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Deploying Smart City components for 5G network slicing

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... In addition, the SDN can be incorporated into the network function virtualization (NFV) [3,4], by which virtual network functions (VNFs) are interconnected into different delivery operations. For applications based on the 5G network and beyond [5] such as eHealth, smart poles, and smart cities [6][7][8], SDN and NFV for QoS could play important roles for efficient allocations of network resources for communication services. ...
... Let O(p) be the set O with profile size p. By substituting (8) to (14), it can be derived that ...
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An effective System-on-Chip (SoC) for smart Quality-of-Service (QoS) management over a virtual local area network (LAN) is presented in this study. The SoC is implemented by field programmable gate array (FPGA) for accelerating the delivery quality prediction for a service. The quality prediction is carried out by the general regression neural network (GRNN) algorithm based on a time-varying profile consisting of the past delivery records of the service. A novel record replacement algorithm is presented to update the profile, so that the bandwidth usage of the service can be effectively tracked by GRNN. Experimental results show that the SoC provides self-aware QoS management with low computation costs for applications over virtual LAN.
... So, the deployment of 5G technology is the major challenge faced by the mobile operators. The conventional 5G network to implement various smart city applications is shown in Figure 9. Different customized 5G network architectures are proposed by the researchers to implement various smart city applications [183][184][185][186][187]. The schematic diagram of an intelligent lighting system for smart cities deployed using the 5G network is shown in Figure 10. ...
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The concept of smart city evolved with the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in various sub-systems and processes in urban environment. The development of the smart cities is the best possible solution to major urban issues. It contributes towards economic and social development of the residents. It aims to provide the cordial environment in the domains of healthcare, education, transportation, power generation and dissipation, security, living, industry, etc., to the inhabitants to make their lives comfortable. Sustainability of these services is another major objective in a smart city framework. Along with the true realization of the idea of a smart city, advanced computational and communication technologies are contributing hugely towards its sustainable development. Communication technologies act as backbone to ensure connectivity at the various levels in a smart city framework. Novel smart city solutions for different application domains are designed and deployed by the industry using advanced computational technologies like IoT, Artificial Intelligence, Blockchain, Big Data and Cloud Computing. In this work, authors discuss the concept of smart city, its architecture and sustainability. Different operational domains in a smart city ecosystem are elaborated. The cyber physical aspect of the smart cities is discussed in brief. The role of various computational and communication technologies in the sustainable development of smart cities is presented. Limiting factors in the deployment of various advanced technologies in different smart city domains are highlighted. Security issues associated with the technological sustainable development of different smart city services along with existing solutions are discussed. The article is concluded by highlighting the future research directions.
... The concept of slice as elaborated for 5G virtualized networks [160], [161] can be used to create specialized environments that are compartmentalized and devoted to specific tenants, that is, softwarized virtual environments that reflect the operation of large composed physical environments. For instance, a smart city application has been prototyped exploiting these concepts [162]. ...
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Digital twin (DT) is an emerging concept that is gaining attention in various industries. It refers to the ability to clone a physical object (PO) into a software counterpart. The softwarized object, termed logical object, reflects all the important properties and characteristics of the original object within a specific application context. To fully determine the expected properties of the DT, this article surveys the state-of-the-art starting from the original definition within the manufacturing industry. It takes into account related proposals emerging in other fields, namely augmented and virtual reality (e.g., avatars), multiagent systems, and virtualization. This survey thereby allows for the identification of an extensive set of DT features that point to the "softwarization" of POs. To properly consolidate a shared DT definition, a set of foundational properties is identified and proposed as a common ground outlining the essential characteristics (must-haves) of a DT. Once the DT definition has been consolidated, its technical and business value is discussed in terms of applicability and opportunities. Four application scenarios illustrate how the DT concept can be used and how some industries are applying it. The scenarios also lead to a generic DT architectural model. This analysis is then complemented by the identification of software architecture models and guidelines in order to present a general functional framework for the DT. This article, eventually, analyses a set of possible evolution paths for the DT considering its possible usage as a major enabler for the softwarization process.
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Globalization has facilitated productivity gains and economic growth and for decades. It has helped integrate emerging economies, spread technology, knowledge, culture, and created an interconnected global community. Smart cities depend on a robust and flexible mobile network foundation, and yet, Thailand is leading the way in the ASEAN. Using Thailand as a case study, this paper presents a practical mobile network planning and optimization framework (PMNPO) that’s workable for the fourth-generation up to sixth-generation networks in smart cities, especially in an industrial estate. While theoretical frameworks play a vital role in optimizing network performance, such frameworks may not be practical enough. This study applies a mixed quantitative research method on actual applications (case studies) and qualitative research. The PMNPO is a management function of pseudo-codes. A workable cost-sharing model for mobile networks consists of CAPEX, OPEX, feasibility study, and site value management (mobile network operators). The fair factor (0.2), the payback (5 years), the NPV ($0.5 million), and the IRR (20%) reveal a promising financial prospect. The PMNPO is practical for Thailand, with a mean acceptance rate of 4.83. Therefore, the findings support stakeholders, policymakers, and decision-makers, in setting telecommunication policies. The results can apply to other developing countries or catalyze a similar research type.