Conference Paper

Vertical Industries Requirements Analysis & Targeted KPIs for Advanced 5G Trials

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... 5G verticals need a seamless infrastructure that is able to support a vast amount of information, high throughput and low latency per case, wide area coverage that could extend from the premises of a factory, up to different countries, and handover capabilities, where mobility exists [11]. The infrastructure capabilities of a single MNO, or a federation of MNOs with limited lifecycle management (LCM) functionalities, cannot meet the 5G vertical requirements. ...
... On the other hand, in the hop-based heuristic algorithm, the iteration refers to the checks if a host is suitable for hosting the VNF. This sequence refers to the nested for loop in line 5 of Alg. 1, and the sequence of commands in this loop (i.e., lines [6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]. A significant difference is that the optimal solution calculates the deployment cost of a VNF at all hosts and then selects the minimum cost based on the constraints. ...
Preprint
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Service providers highly rely on network softwariza-tion for addressing the demanding use cases of the 5G verticals. In order for the 5G vertical scenarios to be seamlessly executed, where the coverage should be provided in large areas, the required infrastructure capacity and availability can only be supported by cross-operator cooperation. In this context, we employ a novel federated core-edge 5G architecture, where 5G vertical services are represented as service function chains (SFCs) and can be offered on the infrastructure owned either by the local operator or a foreign one. Furthermore, we propose two online SFC placement methods that aim to efficiently place the SFCs across the architecture, taking into account the deployment cost. A simulation of the optimal solution, based on an integer linear programming (ILP) approach, is evaluated against a hop-based heuristic placement method that runs on our experimental 5G platform. Our experimental results demonstrate that the optimized placement produces the most cost-effective solution. Our heuristic algorithm introduces a near-optimal solution, but with a higher deployment cost. Compared with the ILP approach, the heuristic solution provides lower complexity and execution time. Finally, in order to further augment the placement techniques, we propose enhanced lifecycle management methods that use live migration and scaling actions to further decrease the execution cost and adapt to real-time incoming traffic, respectively.
... The availability of 5G network is 99.999% or higher [41]. Furthermore, 5G is expected to support a connection density of up to 1,000,000 devices/km 2 , which is equivalent to 1 device/m 2 . ...
... A 5G system supports long-range coverage of up to 100 km [43]. The reliability of the network is 99.999% or higher [41]. Figure 4 compares 4G and 5G according to the performance characteristics of communication technologies for production defined by [24]. ...
Article
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The fifth generation of mobile communication (5G) is expected to bring immense benefits to automated guided vehicles by improving existing respectively enabling 5G-distinctive network control systems, leading to higher productivity and safety. However, only 1% of production companies have fully deployed 5G yet. Most companies currently lack an understanding of return on investment and of technical use-case benefits. Therefore, this paper analyses the influence of 5G on an automated guided vehicle use case based on a five-step evaluation model. The analysis is conducted with a use case in the Digital Experience Factory in Aachen. It shows a difference of net present value between 4G and 5G of 1.3 M€ after 10 years and a difference of return of investment of 66%. Furthermore, analysis shows an increase of mobility (13%), productivity (20%) and safety (136%). This indicates a noticeable improvement of a 5G-controlled automated guided vehicle compared to a 4G-controlled automated guided vehicle.
... The 5G use cases are classified in terms of requirements for different types of communication. One of the use cases is enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) which needs to support high bandwidth and high throughput [1], [2]. Furthermore, according to a Cisco forecast, demand for wireless data is expected to reach 77 exabytes per month and online video will make up 82% of internet traffic in 2022 [3], [4]. ...
... We analyzed the computational complexity of the proposed algorithm using big O notation 1 ...
Article
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We propose a load balancing algorithm for a multi-RAT (radio access technology) network including a non-terrestrial network (NTN) and a terrestrial network (TN). Fifth generation (5G) and beyond-5G networks consider NTNs to provide connectivity and data delivery to large numbers of user equipments (UEs). However, previous load balancing algorithms do not consider the coexistence of NTNs and TNs and ignore the different resource allocation units in a multi-RAT network. Hence, we define a radio resource utilization ratio (RRUR) as a common load metric to measure the cell load of each RAT and employ an adaptive threshold to determine overloaded cells. The proposed algorithm consists of two steps to overcome the uneven load distribution across 5G cells: intra-RAT load balancing and inter-RAT load balancing. Based on the RRUR of a cell, the algorithm first performs intra-RAT load balancing by offloading the appropriate edge UEs of an overloaded cell to underutilized neighboring cells. If the RRUR of the cell is still higher than a predefined threshold, then inter-RAT load balancing is performed by offloading the delay-tolerant data flows of UEs to a satellite link. Furthermore, the algorithm estimates the impact of moving loads to the target cell load to avoid unnecessary load balancing actions. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm not only distributes the load across terrestrial cells more evenly but also increases network throughput and the number of quality of service satisfied UEs more than previous load balancing algorithms.
... The T&L sector is a major component of modern production and distributed systems, as it significantly contributes to the macroeconomic development [3]. However, processes in the T&L industry suffer from insufficient automation and optimization, which highly affects efficiency and safety of the T&L operations. ...
Conference Paper
By delivering end-to-end latencies down to 5ms, data rates of up to 20Gbps, and ultra-high reliability of 99.999%, 5G is extending the capabilities of numerous industry verticals, including the Transport & Logistics (T&L). As the T&L industry has a pivotal role in modern production and distribution systems, it is expected to leverage 5G technology to significantly increase efficiency and safety in the T\&L operations, through automating and optimizing processes and resource usage. However, to be able to truly benefit from 5G, the design, the development, as well as the management, of T\&L services need to specify and include 5G connectivity requirements, and the features that are tailored to the specific T\&L use cases. To this end, in this paper we introduce the concept of Network Applications (NetApps), as the fundamental building blocks of T\&L services in 5G, which simplify the composition of complex services, abstracting the underlying complexity and bridging the knowledge gap between the vertical stakeholders, the network experts, and the application/service providers, while specifying service-level information (vertical specific) and 5G requirements (5G slices and 5G Core services). In this paper, we exemplify the concept of NetApps leveraging one of the VITAL-5G use cases, which provides faster and safer operations of vessels in the port of Galati, the largest port on the Danube River.
... For example, in [10], the authors present three novel Cooperated, Connected, and Automated Mobility (CCAM) use cases in a cross-border setting, running on top of the 5G communication infrastructures connecting three neighbouring cities. Apart from illustrative examples of the envisaged applications, a suitable set of metrics, target requirements, and KPIs has also been investigated, along with the enabling technologies needed for meeting these more stringent conditions [8][9][10][11][12]. As a representative example, an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-driven automated 5G end-to-end slicing solution for supporting multiple vertical services is introduced in [13]. The proposed AI-enabled closed-loop for service management is able to assure Service Level Agreement (SLA) compliance by incorporating features such as an automated Radio Access Network (RAN) orchestration and control and the multi-domain aggregation of services and resources from different providers. ...
Article
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The ongoing transition towards 5G technology expedites the emergence of a variety of mobile applications that pertain to different vertical industries. Delivering on the key commitment of 5G, these diverse service streams, along with their distinct requirements, should be facilitated under the same unified network infrastructure. Consequently, in order to unleash the benefits brought by 5G technology, a holistic approach towards the requirement analysis and the design, development, and evaluation of multiple concurrent vertical services should be followed. In this paper, we focus on the Transport vertical industry, and we study four novel vehicular service categories, each one consisting of one or more related specific scenarios, within the framework of the “5G Health, Aquaculture and Transport (5G-HEART)” 5G PPP ICT-19 (Phase 3) project. In contrast to the majority of the literature, we provide a holistic overview of the overall life-cycle management required for the realization of the examined vehicular use cases. This comprises the definition and analysis of the network Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) resulting from high-level user requirements and their interpretation in terms of the underlying network infrastructure tasked with meeting their conflicting or converging needs. Our approach is complemented by the experimental investigation of the real unified 5G pilot’s characteristics that enable the delivery of the considered vehicular services and the initial trialling results that verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented theoretical analysis.
... The new fifth generation of wireless communications (5G) aims to deal with the technical limits of 4G. It provides a significant improvement in the perceived QoS to users compared to the current 4G LTE network and, more importantly, opens new perspectives for the vertical industry [14]. ...
Thesis
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The current architecture “one size fits all” of 4G network cannot support the next-generation 5G heterogeneous services criteria. Therefore, research around 5G aims to provide more adequate architectures and mechanisms to deal with this purpose. The 5G architecture is envisioned to accommodate the diverse and conflicting demands of services in terms of latency, bandwidth, and reliability, which cannot be sustained by the same network infrastructure. In this context, network slicing provided by network virtualization allows the infrastructure to be divided into different slices. Each slice is tailored to meet specific service requirements allowing different services (such as automotive, Internet of Things, etc.) to be provided by different network slice instances. Each of these instances consists of a set of virtual network functions that run on the same infrastructure with specially adapted orchestration. Three main service classes of network slicing have been defined by the researchers as follows: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC), and ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communication (uRLLC). One of the main challenges when it comes to deploying Network Slices is slicing the Radio Access Network (RAN). Indeed, managing RAN resources and sharing them among Network Slices is an increasingly difficult task, which needs to be properly designed. This thesis proposes solutions that aim to improve network performance, and introduce flexibility and greater utilization of network resources by accurately and dynamically provisioning the activated network slices with the appropriate amounts of resources to meet their diverse requirements.
... Fifth-generation (5G) and future 5G+ systems are going to present a driving force for industrial changes. [1][2][3][4] The 5G is intended to shape and foster industries such as automotive, healthcare, energy, smart cities, media, and entertainment. Moreover, optical wireless communications (OWCs) are envisioned to be included in 5G and beyond 5G communication networks. ...
Article
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This article investigates outage statistics of double gamma–gamma random variable (RV) modeled as the product of two independent and identically distributed gamma–gamma RVs. The outage closed‐form statistics in terms of the first‐order statistical measures (probability density function and cumulative distribution function) and the second‐order statistical measures (level crossing rate and average fade duration) by Laplace approximation integral (LAI) and exponential LAI are derived. The statistical results are directly related to the performance evaluation of dual‐hop as well as cooperative dual‐hop optical wireless communications over moderate to strong turbulence‐induced fading channels.
... Moreover, the 5G verticals [6] coexisting in such a new network ecosystem require specific security services, individually configured security functions implemented on different network planes and layers, and flexible deployment procedures; see, e.g., [7]. To provide adequate network functionalities for a vertical, one can use the standardized types of 5G networks, e.g., suitable for realtime and other Fixed Wireless Access (FWA) services, the enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB), which needs to support large payloads and high bandwidth and which can use to the greatest extent the protection offer of edge devices [8], Ultra-Reliable and Low-Latency Communication (URLLC), which supports use cases with very low latency for services that require short response times, or massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC) for Machine-to-Machine (M2M), which should support many devices in a base station, see [9], [10]. The expected values of the 5G network quality parameters of these types of networks, drawing on the scale of all expected maximal values of the quality parameters of IMT-2020 for 5th generation networks, are presented according to ITU-R M.2083 [11], see Fig. 1. ...
Article
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5G is the fifth-generation cellular network satisfying the requirements IMT-2020 (International Mobile Telecommunications-2020) of the International Telecommunication Union. Mobile network operators started using it worldwide in 2019. Generally, 5G achieves exceptionally high values of performance parameters of access and transmission. The application of edge servers facilitated the implementation of such requirements of 5G, which resulted in 5G MEC (Multi-access Edge Computing) technology. Moreover, to optimize services for specific business applications, the concept of 5G vertical industries has been proposed. In this paper, we study how the application of the MEC technology affects the functioning of 5G MEC-based services. We consider twelve representative vertical industries of 5G MEC by presenting their essential characteristics, threats, vulnerabilities, and known attacks. Next, we analyze their functional properties, give efficiency patterns and identify the effect of applying the MEC technology in 5G on the resultant network’s quality parameters to identify the expected security requirements. Finally, we identify the impact of classified threats on the 5G empowered vertical industries and identify the most sensitive cases to focus on their protection against network attacks in the first place.
... 5 G networks need to support services with stringent latency, availability, and capacity requirements by connecting endusers to the data center (DC) locations where the application servers (ASs) (responsible for executing the service-specific applications) are deployed [1]. In this regard, there is a need for service provisioning strategies that assure meeting service requirements while using radio, connectivity, and compute resources efficiently. ...
Article
We address a key challenge of 5G networks by proposing a strategy for the resource-efficient and end-to-end allocation of compute and connectivity resources in a dynamic 5G service provisioning scenario, such that the service latency and availability requirements are guaranteed. Our heuristic algorithm shows that resource efficiency is significantly improved by processing services in the large core data centers (DCs) with a rich amount of compute resources and exploiting the benefits of traffic grooming over the metro and core fiber links. Moreover, our resource-efficient provisioning algorithm avoids possible violation of the service availability requirements caused by reaching the central DC locations by adding backup connectivity resources. Our simulation results demonstrate a resource efficiency improvement reflected by lowering the service blocking probability by up to four orders of magnitude compared to the conventional service provisioning methods utilizing distributed small DCs.
... The fifth generation (5G) of mobile and wireless communications will constitute a distributed intelligent communications, sensing, and computing platform. To support this vision of 5G and be an actor of its evolution, the 5G-EVE 1 european project is building an end-to-end facility composed of four interconnected sites located in Greece, Italy, Spain and France [1]. Each site is capable of handling the requirements of various use cases brought by verticals and proposes 5G solution elements that will be deployed and implemented. ...
Poster
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In this paper we present a 5G design and deployment framework within the 5G-EVE European project which aims at interconnecting multiple sites in order to form a single 5G end-to-end facility. Each partner of the project proposes 5G solution elements that will host use-cases brought by verticals. In this paper we present Plug'in as a design framework allowing different partners of the 5G-EVE project and verticals to create and test innovative components for 5G. We also present how components such as VNFs are on-boarded within 5G-EVE and finally we give a quick overview of a vertical's workflow.
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Technical (Non-Functional) Requirements: An Agile Introduction
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