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Combining the mapping Hamiltonian linearized semiclassical approach with the generalized quantum master equation to simulate electronically nonadiabatic molecular dynamics

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Abstract

The generalized quantum master equation (GQME) provides a powerful framework for simulating electronically nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Within this framework, the effect of the nuclear degrees of freedom on the time evolution of the electronic reduced density matrix is fully captured by a memory kernel superoperator. In this paper, we consider two different procedures for calculating the memory kernel of the GQME from projection-free inputs obtained via the combination of the mapping Hamiltonian (MH) approach and the linearized semiclassical (LSC) approximation. The accuracy and feasibility of the two procedures are demonstrated on the spin-boson model. We find that although simulating the electronic dynamics by direct application of the two LSC-based procedures leads to qualitatively different results that become increasingly less accurate with increasing time, restricting their use to calculating the memory kernel leads to an accurate description of the electronic dynamics. Comparison with a previously proposed procedure for calculating the memory kernel via the Ehrenfest method reveals that MH/LSC methods produce memory kernels that are better behaved at long times and lead to more accurate electronic dynamics.

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A simple surface hopping method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics is developed. The method derives from a stochastic modeling of the time-dependent Schrödinger and master equations for open systems and accounts simultaneously for quantum mechanical branching in the otherwise classical (nuclear) degrees of freedom and loss of coherence within the quantum (electronic) subsystem due to coupling to nuclei. Electronic dynamics in the Hilbert space takes the form of a unitary evolution, intermittent with stochastic decoherence events that are manifested as a localization toward (adia-batic) basis states. Classical particles evolve along a single potential energy surface and can switch surfaces only at the decoherence events. Thus, decoherence provides physical justification of sur-face hopping, obviating the need for ad hoc surface hopping rules. The method is tested with model problems, showing good agreement with the exact quantum mechanical results and providing an improvement over the most popular surface hopping technique. The method is implemented within real-time time-dependent density functional theory formulated in the Kohn-Sham representation and is applied to carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. The calculated time scales of non-radiative quenching of luminescence in these systems agree with the experimental data and earlier calculations.
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Mixed quantum-classical equations of motion are derived for a quantum subsystem of light (mass m) particles coupled to a classical bath of massive (mass M) particles. The equation of motion follows from a partial Wigner transform over the bath degrees of freedom of the Liouville equation for the full quantum system, followed by an expansion in the small parameter μ = (m/M)1/2 in analogy with the theory of Brownian motion. The resulting mixed quantum-classical Liouville equation accounts for the coupled evolution of the subsystem and bath. The quantum subsystem is represented in an adiabatic (or other) basis and the series solution of the Liouville equation leads to a representation of the dynamics in an ensemble of surface-hopping trajectories. A generalized Pauli master equation for the evolution of the diagonal elements of the density matrix is derived by projection operator methods and its structure is analyzed in terms of surface-hopping trajectories. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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It is shown how a formally exact classical analog can be defined for a finite dimensional (in Hilbert space) quantum mechanical system. This approach is then used to obtain a classical model for the electronic degrees of freedom in a molecular collision system, and the combination of this with the usual classical description of the heavy particle (i.e., nuclear) motion provides a completely classical model for the electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom. The resulting equations of motion are shown to be equivalent to describing the electronic degrees of freedom by the time‐dependent Schrödinger equation, the time dependence arising from the classical motion of the nuclei, the trajectory of which is determined by the quantum mechanical average (i.e., Ehrenfest) force on the nuclei. Quantizing the system via classical S‐matrix theory is shown to provide a dynamically consistent description of nonadiabatic collision processes; i.e., different electronic transitions have different heavy particle trajectories and, for example, the total energy of the electronic and heavy particle degrees of freedom is conserved. Application of this classical model for the electronic degrees of freedom (plus classical S‐matrix theory) to the two‐state model problem shows that the approach provides a good description of the electronic dynamics.
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This text provides a uniform and consistent approach to diversified problems encountered in the study of dynamical processes in condensed phase molecular systems. Given the broad interdisciplinary aspect of this subject, the book focuses on three themes: coverage of needed background material, in-depth introduction of methodologies, and analysis of several key applications. The uniform approach and common language used in all discussions help to develop general understanding and insight on condensed phases chemical dynamics. The applications discussed are among the most fundamental processes that underlie physical, chemical and biological phenomena in complex systems. The first part of the book starts with a general review of basic mathematical and physical methods (Chapter 1) and a few introductory chapters on quantum dynamics (Chapter 2), interaction of radiation and matter (Chapter 3) and basic properties of solids (chapter 4) and liquids (Chapter 5). In the second part the text embarks on a broad coverage of the main methodological approaches. The central role of classical and quantum time correlation functions is emphasized in Chapter 6. The presentation of dynamical phenomena in complex systems as stochastic processes is discussed in Chapters 7 and 8. The basic theory of quantum relaxation phenomena is developed in Chapter 9, and carried on in Chapter 10 which introduces the density operator, its quantum evolution in Liouville space, and the concept of reduced equation of motions. The methodological part concludes with a discussion of linear response theory in Chapter 11, and of the spin-boson model in chapter 12. The third part of the book applies the methodologies introduced earlier to several fundamental processes that underlie much of the dynamical behaviour of condensed phase molecular systems. Vibrational relaxation and vibrational energy transfer (Chapter 13), Barrier crossing and diffusion controlled reactions (Chapter 14), solvation dynamics (Chapter 15), electron transfer in bulk solvents (Chapter 16) and at electrodes/electrolyte and metal/molecule/metal junctions (Chapter 17), and several processes pertaining to molecular spectroscopy in condensed phases (Chapter 18) are the main subjects discussed in this part.
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Simulating the nonadiabatic dynamics of condensed-phase systems continues to pose a significant challenge for quantum dynamics methods. Approaches based on sampling classical trajectories within the mapping formalism, such as the linearized semiclassical initial value representation (LSC-IVR), can be used to approximate quantum correlation functions in dissipative environments. Such semiclassical methods however commonly fail in quantitatively predicting the electronic-state populations in the long-time limit. Here we present a suggestion to minimize this difficulty by splitting the problem into two parts, one of which involves the identity and treating this operator by quantum-mechanical principles rather than with classical approximations. This strategy is applied to numerical simulations of spin-boson model systems, showing its potential to drastically improve the performance of LSC-IVR and related methods with no change in the equations of motion or the algorithm in general, but rather by simply using different functional forms of the observables.
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We present a modified approach for simulating electronically nonadiabatic dynamics based on the Nakajima-Zwanzig generalized quantum master equation (GQME). The modified approach utilizes the fact that the Nakajima-Zwanzig formalism does not require casting the overall Hamiltonian in system-bath form, which is arguably neither natural nor convenient in the case of the Hamiltonian that governs nonadiabatic dynamics. Within the modified approach, the effect of the nuclear degrees of freedom on the time evolution of the electronic reduced density operator is fully captured by a memory kernel super-operator. A methodology for calculating the memory kernel from projection-free inputs is developed. Simulating the electronic dynamics via the modified approach, with a memory kernel obtained using exact or approximate methods, can be more cost effective and/or lead to more accurate results than direct application of those methods. The modified approach is compared to previously proposed GQME-based approaches, and its robustness and accuracy are demonstrated on a benchmark spin-boson model with a memory kernel which is calculated within the Ehrenfest method.
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The Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic (electronic + nuclear) Hamiltonian for electronically non-adiabatic dynamics—as used, for example, with the recently developed symmetrical quasiclassical (SQC) windowing model—can be written in either a diabatic or an adiabatic representation of the electronic degrees of freedom, the two being a canonical transformation of each other, thus giving the same dynamics. Although most recent applications of this SQC/MM approach have been carried out in the diabatic representation—because most of the benchmark model problems that have exact quantum results available for comparison are typically defined in a diabatic representation—it will typically be much more convenient to work in the adiabatic representation, e.g., when using Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surfaces (PESs) and derivative couplings that come from electronic structure calculations. The canonical equations of motion (EOMs) (i.e., Hamilton’s equations) that come from the adiabatic MM Hamiltonian, however, in addition to the common first-derivative couplings, also involve second-derivative non-adiabatic coupling terms (as does the quantum Schrödinger equation), and the latter are considerably more difficult to calculate. This paper thus revisits the adiabatic version of the MM Hamiltonian and describes a modification of the classical adiabatic EOMs that are entirely equivalent to Hamilton’s equations but that do not involve the second-derivative couplings. The second-derivative coupling terms have not been neglected; they simply do not appear in these modified adiabatic EOMs. This means that SQC/MM calculations can be carried out in the adiabatic representation, without approximation, needing only the PESs and the first-derivative coupling elements. The results of example SQC/MM calculations are presented, which illustrate this point, and also the fact that simply neglecting the second-derivative couplings in Hamilton’s equations (and presumably also in the Schrödinger equation) can cause very significant errors.
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We introduce the `tensor-train split-operator Fourier transform' (TT-SOFT) method for simulations of multidimensional nonadiabatic quantum dynamics. TT-SOFT is essentially the grid-based SOFT method implemented in dynamically adaptive tensor-train representations. In the same spirit of all matrix product states, the tensor-train format enables the representation, propagation, and computation of observables of multidimensional wavefunctions in terms of the grid-based wavepacket tensor components, bypassing the need of actually computing the wavefunction in its full-rank tensor product grid space. We demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the TT-SOFT method as applied to propagation of 24-dimensional wave packets, describing the S1/S2 interconversion dynamics of pyrazine after UV photoexcitation to the S2 state. Our results show that the TT-SOFT method is a powerful computational approach for simulations of quantum dynamics of polyatomic systems since it avoids the exponential scaling problem of full-rank grid-based representations.
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We propose a new unified theoretical framework to construct equivalent representations of the multi-state Hamiltonian operator and present several approaches for the mapping onto the Cartesian phase space. After mapping an F-dimensional Hamiltonian onto an F+1- dimensional space, creation and annihilation operators are defined such that the F+1 dimensional space is complete for any combined excitations. Commutation and anti-commutation relations are then naturally derived, which show that the underlying degrees of freedom are neither bosons nor fermions. This sets the scene for developing equivalent expressions of the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics and their classical/semiclassical counterparts. Six mapping models are presented as examples. The framework also offers a novel way to derive such as the well-known Meyer-Miller model.
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In this letter, we combine the recently introduced transfer tensor method with the mixed quantum-classical Liouville method. The resulting protocol provides an accurate, general, flexible and robust new route for simulating the reduced dynamics of the quantum subsystem for arbitrarily long times, starting with computationally feasible short-time mixed quantum-classical Liouville dynamical maps. The accuracy and feasibility of the methodology are demonstrated on a spin-boson benchmark model.
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Previous work has shown how a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing procedure can be used to quantize the initial and final electronic degrees of freedom in the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic (i.e, nuclear + electronic) Hamiltonian, and that the approach provides a very good description of electronically non-adiabatic processes within a standard classical molecular dynamics framework for a number of benchmark problems. This paper explores application of the SQC/MM approach to the case of very weak non-adiabatic coupling between the electronic states, showing (as anticipated) how the standard SQC/MM approach used to date fails in this limit, and then devises a new SQC windowing scheme to deal with it. Application of this new SQC model to a variety of realistic benchmark systems shows that the new model not only treats the weak coupling case extremely well, but it is also seen to describe the “normal” regime (of electronic transition probabilities ≳ 0.1) even more accurately than the previous “standard” model.
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It is pointed out that the classical phase space distribution in action-angle (a-a) variables obtained from a Wigner function depends on how the calculation is carried out: if one computes the standard Wigner function in Cartesian variables (p, x), and then replaces p and x by their expressions in terms of a-a variables, one obtains a different result than if the Wigner function is computed directly in terms of the a-a variables. Furthermore, the latter procedure gives a result more consistent with classical and semiclassical theory—e.g., by incorporating the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization condition (quantum states defined by integer values of the action variable) as well as the Heisenberg correspondence principle for matrix elements of an operator between such states—and has also been shown to be more accurate when applied to electronically non-adiabatic applications as implemented within the recently developed symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) Meyer-Miller (MM) approach. Moreover, use of the Wigner function (obtained directly) in a-a variables shows how our standard SQC/MM approach can be used to obtain off-diagonal elements of the electronic density matrix by processing in a different way the same set of trajectories already used (in the SQC/MM methodology) to obtain the diagonal elements.
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Both classical and quantum mechanics (as well as hybrids thereof, i.e., semiclassical approaches) find widespread use in simulating dynamical processes in molecular systems. For large chemical systems, however, which involve potential energy surfaces (PES) of general/arbitrary form, it is usually the case that only classical molecular dynamics (MD) approaches are feasible, and their use is thus ubiquitous nowadays, at least for chemical processes involving dynamics on a single PES (i.e., within a single Born-Oppenheimer electronic state). This paper reviews recent developments in an approach which extends standard classical MD methods to the treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes, i.e., those that involve transitions between different electronic states. The approach treats nuclear and electronic degrees of freedom (DOF) equivalently (i.e., by classical mechanics, thereby retaining the simplicity of standard MD), and provides "quantization" of the electronic states through a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model. The approach is seen to be capable of treating extreme regimes of strong and weak coupling between the electronic states, as well as accurately describing coherence effects in the electronic DOF (including the de-coherence of such effects caused by coupling to the nuclear DOF). A survey of recent applications is presented to illustrate the performance of the approach. Also described is a newly developed variation on the original SQC model (found universally superior to the original) and a general extension of the SQC model to obtain the full electronic density matrix (at no additional cost/complexity).
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The nonequilibrium Fermi’s golden rule describes the transition between a photoexcited bright donor electronic state and a dark acceptor electronic state, when the nuclear degrees of freedom start out in a nonequilibrium state. In a previous paper [X. Sun and E. Geva, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 12, 2926 (2016)], we proposed a new expression for the nonequilibrium Fermi’s golden rule within the framework of the linearized semiclassical approximation and based on the Condon approximation, according to which the electronic coupling between donor and acceptor is assumed constant. In this paper we propose a more general expression, which is applicable to the case of non-Condon electronic coupling. We test the accuracy of the new non-Condon nonequilibrium Fermi’s golden rule linearized semiclassical expression on a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering the following: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary-mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions, in both normal and inverted regions, and over a wide range of initial nonequilibrium states, temperatures, and frictions.
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In this paper, we test the accuracy of the linearized semiclassical (LSC) expression for the equilibrium Fermi’s golden rule rate constant for electronic transitions in the presence of non-Condon effects. We do so by performing a comparison with the exact quantum-mechanical result for a model where the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for shifts in the equilibrium energy and geometry, and the coupling between them is linear in the nuclear coordinates. Since non-Condon effects may or may not give rise to conical intersections, both possibilities are examined by considering: (1) A modified Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar model for charge transfer in the condensed phase, where the donor-acceptor coupling is linear in the primary mode coordinate, and for which non-Condon effects do not give rise to a conical intersection; (2) the linear vibronic coupling model for electronic transitions in gas phase molecules, where non-Condon effects give rise to conical intersections. We also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a progression of more approximate expressions. The comparison is performed over a wide range of frictions and temperatures for model (1) and over a wide range of temperatures for model (2). The linearized semiclassical method is found to reproduce the exact quantum-mechanical result remarkably well for both models over the entire range of parameters under consideration. In contrast, more approximate expressions are observed to deviate considerably from the exact result in some regions of parameter space.
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We present a current, up-to-date review of the surface hopping methodology for solving nonadiabatic problems, 25 years after Tully published the fewest switches surface hopping algorithm. After reviewing the original motivation for and failures of the algorithm, we give a detailed examination of modern advances, focusing on both theoretical and practical issues. We highlight how one can partially derive surface hopping from the Schrödinger equation in the adiabatic basis, how one can change basis within the surface hopping algorithm, and how one should understand and apply the notions of decoherence and wavepacket bifurcation. The question of time reversibility and detailed balance is also examined at length. Recent applications to photoexcited conjugated polymers are discussed briefly.
Article
Developed twenty-five years ago, Tully's fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH) has proven to be the most popular approach for simulating quantum-classical dynamics in a broad variety of systems, ranging from the gas phase, to the liquid and solid phases, to biological and nanoscale materials. FSSH is widely adopted as the fundamental platform to introduce modifications as needed. Significant progress has been made recently to enhance the accuracy and efficiency of the surface hopping technique. Various limitations of the standard FSSH, associated with quantum nuclear effects, interference and decoherence, trivial or “unavoided” crossings, super-exchange, and representation dependence, have been lifted. These advances are needed to allow one to treat many important phenomena in chemistry, physics, materials and related disciplines. Examples include charge transport in extended systems such as organic solids, singlet fission in molecular aggregates, Auger-type exciton multiplication, recombination and relaxation in quantum dots and other nanoscale materials, Auger-assisted charge transfer, non-radiative luminescence quenching and electron-hole recombination. This perspective summarizes recent advances in the surface hopping formulation of nonadiabatic dynamics and provides an outlook on the future of surface hopping.
Article
The nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule describes the transition between a photoexcited bright donor electronic state and a dark acceptor electronic state, when the nuclear degrees of freedom start out in a nonequilibrium state. In this paper, we derive a new expression for the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule within the framework of the linearized semiclassical approximation. The new expression opens the door to applications of the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule to complex condensed-phase molecular systems described in terms of anharmonic force fields. We show that the linearized semiclassical expression for the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule yields the exact fully quantum-mechanical result for the canonical Marcus model, where the coupling between donor and acceptor is assumed constant (the Condon approximation) and the donor and acceptor potential energy surfaces are parabolic and identical except for a shift in the equilibrium energy and geometry. For this model, we also present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression and a hierarchy of more approximate expressions, in both normal and inverted regions, and over a wide range of initial nonequilibrium states, temperatures and frictions.
Article
In a recent series of papers it has been illustrated that a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model applied to the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic Hamiltonian provides an excellent description of a variety of electronically non-adiabatic benchmark model systems for which exact quantum results are available for comparison. In this paper, the SQC/MM approach is used to treat energy transfer dynamics in site-exciton models of light-harvesting complexes, and in particular, the well-known 7-state Fenna-Mathews-Olson (FMO) complex. Again, numerically "exact" results are available for comparison---here via the hierarchical equation of motion (HEOM) approach of Ishizaki & Fleming---and it is seen that the simple SQC/MM approach provides very reasonable agreement with the previous HEOM results. It is noted, however, that unlike most (if not all) simple approaches for treating these systems, because the SQC/MM approach presents a fully atomistic simulation based on classical trajectory simulation, it places no restrictions on the characteristics of the thermal baths coupled to each two-level site---e.g., bath spectral densities (SD) of any analytic functional form may be employed, as well as discrete SD determined experimentally or from MD simulation (nor is there any restriction that the baths be harmonic), opening up the possibility of simulating more realistic variations on the basic site-exciton framework for describing the non-adiabatic dynamics of photosynthetic pigment complexes.
Article
The generalized quantum master equation provides a powerful tool to describe the dynamics in quantum impurity models driven away from equilibrium. Two complementary approaches, one based on Nakajima--Zwanzig--Mori time-convolution (TC) and the other on the Tokuyama--Mori time-convolutionless (TCL) formulations provide a starting point to describe the time-evolution of the reduced density matrix. A key in both approaches is to obtain the so called "memory kernel" or "generator", going beyond second or fourth order perturbation techniques. While numerically converged techniques are available for the TC memory kernel, the canonical approach to obtain the TCL generator is based on inverting a super-operator in the \emph{full} Hilbert space, which is difficult to perform and thus, all applications of the TCL approach rely on a perturbative scheme of some sort. Here, the TCL generator is expressed using a reduced system propagator which can be obtained from system observables alone and requires the calculation of super-operators and their inverse in the \emph{reduced }Hilbert space rather than the full one. This makes the formulation amenable to quantum impurity solvers or to diagrammatic techniques, such as the nonequilibrium Green's function. We implement the TCL approach for the resonant level model driven away from equilibrium and compare the time scales for the decay of the generator with that of the memory kernel in the TC approach. Furthermore, the effects of temperature, source-drain bias, and gate potential on the TCL/TC generators are discussed.
Article
In this paper, we present a comprehensive comparison between the linearized semiclassical expression for the equilibrium Fermi's golden rule rate constant and the progression of more approximate expressions that lead to the classical Marcus expression. We do so within the context of the canonical Marcus model, where the donor and acceptor potential energy surface are parabolic and identical except for a shift in both the free energies and equilibrium geometries, and within the Condon region. The comparison is performed for two different spectral densities and over a wide range of frictions and temperatures, thereby providing a clear test for the validity, or lack thereof, of the more approximate expressions. We also comment on the computational cost and scaling associated with numerically calculating the linearized semiclassical expression for the rate constant and its dependence on the spectral density, temperature and friction.
Article
A recent series of papers have shown that a symmetrical quasi-classical (SQC) windowing model applied to the Meyer-Miller (MM) classical vibronic Hamiltonian provides a very good treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes in a variety of benchmark model systems, including systems exhibiting strong "quantum" coherence effects and systems that other simple purely-classical approaches are known to have difficulty in describing correctly. In this paper, a different classical electronic Hamiltonian for the treatment of electronically non-adiabatic processes is proposed and "quantized" within the context of the SQC windowing model, which maps the dynamics of F coupled electronic states to a set of F spin-1/2 degrees of freedom (DOF), similar to the fermionic spin model described by Miller and White [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 5059 (1986)]. It is shown that this spin-mapping (SM) Hamiltonian is an exact Hamiltonian if treated as a quantum mechanical (QM) operator---and thus QM'ly equivalent to the MM Hamiltonian---but that an analytically distinct classical analogue is obtained by replacing the QM spin-operators with their classical counterparts. Due to their analytic differences, a practical comparison is then made between the MM and SM Hamiltonians (when quantized with the SQC technique) by applying the latter to many of the same benchmark test problems successfully treated in our recent work with the SQC/MM model. Surprisingly, we find for every benchmark problem that the MM model provides a (slightly) superior description of the true electronically non-adiabatic quantum dynamics versus the new SM model. This is despite the fact that one might expect, a priori, a more natural description of electronic state populations (occupied versus unoccupied) to be provided by DOF with only two states, i.e., spin-1/2 DOF, rather than by harmonic oscillator DOF which have an infinite manifold of states (though only two of these are ever occupied).
Article
In this article, we show how Ehrenfest mean field theory can be made both a more accurate and efficient method to treat nonadiabatic quantum dynamics by combining it with the generalized quantum master equation framework. The resulting mean field generalized quantum master equation (MF-GQME) approach is a non-perturbative and non-Markovian theory to treat open quantum systems without any restrictions on the form of the Hamiltonian that it can be applied to. By studying relaxation dynamics in a wide range of dynamical regimes, typical of charge and energy transfer, we show that MF-GQME provides a much higher accuracy than a direct application of mean field theory. In addition, these increases in accuracy are accompanied by computational speed-ups of between one and two orders of magnitude that become larger as the system becomes more nonadiabatic. This combination of quantum-classical theory and master equation techniques thus makes it possible to obtain the accuracy of much more computationally expensive approaches at a cost lower than even mean field dynamics, providing the ability to treat the quantum dynamics of atomistic condensed phase systems for long times.
Article
Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine–fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.
Article
A novel global flux surface hopping (GFSH) approach is proposed. In this method, the surface hopping probabilities rely on the gross population flow between states, rather than the state-to-state flux as in the standard fewest switches surface hopping (FSSH). GFSH captures the superexchange mechanism of population transfer, while FSSH lacks this capability. In other aspects, including minimization of the number of hops, internal consistency, velocity rescaling, and detailed balance, the GFSH algorithm is similar to FSSH. The advantages of GFSH are demonstrated with a model 3-level system and an Auger process in a semiconductor quantum dot. Current studies indicate that GFSH can replace FSSH, but further tests are needed.
Article
The initial stages of the evolution of an open quantum system encode the key information of its underlying dynamical correlations, which in turn can predict the trajectory at later stages. We propose a general approach based on non-Markovian dynamical maps to extract this information from the initial trajectories and compress it into non-Markovian transfer tensors. Assuming time-translational invariance, the tensors can be used to accurately and efficiently propagate the state of the system to arbitrarily long time scales. The non-Markovian transfer tensor method (TTM) demonstrates the coherent-to-incoherent transition as a function of the strength of quantum dissipation and predicts the noncanonical equilibrium distribution due to the system-bath entanglement. TTM is equivalent to solving the Nakajima-Zwanzig equation and, therefore, can be used to reconstruct the dynamical operators (the system Hamiltonian and memory kernel) from quantum trajectories obtained in simulations or experiments. The concept underlying the approach can be generalized to physical observables with the goal of learning and manipulating the trajectories of an open quantum system.
Article
A recently described symmetrical windowing methodology [S. J. Cotton and W. H. Miller, J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7190 (2013)] for quasi-classical trajectory simulations is applied here to the Meyer-Miller [H.-D. Meyer and W. H. Miller, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 3214 (1979)] model for the electronic degrees of freedom in electronically non-adiabatic dynamics. Results generated using this classical approach are observed to be in very good agreement with accurate quantum mechanical results for a variety of test applications, including problems where coherence effects are significant such as the challenging asymmetric spin-boson system.
Article
The feasibility of calculating photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer rate constants in realistic molecular donor−acceptor systems via Fermi's golden rule, using inputs obtained from state-of-the-art electronic structure techniques, is demonstrated and tested. To this end, calculations of photoinduced electron transfer rate constants were performed on two benchmark systems: (1) phenyl-acetylene-bridged carbazole-naphthalimide (meta and para) and (2) C 60 -(N,N-dimethylaniline). Intramolecular input parameters such as normal-mode frequencies, Huang−Rhys factors, and electronic coupling coefficients were obtained via ground state, time-dependent, and constrained density func-tional theory. Good agreement between the intramolecular Fermi's golden rule rate constants and the experimental rate constants is found for both systems without accounting for the solvent reorganization. The relative roles of intramolecular vs intermolecular modes at promoting electron transfer and the validity of several limits of Fermi's golden rule for describing intramolecular electron transfer are discussed.
Article
A variational method is described for finding approximate solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation. It is closely related to Frenkel's, but better in some respects because it always leads to a true minimum of the error. For several interacting systems it leads to the time-dependent Hartree equations; for a system in an oscillating electric or magnetic field it gives a variational principle for calculating the susceptibility at any frequency.
Article
An extension of the classical trajectory approach is proposed that may be useful in treating many types of nonadiabatic molecular collisions. Nuclei are assumed to move classically on a single potential energy surface until an avoided surface crossing or other region of large nonadiabatic coupling is reached. At such points the trajectory is split into two branches, each of which follows a different potential surface. The validity of this model as applied to the HD2+ system is assessed by numerical integration of the appropriate semiclassical equations. A 3d “trajectory surface hopping” treatment of the reaction of H+ with D2 at a collision energy of 4 eV is reported. The excellent agreement with experiment is an encouraging indication of the potential usefulness of this approach.
Article
The quantum-classical Liouville equation offers a rigorous approach to nonadiabatic quantum dynamics based on surface hopping type trajectories. However, in practice the applicability of this approach has been limited to short times owing to unfavorable numerical scaling. In this paper we show that this problem can be alleviated by combining it with a formally exact generalized quantum master equation treatment. This allows dramatic improvements in the efficiency of the approach in nonadiabatic regimes, making it computationally tractable to treat the quantum dynamics of complex systems for long times. We demonstrate our approach by applying it to a model of condensed phase charge transfer where our method is shown to be numerically exact in regimes where fewest-switches surface hopping and mean field approaches fail to obtain either the correct rates or long-time populations.
Article
A semiclassical approach is presented that allows us to extend the usual Van Vleck-Gutzwiller formulation to the description of nonadiabatic quantum dynamics on coupled potential-energy surfaces. Based on Schwinger's theory of angular momentum, the formulation employs an exact mapping of the discrete quantum variables onto continuous degrees of freedom. The resulting dynamical problem is evaluated through a semiclassical initial-value representation of the time-dependent propagator. As a first application we have performed semiclassical simulations for a spin-boson model, which reproduce the exact quantum-mechanical results quite accurately.
Article
A general formulation is given to the quantum theory of steady diffusion. In seeking for a steady solution of Liouville's equation, the boundary condition is taken into account by requiring that the solution should lead to a given distribution of average density. The distribution is to be determined by macroscopic law of diffusion and macroscopic boundary condition. The basic equation thus obtained has a form similar to Bloch's kinetic equation and reduces to the latter in the limit of a system of weakly interacting particles. This is shown by generalizing a demping theoretical expansion of Kohn and Luttinger. It is found that the Einstein relation is valid only for the symmetric part of diffusion- and electric conductivity tensors, in agreement with Kasuya's suggestion.
Article
The impact of quantum decoherence and zero point motion on non-adiabatic transition rates in condensed matter systems is studied in relation to non-adiabatic (NA) molecular dynamics (MD) techniques. Both effects, and decoherence in particular, strongly influence the transition rate, while neither is accounted for by straightforward quantum-classical approaches. Quantum corrections to the quantum-classical results are rigorously introduced based on Kubo’s generating function formulation of Fermi’s Golden rule and the frozen Gaussian approximation for the nuclear wave functions. The development provides a one-to-one correspondence between the decoherence function and the Franck–Condon factor. The decoherence function defined in this paper corrects an error in our previous work [J. Chem. Phys. 104, 5942 (1996)]. The relationship between the short time approach and the real time NA MD is investigated and a specific prescription for incorporating quantum decoherence into NA simulations is given. The proposed scheme is applied to the hydrated electron. The rate of excited state non-radiative relaxation is found to be very sensitive to the decoherence time. Quantum coherence decays about 50% faster in H2O than in D2O, providing a theoretical rationalization for the lack of experimentally observed solvent isotope effect on the relaxation rate. Microscopic analysis of solvent mode contributions to the coherence decay shows that librational degrees of freedom are primarily responsible, due to the strong coupling between the electron and molecular rotations and to the small widths of the wave packets describing these modes. Zero point motion of the O–H bonds decreases the life time of the excited state of the hydrated electron by a factor of 1.3–1.5. The implications of the use of short time approximations for the NA transition rate and for the evolution of the nuclear wave functions are considered.
Article
A formula for computing approximate leakage of population from an initially prepared electronic state with a nonequilibrium nuclear distribution to a second nonadiabatically coupled electronic state is derived and applied. The formula is a nonequilibrium generalization of the familiar golden rule, which applies when the initial nuclear state is a rovibrational eigenstate of the potential energy surface associated with the initially populated electronic state. Here, more general initial nuclear states are considered. The resultant prescription, termed the nonequilibrium golden rule formula, can be evaluated via semiclassical procedures and hence applied to multidimensional, e.g., condensed phase systems. To illustrate its accuracy, application is made to a spin–boson model of ‘‘inner sphere’’ electron transfer. This model, introduced by Garg et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 4491 (1985)] for the nonadiabatic transition out of a thermal distribution of states in the initial (donor) electronic level, is extended to include nonequilibrium, nonstationary initial nuclear states on the donor surface. The predictions of the nonequilibrium golden rule are found to agree well with numerically exact path integral results for a wide range of initial distortions of the initial nuclear wave packet from its equilibrium configuration.
Article
A microscopically-reversible approach toward computing reaction probabilities via classical trajectory simulation has been developed which bins trajectories symmetrically based upon their initial and final classical actions. The symmetrical quasi-classical (SQT) approach involves defining a classical action window function centered at integer quantum values of the action, choosing a width parameter which is less than unit quantum width, and applying the window function to both initial reactant and final product vibrational states. Calculations were performed using flat histogram windows and Gaussian windows over a range of width parameters. Use of the Wigner distribution function was also investigated as a possible choice. It was demonstrated for collinear H + H2 reactive scattering on the BKMP2 potential energy surface that reaction probabilities computed via the SQT methodology using a Gaussian window function of ½ unit width produces good agreement with quantum mechanical results over the 0.4-0.6 eV energy range relevant to the ground-vibrational state to ground-vibrational state reactive transition.
Article
A theoretical formulation is outlined that allows us to extend the semiclassical Van Vleck–Gutzwiller formulation to the description of nonadiabatic quantum dynamics on coupled potential-energy surfaces. In this formulation the problem of a classical treatment of discrete quantum degrees of freedom (DoF) such as electronic states is bypassed by transforming the discrete quantum variables to continuous variables. The mapping approach thus consists of two steps: an exact quantum-mechanical transformation of discrete onto continuous DoF (the “mapping”) and a standard semiclassical treatment of the resulting dynamical problem. Extending previous work [G. Stock and M. Thoss, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 578 (1997)], various possibilities for obtaining a mapping from discrete to continuous DoF are investigated, in particular the Holstein-Primakoff transformation, Schwinger’s theory of angular momentum [in Quantum Theory of Angular Momentum, edited by L. C. Biedenharn and H. V. Dam (Academic, New York, 1965)], and the spin-coherent-state representation. Although all these representations are exact on the quantum-mechanical level, the accuracy of their semiclassical evaluation is shown to differ considerably. In particular, it is shown that a generalization of Schwinger’s theory appears to be the only transformation that provides an exact description of a general N-level system within a standard semiclassical evaluation. Exploiting the connection between spin-coherent states and Schwinger’s representation for a two-level system, furthermore, a semiclassical initial-value representation of the corresponding spin-coherent-state propagator is derived. Although this propagator represents an approximation, its appealing numerical features make it a promising candidate for the semiclassical description of large molecular systems with many DoF. Adopting various spin-boson-type models (i.e., a two-level system coupled to a single or many DoF), computational studies are presented for Schwinger’s and the spin-coherent-state representation, respectively. The performance of the semiclassical approximation in the case of regular and chaotic classical dynamics as well as for multimode electronic relaxation dynamics is discussed in some detail.
Article
Redfield theory is applied to investigate the photoinduced dynamics at a conical intersection (the so-called system) which is weakly coupled to a thermal environment (the so-called bath). The dynamics of the system is described by a two-state three-mode model Hamiltonian, chosen to represent the S1(nπ∗)–S2(ππ∗) conical intersection in pyrazine. Dissipative effects are introduced through a bilinear coupling of the system vibrational modes with a harmonic bath, which represents the remaining vibrational degrees of freedom of the molecule and/or interactions with a condensed-phase environment. The Redfield equations for the reduced density matrix are solved numerically without further approximations. From the reduced density matrix the time evolutions of electronic-state populations and vibrational coherences are obtained, as well as time-dependent probability densities of individual vibrational modes. The results provide a visualization of the essential features of the ultrafast (time scale of 10 fs) internal-conversion process at the conical intersection and the ensuing vibrational cooling process on the lower adiabatic potential-energy surface. The effect of vibrational damping on the linear optical absorption spectrum is also investigated. © 2002 American Institute of Physics.
Article
We present a new method for solving the Redfield equation, which describes the evolution of the reduced density matrix of a multilevel quantum‐mechanical system interacting with a thermal bath. The method is based on a new decomposition of the Redfield relaxation tensor that makes possible its direct application to the density matrix without explicit construction of the full tensor. In the resulting expressions, only ordinary matrices are involved and so any quantum system whose Hamiltonian can be diagonalized can be treated with the full Redfield theory. To efficiently solve the equation of motion for the density matrix, we introduce a generalization of the short‐iterative‐Lanczos propagator. Together, these contributions allow the complete Redfield theory to be applied to significantly larger systems than was previously possible. Several model calculations are presented to illustrate the methodology, including one example with 172 quantum states.
Article
We describe a new formulation of methods introduced in the theory of irreversibility by Van Hove and Prigogine, with the purpose of making their ideas easier to understand and to apply. The main tool in this reformulation is the use of projection operators in the Hilbert space of Gibbsian ensemble densities. Projection operators are used to separate an ensemble density into a ``relevant'' part, needed for the calculation of mean values of specified observables, and the remaining ``irrelevant'' part. The relevant part is shown to satisfy a kinetic equation which is a generalization of Van Hove's ``master equation to general order.'' Diagram summation methods are not used. The formalism is illustrated by a new derivation of the Prigogine‐Brout master equation for a classical weakly interacting system.
Article
A method is proposed for carrying out molecular dynamics simulations of processes that involve electronic transitions. The time dependent electronic Schrödinger equation is solved self‐consistently with the classical mechanical equations of motion of the atoms. At each integration time step a decision is made whether to switch electronic states, according to probabilistic ‘‘fewest switches’’ algorithm. If a switch occurs, the component of velocity in the direction of the nonadiabatic coupling vector is adjusted to conserve energy. The procedure allows electronic transitions to occur anywhere among any number of coupled states, governed by the quantum mechanical probabilities. The method is tested against accurate quantal calculations for three one‐dimensional, two‐state models, two of which have been specifically designed to challenge any such mixed classical–quantal dynamical theory. Although there are some discrepancies, initial indications are encouraging. The model should be applicable to a wide variety of gas‐phase and condensed‐phase phenomena occurring even down to thermal energies.
Article
Necessary conditions under which a classical description will give the correct quantum relaxation behavior are analyzed. Assuming a nonequilibrium preparation, it is shown that the long-time mean values of observables can be expressed in terms of the spectral density and state-specific level densities of the system. Any approximation that reproduces these quantities therefore yields the correct expectation values at long times. Apart from this rigorous condition, a weaker but more practical criterion is established, that is, to require that the total level density is well approximated in the energy range defined by the spectral density. Since the integral level density is directly proportional to the phase-space volume that is energetically accessible to the system, the latter condition means that an appropriate classical approximation should explore the same phase-space volume as the quantum description. In general, however, this is not the case. A well-known example is the unrestricted flow of zero-point energy in classical mechanics. To correct for this flaw of classical mechanics, quantum corrections are derived which result in a restriction of the classically accessible phase space. At the simplest level of the theory, these corrections are shown to correspond to the inclusion of only a fraction of the full zero-point energy into the classical calculation. Based on these considerations, a general strategy for the classical simulation of quantum relaxation dynamics is suggested. The method is (i) dynamically consistent in that it refers to the behavior of the ensemble rather than to the behavior of individual trajectories, (ii) systematic in that it provides (rigorous as well as minimal) criteria which can be checked in a practical calculation, and (iii) practical in that it retains the conceptional and computational simplicity of a standard quasiclassical calculation. Employing various model problems which allow for an analytical evaluation of the quantities of interest, the virtues and limitations of the approach are discussed. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
Article
In a recent letter [Chem. Phys. Lett. 291, 101 (1998)] we presented a semiclassical methodology for calculating influence functionals arising from many-body anharmonic environments in the path integral formulation of quantum dynamics. Taking advantage of the trace operation associated with the unobservable medium, we express the influence functional in terms of a single propagator along a combined forward–backward system path. This propagator is evaluated according to time-dependent semiclassical theory in a coherent state initial value representation. Because the action associated with propagation in combined forward and backward time is governed by the net force experienced by the environment due to its interaction with the system, the resulting propagator is generally a smooth function of coordinates and thus amenable to Monte Carlo sampling; yet, the interference between forward and reverse propagators is fully accounted for. In the present paper we present a more elaborate version of the semiclassical influence functional formalism, along with algorithms for evaluating the coherent state transform of the Boltzmann operator that enters the influence functional. This factor is evaluated by performing an imaginary time path integral, and various approximations of the resulting expression as well as sampling schemes are discussed. The feasibility of the approach is demonstrated via numerous test calculations involving a two-level system coupled to (a) a dissipative harmonic bath and (b) a ten-dimensional bath of coupled anharmonic oscillators. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.