species, Alloxan and the product of
its reduction, dial uric acid; establish a redox cy-
cle with the formation of super oxide radicals.
These radicals undergo dismutation to hydrogen
Therefore, highly reactive hydroxyl radicals
are formed by the Fenton reaction. The action of
reactive oxygen species with a simultaneous
massive increase in cytosolic calcium concen-
tration causes rapid destruction of ß-cells. The
blood glucose data obtained clearly indicate
that aqueous extract from Artemisia sieberi
produced significant hypoglycemic effects in
alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits . The obtained
results were similar to those obtained by (Marrif
et al., 1995) and (Twaij et al., 1988). It is possible
that the plant may reverse the catabolic features
of insulin deficiency, decrease the release of glu-
cagons or increase that of insulin, stimulate di-
rectly glycol sis in peripheral tissues,
increase glucose removal from blood or reduce
glucose absorption from the gastrointestinal tract
(Mari et al., 1995). Hypoglycemic effects of Arte-
misia sieberi could,
possibly, be due to increased peripheral glucose
utilization. Inhibition of the proximal tubular re-
absorption mechanism for glucose in the kidneys,
if any, can also contribute towards blood lower-
ing effect (Sharma et al.,1983). Body weight in all
diabetic rabbits was increased. This is the normal
effect of diabetes mellitus. After the treatment of
the diabetic rabbits , their body weight increased
again. Similar effects were also observed by other
researchers (Boriky et al., 1996; Twaij et al., 1988;
Sharma et al., 1983). The synthetic oral hypogly-
cemic agents can produce a series of side effects.
As can be seen from this study, rabbits treated
Control by
1 198 mg/dl 105 mg/dl 80 mg/dl
300 mg/dl
2 155 mg/dl 100 mg/dl 78 mg/dl
280 mg/dl
157 mg/dl
135 mg/dl
250 mg/dl
Control by
Induced allox-
170 mg/dl
150 mg/dl
120 mg/dl
300 mg/dl
175 mg/dl
160 mg/dl
140 mg/dl
280 mg/dl
3 160 mg/dl 143 mg/dl 123 mg/dl 250 mg/dl
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 611
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
with Artemisia sieber ,
showed only mild visible undesirable clinical
symptoms. We have noticed a significant reduc-
tion in food and water intake in alloxan diabetic
rabbits . This could be the result of improved gly-
cemic control produced by aqueous extract of Ar-
temisia sieberi. The present study indicated that
Artemisia sieberi treatment might ameliorate
some disturbed hematological parameters of dia-
betic rabbits It has been suggested that anemia
occurrence in DM is due to the increased non-
enzymatic glycosylation of RBC membrane pro-
teins, which correlates with hyperglycemia (Ken-
nedy and Baynes, 1984). Oxidation of these glyco-
sylated membrane proteins and hyperglycemia in
DM cause an increase in the production of lipid
peroxides causing a hemolysis of RBC. In this
study, the RBC membrane lipid peroxide levels in
diabetic rabbits were not measured. However,
(Meral et al., 2001) demonstrated
that serum lipid peroxide level increased in
diabetic rabbits. Thus, increased RBC count of Ar-
temisia sieberi treatment rabbits could be due to
the lowered lipid peroxide level in RBC mem-
brane leading to a decrease susceptibility of RBC
to hemolysis. Since nonenzymatic glycol solutions
of membrane proteins correlate with hypergly-
cemia (Kennedy and Baynes, 1984), it might be
suggested that Artemisia sieberi produced its ef-
fect by decreasing the elevated glucose However,
more studies by measuring the RBC fragility, and
serum folic acid, iron, cobalt, vitamin B12 and cal-
cium levels are needed to demonstrate the exact
mechanism of action of Artemisia sieberi on in-
creased RBC count of diabetic rabbits
Fig.2 The flowers of arteimisea .sieberi
Fig.3 The appearance of Arteimisea.sieberi
plant with stem and leaves
Results obtained suggest that taking the plant
extract of Arteimisea.sieberi by mouth showed
positive effects of reducing diabetes in rabbits
which was introduced by diabetes through
Alaoxan compared to metaphormin which is used
to lower diabetes in the blood which is the most
common, has been observed rabbits in response
to the impact of the pancreas and its physiological
as well as the Note toxicity by giving Abstract did
not show any signs indicating that a very safe ex-
tract, and found other experiments conducted on
mice showed the results of an approach which
shows the effectiveness of their impact on diabe-
[1] Grover JK, et al. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;81:81
[2] ( Nammi S, et al. BMC Complement Altern
Med. 2003;3:4
[3] Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. Environ Health
Perspect. 2001;109:69
[4] Zareba et al., 2005; Burt, 2004; Bakkali et al.,
2008; Sabu and Kuttan, 2002
Intern ational Journ al of Scientific & E ngineering Research, Volume 6, Issue 6, June-2015 612
ISSN 2229-5518
IJSER © 2015
[5] Marrif et al., 1995; Khalil, 1995; Afif and Ir-
maileh, 2000; Irshaid and Mansi, 2009a,b
[6] Affix and Abu Iramileh, 2000
[7] Grover et al., 2002
[8] Fabricant et al., 2001
[9] Afif and Irmaileh, 2000, Amr, 1995.
[10] Suleiman et al., 1988; Gharaibeh etal., 1988;
Tanira et al., 1996; Konuklugil et al., 1997 .
[11] Krishna Kumar et al., 2000
[12] Marrif et al., 1995
[13] Gharaibeh , MN, Elayan, HH. and Salhab,
AS.1988 ; Hypoglycemic effects of Te , ucrium poli-
um . J. Ethnopharmacol. 24,93-99.
[14] Kennedy and Baynes, 1984
[15] Kameswara Rao, B, Kesavulu, MM, Gi-
ri,R.and Appa Rao, CH. 1999 ; Antidiabetic and
hypolipidemic effects of momordica cymbalaria
Hook, fruit powder in alloxan diabetic rabbits . J. of
Ethnopha- rmacol. 67> 103-109.
[16] Khalil , s.a. 1995; a survey of plants
used in Jordanian traditional medicine . Intl . phar-
macognosy , 33;317-323).
[17] King , H R,E. Auburt and W. H .Herman,
1998 ; Global burden of diabetes 1995-2005 ; preva-
lence, numerical , estimates and projections . Diabe-
tes care , 21;1414-1431
[18] www.diabetes-symptoms-
[19] href="http://medical-
etes mellitus</a>
... A similar hypoglycemic effect was obtained in alloxan diabetic rabbits after treatment with aqueous extract from A. sieberi. The claimed mechanism could possibly be due to the increased peripheral glucose utilization, and the inhibition of the proximal tubular reabsorption mechanism for glucose in the kidneys [354]. ...
Full-text available
Diabetes is a global health problem, and the number of diabetic patients is in continuous rise. Conventional antidiabetic therapies are associated with high costs and limited efficiency. The use of traditional medicine and plant extracts to treat diabetes is gaining high popularity in many countries. Countries in the Middle East region have a long history of using herbal medicine to treat different diseases, including diabetes. In this review, we compiled and summarized all the in vivo and in vitro studies conducted for plants with potential antidiabetic activity in the Middle East region. Plants of the Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are the most investigated. It is hoped that this review will contribute scientifically to evidence the ethnobotanical use of medicinal plants as antidiabetic agents. Work has to be done to define tagetes, mechanism of action and the compound responsible for activity. In addition, safety and pharmacokinetic parameters should be investigated.
This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Momordica cymbalaria fruit powder on blood glucose and other biochemical parameters in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The treatment was given for 15 days. After the treatment, a significant reduction was observed in fasting blood glucose levels in the treated diabetic rats, but no hypoglycaemic activity in the treated normal rats. M. cymbalaria treatment showed considerable lowering of serum cholesterol and triglycerides in the treated diabetic group. There was a significant improvement in hepatic glycogen level in treated diabetic rats close to normal level after the treatment with M. cymbalaria. These results suggest that the M. cymbalaria fruit powder possesses antidiabetic and hypolipidemic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.
Teucrium polium has a folk reputation as a hypoglycemic agent. The hypoglycemic activity of an aqueous decoction of plant aerial parts was tested in normoglycemic and streptozotocin-hyperglycemic rats. Results indicate that this extract caused significant reductions in blood glucose concentration 4 h after intravenous administration and 24 h after intraperitoneal administration. This effect could be due to enhancement of peripheral metabolism of glucose rather than an increase in insulin release.
Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity.
  • S Nammi
( Nammi S, et al. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2003;3:4
  • D S Fabricant
  • N R Farnsworth
Fabricant DS, Farnsworth NR. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109:69
Global burden of diabetes 1995-2005 ; prevalence, numerical , estimates and projections . Diabetes care
  • H R King
  • E Auburt
  • W H Herman
King, H R,E. Auburt and W. H.Herman, 1998 ; Global burden of diabetes 1995-2005 ; prevalence, numerical, estimates and projections. Diabetes care, 21;1414-1431