Article

When goals are known: The effects of audience relative status on goal commitment and performance

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

To better understand how the social context affects self-regulation, we present 4 studies investigating how the perceived relative status of a goal audience influences goal commitment. As a set, these studies use different samples and methods to examine this phenomenon across a variety of contexts, goals, and audiences. Results are highly consistent, supportive of our hypotheses, and demonstrate that it matters to whom goals are made known. Specifically, the perceived relative status of the goal audience is positively related to goal commitment, and downstream performance, via evaluation apprehension. Our findings highlight that it is not enough for goals to be made known to facilitate commitment but that they should be made known to someone perceived as having higher status. Together, these results help to clarify when and how it is beneficial to make goals known to others, provide a greater understanding of social influences on self-regulation, and yield implications for performance management practices aimed at facilitating goal commitment, motivation, and performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Disclosing goals is also deemed to increase individual accountability, making it harder for individuals to abandon or interrupt goals without embarrassment or inconsistency (Hollenbeck and Klein 1987;Salancik 1977). When someone discloses a goal, social incentive factors to achieve the goal are superimposed on a preexisting motivation to achieve it (Janis 1984;Klein et al. 2020). ...
... On the other hand, more researchers have suggested that the definition of goal commitment should be narrowed to focus on the dedication and responsibility to a particular goal rather than its antecedents or outcomes (Klein et al. 2020;Klein, Molloy, and Brinsfield 2012). For example, Naylor and Ilgen (1984) used the perspective of resource allocation to define goal commitment as the degree to which individuals allocate their resources to achieve a given goal. ...
... low commitment level) expend more energy on goal attainment and devote more persistence and effort, and are thus more likely to succeed (Fishbach, Dhar, and Zhang 2006). In this study, we followed the narrow conceptualization approach and define goal commitment as a volitional psychological bond that reflects dedication and responsibility to a particular goal (Klein et al. 2020;Klein, Molloy, and Brinsfield 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Through the lenses of construal-level theory and goal-directed behavior theory, this study proposed and tested a conceptual model of tourists’ goal-directed behaviors. The proposed model depicted the impacts of tourism goal disclosure on tourists’ goal-directed behaviors through the mediation of goal commitment. The moderating role of temporal distance was also investigated. Two experimental studies were conducted to test hypotheses. Study 1 revealed that goal disclosure (vs. nondisclosure) on social media would enhance tourists’ commitment to tourism goals, which in turn would elicit more goal-directed behaviors. Study 2 further showed that the findings of study 1 are only applicable to the condition of short temporal distance. However, when it comes to the condition of long temporal distance, there is no significant difference in goal commitment and goal-directed behaviors regardless if the goal is disclosed or not. The findings of this study provided valuable theoretical and managerial implications.
... To respond to the increased demands, hospitals require even more of already limited staff, relying on their commitment and skills to support the crisis effort and treat patients at the frontline (Nembhard et al., 2020). When staff are highly committed they are willing to allocate effort and resources to the corresponding workplace target (Klein et al., 2012) and improved performance is expected (Klein, Lount, et al., 2020). However, emergent research shows that healthcare workers are struggling to maintain their functioning as they continue to experience adverse psychological consequences (Lai et al., 2020;Pappa et al., 2021) and physical illness (Dzau et al., 2020) due to the crisis. ...
... While initial studies highlight the exhaustion, stress and mental health of healthcare workers staff during the COVID-19 pandemic (Cahan et al., 2020;Dzau et al., 2020;Fleuren et al., 2021;Lai et al., 2020), studies on how these underlying issues affect staffs' commitment over time are lacking. Although earlier research on workplace commitment focused primarily on organizations as the target of commitment (van Rossenberg et al., 2018), more recent research has recognized that employees can be committed to various targets (Klein et al., 2014) including organizations, careers, projects, and specific organizational goals (Klein, Lount, et al., 2020). With the COVID-19 crisis spanning more than a year, the specific commitment to providing COVID-19 care and supporting the crisis response is crucial, but remains poorly understood. ...
Article
Full-text available
To effectively function and adapt in crises, healthcare organizations rely on the skills and commitment of their workforce. Yet, our current understanding of how employees’ workplace commitment is affected by and evolves throughout the course of a crisis remains limited. In this paper, we explore the commitment of hospital staff to an important workplace target, the COVID-19 crisis response, and show how this commitment develops over time. We report on an exploratory case study of hospital staff in a heavily hit region of the Netherlands. We conducted interviews with hospital executives, management, medical and support staff to uncover the issues hospitals faced in recruiting staff to provide COVID-19 care throughout the first and second wave of the crisis. Our findings suggest that while staff initially exhibited high levels of commitment to aiding in the crisis effort, staff were perceived to exhibit lower levels of commitment in the second wave, complicating the provision of COVID-19 care. We unveil three contributing factors to this shift, namely: competing demands, energy depletion and a lack of support and appreciation. Our findings suggest that while staff were initially willing to dedicate themselves and take responsibility for the crisis effort, as their other more stable commitments became more salient in the second wave, their willingness to dedicate limited resources to the crisis effort decreased. In our discussion, we examine the implications of our findings for the literature on workplace commitment, and advance our understanding of employee workplace commitment during crises.
... While some studies have found accountability to help performance, others show that it is not always the case. To better perform appears to be in who you decide to share your goals with [20,39]. Reporting that the group with whom you share your goal must be perceived by you to have a higher status, for the sharing to be effective [20]. ...
... To better perform appears to be in who you decide to share your goals with [20,39]. Reporting that the group with whom you share your goal must be perceived by you to have a higher status, for the sharing to be effective [20]. Social attention is another matter to consider. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Sharing our goals with others and setting public challenges for ourselves is a topic that has been the center of many discussions. This study examines reading challenges, how participation in them has changed throughout the years, and how they influence users reading productivity. To do so, we analyze Goodreads, a social book cataloging website, with a yearly challenge feature. We further show that gender is a significant factor in how successful individuals are in their challenges. Additionally, we investigate the association between participation in reading challenges and the number of books people read.
... 9 The use of budgetary systems is widely recognized in retail firms where, for example, targets are determined by budgeted sales and expense ratios (Aranda et al., 2014;Aranda et al., 2017). 10 Research shows that commitment to difficult goals was higher when goals were made public rather than private (Klein et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
We examine whether the quality of performance metrics affects informal peer monitoring and, in turn, goal commitment. By fostering performance‐oriented behaviours, performance metrics drive managers to involve themselves in learning and improvement efforts, building a fertile atmosphere for informal peer monitoring. We argue that the quality of performance metrics is positively associated with direct peer monitoring and negatively linked to indirect peer monitoring. Subsequently, we postulate that direct (indirect) peer monitoring is positively (negatively) associated with goal commitment. We use partial least squares (PLS) to analyse survey data from store managers in a large retail firm. Results provide overall support for our hypotheses.
... Still, visibility can be counterproductive, especially for identity-related goals, because it leads to rewarding experiences before the goal is reached. Furthermore, the social status of the audience knowing about a goal was found to be positively correlated to goal commitment (Klein et al., 2020). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
How motivated a person is to pursue a goal may depend on many different properties of the goal, such as how specific it is, how important it is to the person, and how actionable it is. Rigorously measuring all of the relevant goal characteristics is still very difficult. Existing measures are scattered across multiple research fields. Some goal characteristics are not yet covered, while others have been measured under ambiguous terminology. Other conceptually related characteristics have yet to be adapted to goals. Last but not least, the validity of most measures of goal characteristics has yet to be assessed. The aim of this study is to: a) integrate, refine, and extend previous measures into a more comprehensive battery of self-report measures, the Goal Characteristics Questionnaire (GCQ), and b) investigate its evidence of validity. In two empirical studies, this paper provides evidence for the validity of the measures regarding their internal structure, measurement invariance, and convergence and divergence with other relevant goal-related measures, such as the motivation, affect, and the dimensions of Personal Project Analysis. The results show that our goal characteristic dimensions have incremental validity for explaining important outcomes, such as goal commitment and well-being. It concludes with practical recommendations for using the GCQ in research on goal-setting and goal-pursuit, and a discussion about directions for future studies.
... Manipulation effectiveness was measured with a two-point scale (Yes/No) "is the DSR continuous" (in G con ) or "is the DSR one-time" (in G one ), this method has been used in published articles and has been shown to be effective (Klein et al. 2020;Su, Yang, and Huang 2021). The authenticity of the scenario was measured by asking participants to indicate Yes or No to whether the provided scenario "could happen in real life" (Liao 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigates how destination social responsibility (DSR) improves resident quality of life (QOL) through the lenses of signaling theory and emotional solidarity theory. The study demonstrates the mediating role of resident emotional solidarity toward the destination and the moderating roles of disclosure tone and visual messages. Three experiments indicate that continuous (vs. one-time) DSR positively affects resident emotional solidarity and QOL, whereas emotional solidarity has a mediating role. Emotional solidarity elicited by continuous (vs. one-time) DSR is significantly higher when the disclosure tone of DSR is vivid (vs. pallid). However, when DSR is disclosed using visual messages, emotional solidarity effects of DSR types are not different in vivid tone but have significant differences in pallid tone. This study expands the application of signaling theory and emotional solidarity theory to resident QOL studies and provides suggestions on improving residents’ QOL through DSR.
... Also worth mentioning is that 95% of female engineering students agreed that they feel more comfortable sharing their concerns and aspirations with a mentor of their same gender. A recent study [10] showed that sharing one's goal with someone perceived to have higher status, e.g. a mentor, makes one more likely to follow through on achieving their goal. In this context, that might mean that a student who tells a faculty mentor they intend to pursue a graduate degree in engineering would be more likely to complete the degree. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social psychology has demonstrated that people behave differently in social attention, compared to when alone. First and foremost, being in social attention affects people's performance and their interpersonal behavior by increasing arousal and reputational concerns, respectively. However, newer work demonstrates more fundamental intra-psychological effects of social attention. As mere reminders of social attention can activate reputational concerns, people's thoughts and behavior are affected by such reminders even when people's reputation is not at stake. These findings provide a deeper look at more intra-personal effects of social attention. As a result, recent research focuses on how social attention fundamentally influences people's subjective perceptions and experiences. In this review, we provide an overview of the far-reaching effects of social attention, identify relevant moderators and mediators, discuss socio-motivational and cognitive processes underlying these effects, and highlight avenues for future research.
Article
Full-text available
To better understand the workplace commitments experienced by organizational members, we reconceptualize commitment to highlight its distinctiveness and improve its applicability across all workplace targets. We present a continuum of psychological bonds and reconceptualize commitment as a particular type of bond reflecting volitional dedication and responsibility for a target. We then present a process model applicable to any workplace target to bring clarity, consistency, and synergy to the research and management of workplace commitments.
Article
Full-text available
Self-regulation is the dynamic process by which people manage competing demands on their time and resources as they strive to achieve desired outcomes, while simultaneously preventing or avoiding undesired outcomes. In this article, we review the current state of knowledge regarding the process by which people manage these types of demands. We review studies in the organizational, cognitive, social psychology, and human factors literatures that have examined the process by which people (a) manage task demands when working on a single task or goal; (b) select which tasks or goals they work on, and the timing and order in which they work on them; and (c) make adjustments to the goals that they are pursuing. We review formal theories that have been developed to account for these phenomena and examine the prospects for an integrative account of self-regulation that can explain the broad range of empirical phenomena examined across different subdisciplines within psychology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Volume 4 is March 21, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: We assessed severely and persistently depressed patients' interpersonal self-efficacy, problems, and goals, plus changes in interpersonal functioning and depression during 20 weeks of group therapy. Method: Outpatients (32 female, 26 male, mean age = 45 years) completed interpersonal circumplex measures of goals, efficacy, and problems before completing 20 weeks of manualized group therapy, during which we regularly assessed depression and interpersonal style. Results: Compared to normative samples, patients lacked interpersonal agency, including less self-efficacy for expressive/assertive actions; stronger motives to avoid conflict, scorn, and humiliation; and more problems with being too submissive, inhibited, and accommodating. Behavioral Activation and especially Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy interventions produced improvements in depression and interpersonal agency, with increases in "agentic and communal" efficacy predicting subsequent decreases in depression. Conclusions: While severely and persistently depressed patients were prone to express maladaptive interpersonal dispositions, over the course of group therapy, they showed increasingly agentic and beneficial patterns of cognitions, motives, and behaviors.
Article
Full-text available
The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall.
Article
Full-text available
Over the past 30 years, researchers have devoted significant attention to understanding impression management in organizations. In this article, we review key questions that have been addressed in this area regarding definitions of impression management; types of impression management; impression management motivation; the effectiveness of ingratiation, self-promotion, and other tactics of impression management; personal factors associated with successful impression management; gender and impression management ; cross-cultural implications of impression management; and the measurement of impression management. In doing so, we identify major themes and findings and highlight critical issues and unanswered questions. After reviewing these topics, we also discuss some practical implications for individuals and organizations. Finally, we conclude by outlining some broader avenues for inquiry that would help move this literature forward.
Article
Full-text available
Cardiovascular effects of social evaluation, evaluator status, and monetary reward were examined in participants presented with a challenge that allowed them to work as hard as they pleased (unfixed conditions) or called for a low level of effort (fixed conditions). In Experiment 1, evaluation was found to potentiate systolic pressure and heart rate responses insofar as the evaluator had status where the challenge was unfixed, but to have no impact on the responses where the challenge was fixed. In Experiment 2, reward value was found to potentiate the responses where the challenge was unfixed, but not where it was fixed. The main findings confirm and extend results from a previous experiment, and broaden the base of empirical support for the suggestion that active coping will be proportional to success importance where performance is unconstrained.
Article
Full-text available
This study presents a new approach to assessing commitment reflecting the Klein, Molloy, and Brinsfield (2012) reconceptualization. Klein et al. recast the construct to address issues hindering commitment scholarship, but their claims cannot be tested with existing measures. This paper presents a 4-item measure consistent with the Klein et al. conceptual definition, a measure intended to be unidimensional and applicable across all workplace targets. Our purpose is to present the development of and provide initial validity evidence for this new commitment measure and to compare it to existing alternative measures. Hypotheses around these objectives were tested with data gathered across 5 samples yielding 2,487 participants representing a wide range of jobs, organizations, and industries. Each sample examined a unique set of variables and targets that together provide a comprehensive test of this new measure relative to 8 different targets, several constructs within the nomological network, and 4 prior commitment measures. Results support our hypotheses regarding (a) the measure's properties and structure, (b) convergence and divergence with prior measures of commitment and other constructs in the nomological network, and (c) advantages over prior measures. These findings support the validity of this new approach to assessing commitment, laying the foundation for future research to address critiques of the commitment construct; better examine the multiple commitments individuals simultaneously hold; and bring consistency, synergy, and integration to commitment scholarship across workplace targets. The conceptual, methodological, and practical benefits of the measure are discussed, along with study limitations and future research opportunities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
Using archival data on a year of e-mail exchanges at a division of Enron (Study 1) and a field study of management professionals (Study 2), we explore how the relative hierarchical rank of a message sender and a message recipient affects expressions of verbal deference in organizational e-mail communication. Verbal deference refers to linguistic markers that convey a willingness to yield to another’s preferences or opinions as a sign of respect or reverence. Although prior research has focused on upward deference in an organizational hierarchy, from lower-ranked senders to higher-ranked recipients, we predict and find that the greatest amount of deference is expressed laterally, between peers of equal or similar rank. Further, lateral deference is most frequently displayed by those individuals most concerned with preserving their status and rank, confirming that lateral deference may be used as a status-saving strategy designed to protect individuals from status loss associated with “overstepping one’s place.”
Article
Full-text available
The authors summarize 35 years of empirical research on goal-setting theory. They describe the core findings of the theory, the mechanisms by which goals operate, moderators of goal effects, the relation of goals and satisfaction, and the role of goals as mediators of incentives. The external validity and practical significance of goal-setting theory are explained, and new directions in goal-setting research are discussed. The relationships of goal setting to other theories are described as are the theory’s limitations.
Article
Full-text available
Hierarchy is such a defining and pervasive feature of organizations that its forms and basic functions are often taken for granted in organizational research. In this review, we revisit some basic psychological and sociological elements of hierarchy and argue that status and power are two important yet distinct bases of hierarchical differentiation. We first define power and status and distinguish our definitions from previous conceptualizations. We then integrate a number of different literatures to explain why status and power hierarchies tend to be self‐reinforcing. Power, related to one’s control over valued resources, transforms individual psychology such that the powerful think and act in ways that lead to the retention and acquisition of power. Status, related to the respect one has in the eyes of others, generates expectations for behavior and opportunities for advancement that favor those with a prior status advantage. We also explore the role that hierarchy‐enhancing belief systems play in stabilizing hierarchy, both from the bottom up and from the top down. Finally, we address a number of factors that we think are instrumental in explaining the conditions under which hierarchies change. Our framework suggests a number of avenues for future research on the bases, causes, and consequences of hierarchy in groups and organizations.
Article
Full-text available
A model that integrates several different motivational theories and previous control theory models is presented as a possible metatheory to focus future theoretical and empirical efforts. The proposed model is dynamic, parsimonious, and focuses on self-regulation and the underlying cognitive mechanisms of motivation. In explicating this model, numerous hypotheses are derived regarding (a) the nature of goals and feedback; (b) cognitive, behavioral, and affective reactions to goals and feedback; and (c) the role of attributions, expectancies, and goal hierarchies in determining those reactions.
Article
Full-text available
In this monograph we describe a unique method for resolving scientific disputes: the joint design of crucial experiments by the antagonists themselves with the help of a mediator. This method was applied to the issue of the effect of participation on goal commitment and performance. In research on this topic, Latham and his colleagues had obtained markedly different results from those obtained by Erez and her colleagues. With Locke serving as a third party mediator, Latham and Erez designed four experiments to resolve the discrepancies. The experiments were conducted at the University of Washington and the University of Maryland. The results revealed that the major reason for the difference was that Erez gave very brief tell instructions to her assigned goal subjects, whereas Latham used a tell and sell approach. Four additional factors also contributed to the earlier difference in findings: goal difficulty, setting personal goals before goal treatments were introduced, self-efficacy-inducing instructions, and instructions to reject disliked goals. It was concluded that (a) the differences between Latham and Erez can be explained on the basis of differences in specific procedures, and (b) the method used to resolve this dispute should be used by other investigators. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Two central constructs of applied psychology, motivation and cognitive ability, were integrated within an information-processing (IPR) framework. This framework simultaneously considers individual differences in cognitive abilities, self-regulatory processes of motivation, and IPR demands. Evidence for the framework is provided in the context of skill acquisition, in which IPR and ability demands change as a function of practice, training paradigm, and timing of goal setting (GS). Three field-based lab experiments were conducted with 1,010 US Air Force trainees. Exp 1 evaluated the basic ability–performance parameters of the air traffic controller task and GS effects early in practice. Exp 2 evaluated GS later in practice. Exp 3 investigated the simultaneous effects of training content, GS and ability–performance interactions. Results support the theoretical framework and have implications for notions of ability–motivation interactions and design of training and motivation programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Goal commitment has been given a critical role in goal-setting theory, yet the factors associated with commitment to difficult goals have not often been studied. This study examined possible antecedents of commitment to difficult goals. Two sets of such variables were examined: situational (goal publicness and goal origin) and personal (need for achievement and locus of control) factors. Both sets of variables accounted for significant amounts of variance in goal commitment among 190 college students with academic goals. A Person × Situation interaction also accounted for a significant increment of variance. Specifically, commitment to difficult goals was higher when (a) goals were made public rather than private, (b) when locus of control was internal, and (c) when subjects were high in need for achievement, especially when goals were self-set as opposed to assigned. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Whether you're a manager, company psychologist, quality control specialist, or involved with motivating people to work harder in any capacity—Locke and Latham's guide will hand you the keen insight and practical advice you need to reach even your toughest cases. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to examine the role of goal commitment in goal-setting research. Despite Locke's (1968) specification that commitment to goals is a necessary condition for the effectiveness of goal setting, a majority of studies in this area have ignored goal commitment. In addition, results of studies that have examined the effects of goal commitment were typically inconsistent with conceptualization of commitment as a moderator. Building on past research, we have developed a model of the goal commitment process and then used it to reinterpret past goal-setting research. We show that the widely varying sizes of the effect of goal difficulty, conditional effects of goal difficulty, and inconsistent results with variables such as participation can largely be traced to main and interactive effects of the variables specified by the model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
In a laboratory study using undergraduate students ( N = 200), perceived task importance was found to moderate the relationship between goal level and performance. Moreover, participants performed better when both the goal and performance were public rather than anonymous. These findings suggest that by manipulating task importance and publicness of performance, it is possible to influence the impact that the difficulty of specific goals have on performance. The results are consistent with our hypotheses that the motivation to preserve one's self-image and the motivation to preserve one's public-image are two factors that determine effort and persistence devoted to assigned goals. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
Research conducted for more than a century has shown that the presence of others improves performance on simple tasks and debilitates it on complex tasks, whether these others are audience members or coactors. In this chapter, we review theories offered to account for how two features of these others, their mere presence and/ or the potential for evaluation they represent, produce these effects, and we conclude that we are no closer now to isolating the relevant process(es) than we were 100 years ago. We then consider the molecular task analysis proposed by Harkins (2006) as an approach to attacking this problem, followed by a review of the work supporting the mere effort account suggested by this analysis. Finally, we place the mere effort account in the larger context represented by the Threat- Induced Potentiation of Prepotent Responses model, which aims to account for the effect of threat on task performance.
Article
This research develops and tests a formal process-oriented theory of leader goal striving. Drawing on self-regulation theory, we developed a computational model that explicates the core process mechanisms involved in a leader–subordinate dyadic goal pursuit system. We then extended this core model to incorporate action team features (i.e., negative external disturbances, deadlines, and task interdependence) to account for leadership behavior in action team context. We simulated our proposed model to generate predictions about trajectories of a critical leadership function (i.e., leader engaging in team task-specific actions) under different conditions of disturbances, deadlines, task interdependence, and leader attributes. The predicted relationships were then tested in a laboratory experiment. As predicted by the model, time-related factors, including disturbances and deadlines, had significant effects on trajectories of leader actions. Over time within a given task, leaders were more likely to take actions when further than closer to the deadline. Leaders were also more likely to take actions when external disturbances set task states back. In addition, leaders’ time allocation was less evenly distributed across subordinates when the deadline was short (vs. long). We discussed the implications of the model and how future research can extend our model to account for more complicated goal pursuit and team processes.
Article
Theories are the core of any science, but many imprecisely stated theories in organizational and management science are hampering progress in the field. Computational modeling of existing theories can help address the issue. Computational models are a type of formal theory that are represented mathematically or by other formal logic and can be simulated, allowing theorists to assess whether the theory can explain the phenomena intended as well as make testable predictions. As an example of the process, Locke’s integrated model of work motivation is translated into static and dynamic computational models. Simulations of these models are compared to the empirical data used to develop and test the theory. For the static model, the simulations revealed largely strong associations with robust empirical findings. However, adding dynamics created several challenges to key precepts of the theory. Moreover, the effort revealed where empirical work is needed to further refine or refute the theory. Discussion focuses on the value of computational modeling as a method for formally testing, pruning, and extending extant theories in the field.
Book
People go to extraordinary lengths to gain and defend their status. Those with higher status are listened to more, receive more deference from others, and are perceived as having more power. People with higher status also tend to have better health and longevity. In short, status matters. Despite the importance of status, particularly in the workplace, it has received comparatively little attention from management scholars. It is only relatively recently that they have turned their attention to the powerful role that social status plays in organizations. This book brings together this important work, showing why we should distinguish status from power, hierarchy and work quality. It also shows how a better understanding of status can be used to address problems in a number of different areas, including strategic acquisitions, the development of innovations, new venture funding, executive compensation, discrimination, and team diversity effects.
Article
This paper examines the role of status distance (i.e., the magnitude of status differences between coworkers) in understanding interpersonal helping in organizations. Results from an experiment and a field study show a curvilinear relationship between status distance and helping, with less help provided to those at relatively small and large status distances from oneself, and relatively more help offered to those at moderate status distances. While prior work on status differences has primarily considered status ordinally (i.e., rank ordering of individuals), or in terms of direction (i.e., whether someone is higher or lower status), the current work takes a more exacting look at status differences, providing insights into the relationship between status and helping that would have been overlooked if relying solely on the traditional ordinal approach to social hierarchy. These findings offer an empirical basis and theoretical motivation to consider status distance as a critical variable in future work examining the effects of status differences on interpersonal dynamics. Importantly, this work also offers a relevant and timely perspective for managers debating the costs and benefits of various hierarchical arrangements in organizations.
Article
Extracts available on Google Books (see link below). For integral text, go to publisher's website : http://www.elsevierdirect.com/product.jsp?isbn=9780121098902
Conference Paper
Goals are central to current treatments of work motivation, and goal commitment is a critical construct in understanding the relationship between goals and task performance. Despite this importance, there is confusion about the role of goal commitment and only recently has this key construct received the empirical attention it warrants. This meta-analysis, based on 83 independent samples, updates the goal commitment literature by summarizing the accumulated evidence on the antecedents and consequences of goal commitment. Using this aggregate empirical evidence, the role of goal commitment in the goal-setting process is clarified and key areas for future research are identified.
Article
Famous thinkers throughout history from Nepos to Machiavelli have had strong opinions about whether it is better to be feared or loved. A related debate continues today about whether it is preferable to have power or status, a distinction between resources and respect. Across three studies, I find that men desire power more than women do, whereas women desire status more than men do. Furthermore, the extent to which hierarchical differences are seen as fair and legitimate increases the desirability of status, but power legitimacy does not affect the desirability of power. This research indicates that people perceive and value power and status distinctly, and provides additional evidence that confounding the two theoretically or empirically may distort our understanding of psychological responses to social hierarchy.
Article
This paper reviews the scholarly literature on the effects of social hierarchy---differences in power and status among organizational actors---on collective learning in organizations and groups. We begin with the observation that theories of organization and group learning have tended to adopt a rational system model, a model that emphasizes goal-directed and cooperative interactions between and among actors who may differ in knowledge and expertise but are undifferentiated with respect to power and status. Our review of the theoretical and empirical literatures on power, status, and learning suggests that social hierarchy can complicate a rational system model of collective learning by disrupting three critical learning-related processes: anchoring on shared goals, risk taking and experimentation, and knowledge sharing. We also find evidence to suggest that the stifling effects of power and status differences on collective learning can be mitigated when advantaged actors are collectively oriented. Indeed, our review suggests that higher-ranking actors who use their power and status in more “socialized” ways can play critical roles in stimulating collective learning behavior. We conclude by articulating several promising directions for future research that were suggested by our review.
Article
Virtually all discussions and applications of statistical mediation analysis have been based on the condition that the independent variable is dichotomous or continuous, even though investigators frequently are interested in testing mediation hypotheses involving a multicategorical independent variable (such as two or more experimental conditions relative to a control group). We provide a tutorial illustrating an approach to estimation of and inference about direct, indirect, and total effects in statistical mediation analysis with a multicategorical independent variable. The approach is mathematically equivalent to analysis of (co)variance and reproduces the observed and adjusted group means while also generating effects having simple interpretations. Supplementary material available online includes extensions to this approach and Mplus, SPSS, and SAS code that implements it.
Article
Impression management, the process by which people control the impressions others form of them, plays an important role in interpersonal behavior. This article presents a 2-component model within which the literature regarding impression management is reviewed. This model conceptualizes impression management as being composed of 2 discrete processes. The 1st involves impression motivation—the degree to which people are motivated to control how others see them. Impression motivation is conceptualized as a function of 3 factors: the goal-relevance of the impressions one creates, the value of desired outcomes, and the discrepancy between current and desired images. The 2nd component involves impression construction. Five factors appear to determine the kinds of impressions people try to construct: the self-concept, desired and undesired identity images, role constraints, target's values, and current social image. The 2-component model provides coherence to the literature in the area, addresses controversial issues, and supplies a framework for future research regarding impression management.
Article
A significant two-way interaction between self-set goal level instructions (an instruction given to subjects to set hard, easy, or any goals) and methods of payment (straight piece-rate, differential piece-rate with goal attainment step bonus, and hourly flat rate) in influencing personal goals, subsequent personal goals, and goal valences was found. The highest level of personal goals was set under straight piece-rate (pay for performance) in which self-set hard goal instructions were given. In addition, goal valences were found to partially mediate the interactive effects of methods of payment and self-set goal level instructions on personal goals. Furthermore, personal goals were found to: (1) completely mediate the effects of goal valences on performance; and (2) completely mediate the main effects of self-set goal level instructions—as well as the interactive effects of both self-set goal level instructions and methods of payment—on subsequent personal goals. This research sheds light on the determinants, process, and consequences of personal goals and performance and shows that organizational contextual variables such as the reward systems and instructions to choose goals of a certain level significantly interact to influence personal goals, subsequent personal goals, and goal valences.
Article
When women perform math, unlike men, they risk being judged by the negative stereotype that women have weaker math ability. We call this predicamentstereotype threatand hypothesize that the apprehension it causes may disrupt women's math performance. In Study 1 we demonstrated that the pattern observed in the literature that women underperform on difficult (but not easy) math tests was observed among a highly selected sample of men and women. In Study 2 we demonstrated that this difference in performance could be eliminated when we lowered stereotype threat by describing the test as not producing gender differences. However, when the test was described as producing gender differences and stereotype threat was high, women performed substantially worse than equally qualified men did. A third experiment replicated this finding with a less highly selected population and explored the mediation of the effect. The implication that stereotype threat may underlie gender differences in advanced math performance, even those that have been attributed to genetically rooted sex differences, is discussed.
This paper summarizes and integrates research concerned with a long-neglected topic in psychology: the relationship between conscious goals and intentions and task performance. The basic promise of this research is that an individual's conscious ideas regulate his actions. Studies are cited demonstrating that: (1) hard goals produce a higher level of performance (output) than easy goals; (2) specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than a goal of “do your best”; and (3) behavioral intentions regulate choice behavior. The theory also views goals and intentions as mediators of the effects of incentives on task performance. Evidence is presented supporting the view that monetary incentives, time limits, and knowledge of results do not affect performance level independently of the individual's goals and intentions. A theoretical analysis supports the same view with respect to three other incentives: participation, competition, and praise and reproof. Finally, behavioral intentions were found to mediate the effects of money and “verbal reinforcement” on choice behavior. It is concluded that any adequate theory of task motivation must take account of the individual's conscious goals and intentions. The applied implications of the theory are discussed.
Article
Our research assessed whether mood and emotion can be measured as distinct constructs. Development and validation of the Emotion and Mood Components of Anxiety Questionnaire (EMCA-Q) is reported. We based the questionnaire on a subjective-contextual model of emotion–mood distinctions, which specifies that differentiation of the emotion of anxiety from an anxious mood should reflect an individual’s awareness of the context in which the respective feeling states occur. In study 1, we describe the development of the 10-item, two factor EMCA-Q. In study 2, we use confirmatory factor analysis to provide support for the factorial validity of the scale. In study 3, we provide preliminary evidence of construct validity by demonstrating that students preparing to submit their thesis reported significantly higher scores of anxious emotion about their thesis than anxious mood. Findings suggested that emotion and mood might be distinguished empirically in line with theoretical predictions when subjective-contextual information used to distinguish between the two states was assessed.
Article
Laboratory research is discussed in terms of the contribution of laboratory research to knowledge at any given time. Research is viewed as a process of trade-offs. When viewed from this perspective, it is argued that frequently laboratory research may have high utility for addressing problems relevant in the field. Dimensions or classes of trade-offs are addressed. These are: experimental setting fidelity, replication, constraints, threats to health and safety, research not possible in the field, and feasibility. Keywords: Laboratory research; external validity; boundary conditions; field research; validity.
Article
Research has shown that seeing another person (i.e., a model) perform at a certain level can influence the goal choice and performance of an observer. This study extended these findings by examining the model's effects on two potential explanatory mediators: expectations of reaching different performance levels and valence at those levels. The moderating effects of observer task experience and self‐esteem were also examined. In a repeated measures design, results showed that model performance influenced observers' goals, task performance, expectancies, and valence ratings. Path analyses indicated that expectancies mediated observational effects on goal choice. Results also indicated significant Model x Trial interactions, with a diminishing effect of model influence as personal experience developed. Results are discussed in terms of mediating effects of expectancies and valences on model influences on goal choice as well as the different weights given to social and personal information.
Article
Techniques borrowed from sensory psychophysics were used in 2 studies examining nervousness and tension associated with the anticipation of performing in front of an audience. In Study 1 (60 undergraduates), a laboratory experiment, performance apprehension increased as a multiplicative power function of audience size and status but decreased as a power function of the number of performers. In Study 2, a correlational field study, performers in a university Greek Week talent show who appeared as members of large acts reported less nervousness and tension than performers who appeared in small acts, and again, an inverse power function provided a good fit to the data. Results support the combination of B. Latané's (in press) theory of social impact and A. Modigliani's (1968, 1971) theory of embarrassment. Implications for social facilitation and affiliation theories and for performers are discussed. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In 2 studies, the Inclusion of Other in the Self (IOS) Scale, a single-item, pictorial measure of closeness, demonstrated alternate-form and test–retest reliability; convergent validity with the Relationship Closeness Inventory (E. Berscheid et al, 1989), the R. J. Sternberg (1988) Intimacy Scale, and other measures; discriminant validity; minimal social desirability correlations; and predictive validity for whether romantic relationships were intact 3 mo later. Also identified and cross-validated were (1) a 2-factor closeness model (Feeling Close and Behaving Close) and (2) longevity–closeness correlations that were small for women vs moderately positive for men. Five supplementary studies showed convergent and construct validity with marital satisfaction and commitment and with a reaction-time (RT)-based cognitive measure of closeness in married couples; and with intimacy and attraction measures in stranger dyads following laboratory closeness-generating tasks. In 3 final studies most Ss interpreted IOS Scale diagrams as depicting interconnectedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Proposes a theory of social impact specifying the effect of other persons on an individual. According to the theory, when other people are the source of impact and the individual is the target, impact should be a multiplicative function of the strength, immediacy, and number of other people. Furthermore, impact should take the form of a power function, with the marginal effect of the Nth other person being less than that of the ( N–2)th. When other people stand with the individual as the target of forces from outside the group, impact should be divided such that the resultant is an inverse power function of the strength, immediacy, and number of persons standing together. The author reviews relevant evidence from research on conformity and imitation, stage fright and embarrassment, news interest, bystander intervention, tipping, inquiring for Christ, productivity in groups, and crowding in rats. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a field experiment of (a) 24 educationally disadvantaged woods worker crews and (b) 24 educated logging crews to compare assigned goal setting, participative goal setting, and a "do your best" condition. The experiment was conducted separately for each sample. Results show that for the uneducated Ss, the participative condition had higher productivity than the assigned and "do your best" conditions. In addition, goal difficulty and goal attainment were significantly higher in the participative condition than in the assigned condition. No significant differences among conditions were found for the educated Ss, although this may have been due to problems in implementation of the goal-setting program with this sample. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The laboratory experiments were designed to examine the effects of commitment to a performance goal on the level of effort exerted to achieve the goal. In both experiments, college students worked on two memorization tasks and, after receiving performance feedback on the first task, commitment to either an easy or a more difficult goal for the second task was varied. In the first experiment, goal commitment was manipulated either by giving the students perceived choice over setting their goal or by assigning them to one of the two goal levels. In the second experiment, goal commitment was manipulated by publicly identifying students' goals or by keeping the goals private. To assess effort, participants were allowed to spend as little or as much time as they desired studying for the second task. In both experiments, the commitment manipulations (high choice or public identification) led to significantly greater persistence in studying, regardless of the goal level. In addition, high-commitment subjects tended to be more successful in reaching their goals than low-commitment subjects. These experiments suggest that commitment to a goal has motivational properties that prompt an increase in effort.