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Abstract

In hybrid foraging tasks, observers search visual displays, so called patches, for multiple instances of any of several types of targets with the goal of collecting targets as quickly as possible. Here, targets were photorealistic objects. Younger and older adults collected targets by mouse clicks. They could move to the next patch whenever they decided to do so. The number of targets held in memory varied between 8 and 64 objects, and the number of items (targets and distractors) in the patches varied between 60 and 105 objects. Older adults foraged somewhat less efficiently than younger adults due to a more exploitative search strategy. When target items became depleted in a patch and search slowed down, younger adults acted according to the optimal foraging theory and moved on to the next patch when the instantaneous rate of collection was close to their average rate of collection. Older adults, by contrast, were more likely to stay longer and spend time searching for the last few targets. Within a patch, both younger and older adults tended to collect the same type of target in "runs." This behavior is more efficient than continual switching between target types. Furthermore, after correction for general age-related slowing, RT × set size functions revealed largely preserved attention and memory functions in older age. Hybrid foraging tasks share features with important real-world search tasks. Differences between younger and older observers on this task may therefore help to explain age differences in many complex search tasks of daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).

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... Like in typical visual search tasks as updated in the new Guided Search 6.0 (Wolfe, 2020), memory must play a role in finding target/s defining features and guiding foraging search, especially in hybrid foraging tasks where more than one target must be found and memory may need to invest more resources in the task. Those effects are also consistent during early childhood (Gil-Gómez de Liaño et al., 2018;Ólafsdóttir et al., 2019), and in older ages (Mata et al., 2009Wiegand et al., 2019). ...
... Exhaustive foraging refers to cases where every target must be found before moving to another display or patch (Johánnesson et al., 2017;Kristjánsson et al., 2014;Kristjánsson, Björnsson, et al., 2020;Kristjánsson, Thornton, et al., 2020). Non-exhaustive foraging implies that the forager is free to move to the next display or patch at the forager's choice (Biggs, 2017;Ehinger & Wolfe, 2016;Gil-Gómez de Liaño et al., 2018;Wiegand et al., 2019;Wolfe, 2013;Wolfe et al., 2018). Although no one is better than the other one, we will focus on the nonexhaustive foraging approach since it seems more informative to understand the patch-leaving problem (for exhaustive searches, there is indeed no "patch-leaving problem" since the search is quitted when the very last target is gathered). ...
... However, in in-field observations, Aswani (1998) reported the opposite effect, that is, more residence time in poorer patches; but they also found an inverse correlation between residence times and environment richness. Also, rules can differ from MVT predictions depending on cognitive development, being more liberal for children (showing a more giving-up time rule for younger children, Gil-Gómez de Liaño et al., 2018), and more conservative for older people (spending more time exploiting a given patch than that predicted according to the MVT, see Wiegand et al., 2019), although more research is needed to confirm these predictions. ...
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Visual search (VS) is a fundamental task in daily life widely studied for over half a century. A variant of the classic paradigm—searching one target among distractors—requires the observer to look for several (undetermined) instances of a target (so-called foraging) or several targets that may appear an undefined number of times (recently named as hybrid foraging). In these searches, besides looking for targets, the observer must decide how much time is needed to exploit the area, and when to quit the search to eventually explore new search options. In fact, visual foraging is a very common search task in the real world, probably involving additional cognitive functions than typical VS. It has been widely studied in natural animal environments, for which several mathematical models have been proposed, and just recently applied to humans: Lévy processes, composite and area-restricted search models, marginal value theorem, and Bayesian learning (among others). We conducted a systematic search in the literature to understand those mathematical models and study its applicability in human visual foraging. The review suggests that these models might be the first step, but they seem to be limited to fully comprehend foraging in visual search. There are essential variables involving human visual foraging still to be established and understood. Indeed, a jointly theoretical interpretation based on the different models reviewed could better account for its understanding. In addition, some other relevant variables, such as certain individual differences or time perception might be crucial to understanding visual foraging in humans.
... This mixed evidence is reviewed below. Wiegand et al. (2019) employed a hybrid visual search paradigm (i.e., hybrid in that it combines memory and visual search components), in which participants are required to memorise a set of possible target items, and then perform a visual search to identify these targets. In their design, there could be multiple targets on the screen for a given trial, and participants received points for correctly clicking on the targets (and were penalised for false alarms, which were rare). ...
... However, the qualitative pattern of visual search was very similar between the two groups when this slowing was taken into account. Both age groups worked in "runs" where they tended to identify multiple instances of the same type of target consecutively before switching to another target time, and both groups seemed to switch at similar rates, and showed equivalent impairments for switching (Wiegand et al., 2019). This suggests that top-down contributions to visual search are preserved across age. ...
... Where there were more substantive differences were in the strategic aspects: older adults spent much longer on a screen before proceeding to the next, which can be considered a more exploitative search strategy (Wiegand et al., 2019). This is consistent with other findings, such as that older adults are particularly slow on target-absent trials, indicative of exhaustive search strategies (Hommel et al., 2004;Potter et al., 2012). ...
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Visual search is a psychological function integral to most people’s daily lives. The extent to which visual search efficiency, and in particular the ability to use top-down attention in visual search, changes across the lifespan has been the focus of ongoing research. Here we sought to understand how the ability to frequently and dynamically change the target in a conjunction search task was impacted by ageing. To do this, we compared visual search performance of a group of younger and older adults under conditions in which the target type was determined by a cue and could change on trial-to-trial basis (Intermixed), versus when the target type was fixed for a block of trials (Blocked). While older adults were overall slower at the conjunction visual search task, and both groups were slower in the Intermixed compared with the Blocked Condition, older adults were not disproportionately impacted by the Intermixed relative to the Blocked conditions. These results indicate that the ability to frequently change the target of visual search is preserved in older adults. This conclusion is consistent with an emerging consensus that many aspects of visual search and top-down contributions to it are preserved across the lifespan. It is also consistent with a growing body of work which challenges the neurocognitive theories of aging that predict sweeping deficits in complex top-down components of cognition.
... Other ways include selection of targets with a tablet-PC stylus (Tünnermann, Chelazzi, & Schubö, 2021), selection of items with a screen cursor and mouse clicks (Cain, Vul, Clark, & Mitroff, 2012;Wolfe, 2013) with eye gaze (Jóhannesson et al., 2016;Tagu & Kristjánsson, 2022), with a motion tracker (Thornton, de'Sperati, & Kristjánsson, 2019) or multiple target selection within VR displays (Hills, Kalff, & Wiener, 2013;. Enabling more naturalistic behavior makes the paradigm also interesting for studying age-related changes in attentional functions relevant for real-world performance (see Wiegand et al., 2019;Ólafsdóttir et al., 2021). ...
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The theory of visual attention, “TVA”, is an influential and formal theory of attentional selection. It is widely applied in clinical assessment of attention and fundamental attention research. However, most TVA-based research is based on accuracy data from letter report experiments performed in controlled laboratory environments. While such basic approaches to questions regarding attentional selection are undoubtedly useful, recent technological advances have enabled the use of increasingly sophisticated experimental paradigms involving more realistic scenarios. Notably, these studies have in many cases resulted in different estimates of capacity limits than those found in studies using traditional TVA-based assessment. Here we review recent developments in TVA-based assessment of attention that goes beyond the use of letter report experiments and experiments performed in controlled laboratory environments. We show that TVA can be used with other tasks and new stimuli, that TVA-based parameter estimation can be embedded into complex scenarios, such as games that can be used to investigate particular problems regarding visual attention, and how TVA-based simulations of “visual foraging” can elucidate attentional control in more naturalistic tasks. We also discuss how these developments may inform future advances of TVA.
... First, we investigated potential age differences in the hybrid foraging task with varying target value and prevalence using the same hybrid foraging paradigm as Wolfe et al. (2018). Our previous research with younger and older adults demonstrated that, under conditions with balanced target values and prevalence, older adults are less optimal foragers than younger adults within an MVT framework (Wiegand, Seidel, & Wolfe, 2019). When assessed in terms of points collected per unit of time, older adults tend to leave the current patch later than MVT predicts; when the instantaneous rate of collection has dropped well below the average rate of collection. ...
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The prevalence and reward-value of targets have an influence on visual search. The strength of the effect of an item’s reward-value on attentional selection varies substantially between individuals and is potentially sensitive to aging. We investigated individual and age differences in a hybrid foraging task, in which the prevalence and value of multiple target types was varied. Using optimal foraging theory measures, foraging was more efficient overall in younger than older observers. However, the influence of prevalence and value on target selections was similar across age groups, suggesting that the underlying cognitive mechanisms are preserved in older age. When prevalence was varied but target value was balanced, younger and older observers preferably selected the most frequent target type and were biased to select another instance of the previously selected target type. When value was varied, younger and older observers showed a tendency to select high-value targets, but preferences were more diverse between individuals. When value and prevalence were inversely related, some observers showed particularly strong preferences for high-valued target types, while others showed a preference for high-prevalent, albeit low-value, target types. In younger adults, individual differences in the selection choices correlated with a personality index, suggesting that avoiding selections of low-value targets may be related to reward-seeking behaviour.
... Rather than using an exhaustive design where all target items must be collected, giving participants the ability to leave a patch or a trial when reward levels drop below some threshold may interact in interesting ways with perceived risk. For example, risk of predation may modulate the balance between explorative versus exploitative search strategies (e.g., Cohen et al., 2007;Hills et al., 2015) known to play a role in many different contexts (e.g., Chin et al., 2015;Kane et al., 2017;Wiegand et al., 2019). ...
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Attention is known to play an important role in shaping the behaviour of both human and animal foragers. Here, in three experiments, we built on previous interactive tasks to create an online foraging game for studying divided attention in human participants exposed to the (simulated) risk of predation. Participants used a “sheep” icon to collect items from different target categories randomly distributed across the display. Each trial also contained “wolf” objects, whose movement was inspired by classic studies of multiple object tracking. When participants needed to physically avoid the wolves, foraging patterns changed, with an increased tendency to switch between target categories and a decreased ability to prioritise high reward targets, relative to participants who could safely ignore them. However, when the wolves became dangerous by periodically changing form (briefly having big eyes) instead of by approaching the sheep, foraging patterns were unaffected. Spatial disruption caused by the need to rapidly shift position—rather the cost of reallocating attention—therefore appears to influence foraging in this context. These results thus confirm that participants can efficiently alternate between target selection and tracking moving objects, replicating earlier single-target search findings. Future studies may need to increase the perceived risk or potential costs associated with simulated danger, in order to elicit the extended run behaviour predicted by animal models of foraging, but absent in the current data.
... We recently examined age differences in hybrid search. While there was evidence of general age-related slowing, we demonstrated similar RT × set size functions for younger and older adults: The relative costs of adding distractors to the display and adding targets to the memory set were similar for both age groups , even up to high set sizes (64 items; Wiegand et al., 2019). This suggests no qualitative age differences in processing in the standard task version, where targets from the memory set appear in random order across trials. ...
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Proposes a framework for the conceptualization of a broad range of memory phenomena that integrates research on memory performance in young children, the elderly, and individuals under stress with research on memory performance in normal college students. One basic assumption is that encoding operations vary in their attentional requirements. Operations that drain minimal energy from limited-capacity attentional mechanisms are called automatic. Automatic operations function at a constant level under all circumstances, occur without intention, and do not benefit from practice. Effortful operations, such as rehearsal and elaborative mnemonic activities, require considerable capacity, interfere with other cognitive activities also requiring capacity, are initiated intentionally, and show benefits from practice. A 2nd assumption is that attentional capacity varies both within and among individuals. Depression, high arousal levels, and old age are variables thought to reduce attentional capacity. The conjunction of the 2 assumptions of the framework yields the prediction that the aged and individuals under stress will show a decrease in performance only on tasks requiring effortful processing. Evidence from the literature on development, aging, depression, arousal, and normal memory is presented in support of the framework, and 4 experiments with 301 5–40 yr old Ss are described. (5½ p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Three experiments investigated visual search for singleton feature targets. The critical dimension on which the target differed from the nontargets was either known in advance or unknown—that is, the critical difference varied eitherwithin a dimension oracross dimensions. Previous work (Treisman, 1988) had shown that, while the search reaction time (RT) functions were flat in both conditions, there was an intercept cost for the cross-dimension condition. Experiment 1 examined whether this cost would disappear when responses could be based on the detection ofany (target—nontarget) difference in the display (by requiring a “heterogeneity/homogeneity” decision). The cost remained. This argues that pop-out requires (or involves) knowledge of the particular dimension in which an odd-one-out target differs from the nontargets; furthermore, that knowledge is acquired through the elimination of dimensions not containing a target. In Experiment 2, the subjects had to eliminate (or ignore) one potential source of difference in order to give a positive response (displays could contain a “noncritical” difference requiring a negative response). The result was a comparatively large cost in the within-dimension (positive) condition. This can be taken to indicate that popout as such does not make available information as to the particular feature value in which the target differs from the nontargets. Experiment 3 examined whether search priorities can be biased in accordance with advance knowledge of the likely source of difference. The subjects were found to have a high degree of top-down control over what particular dimension to assign priority of checking to. The implication of the results for models of visual search and selection are discussed.
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The effects of semantic priming on picture and word processing were assessed under conditions in which subjects were required simply to identify stimuli (label pictures or read words) as rapidly as possible. Stimuli were presented in pairs (a prime followed by a target), with half of the pairs containing members of the same semantic category and half containing unrelated concepts. Semantic relatedness was found to facilitate the identification of both pictures (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2), and obtained interactions of semantic relatedness and stimulus quality in both experiments suggested that semantic priming affects the initial encoding of both types of stimuli. In Experiment 3, subjects received pairs of pictures, pairs of words, and mixed pairs composed of a picture and a word or of a word and a picture. Significant priming effects were obtained on mixed as well as unmixed pairs, supporting the assumption that pictures and words access semantic information from a common semantic store. Of primary interest was the significantly greater priming obtained in picture-picture pairs than in word-word or mixed pairs. This suggests that, in addition to priming that is mediated by the semantic system, priming may occur in picture-picture pairs that results from the overlap in visual features common to the pictorial representations of objects from the same semantic category.
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Could you find 1 of your 1,000 Facebook friends in a crowd of 100? Even at a rate of 25 ms per comparison, determining that no friends were in the crowd would take more than 40 min if memory and visual search interacted linearly. In the experiment reported here, observers memorized pictures of 1 to 100 targets and then searched for any of these targets in visual displays of 1 to 16 objects. Response times varied linearly with visual set size but logarithmically with memory set size. Data from memory set sizes of 1 through 16 accurately predicted response times for different observers holding 100 objects in memory. The results would be consistent with a binary coding of visual objects in memory and are relevant to applied searches in which experts look for any of many items of interest (e.g., a radiologist running through a mental checklist of what might be wrong in a car-crash victim or an airport screener looking for any of a list of prohibited items in a carry-on bag).
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A key assumption in the literature on visual attention is that templates, actively maintained in visual working memory (VWM), guide visual attention. An important question therefore involves the nature and capacity of VWM. According to load theories, more than one search template can be active at the same time and capacity is determined by the total load rather than a precise number of templates. By an alternative account only one search template can be active within visual working memory at any given time, while other templates are in an accessory state - but do not affect visual selection. We addressed this question by varying the number of targets and distractors in a visual foraging task for 40 targets among 40 distractors in two ways: 1) Fixed-distractor-number, involving two distractor types while target categories varied from one to four. 2) Fixed-color-number (7), so that if the target types were two, distractors types were five, while if target number increased to three, distractor types were four (etc.). The two accounts make differing predictions. Under the single-template account, we should expect large switch costs as target types increase to two, but switch-costs should not increase much as target types increase beyond two. Load accounts predict an approximately linear increase in switch costs with increased target type number. The results were that switch costs increased roughly linearly in both conditions, in line with load accounts. The results are discussed in light of recent proposals that working memory reflects lingering neural activity at various sites that operate on the stimuli in each case and findings showing neurally silent working memory representations.
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Objectives: To review work on the effects of old age on speed of visual search and of discriminations between signals and choices of responses between 1950 and 2016. Methods: Literature review and Brain Google. Results: Mild existential despondency. Discussion: Models for age changes in discrimination between signals and choices of responses have been based on comparisons of speed. The concept of speed has been used in four distinct ways: as a directly measured task performance index, as a hypothetical functional system performance characteristic, as a factor in psychometric models computing mutual variance in calendar age and as a neurophysiological performance characteristic. Since 1950, these measures have, in turn, determined models for speed of perceptual discriminations. Since the 1990s, advances in neuroimaging have not only transformed the data available, but also the nature of the questions that we ask.
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This article provides a Bayes factor approach to multiway analysis of variance (ANOVA) that allows researchers to state graded evidence for effects or invariances as determined by the data. ANOVA is conceptualized as a hierarchical model where levels are clustered within factors. The development is comprehensive in that it includes Bayes factors for fixed and random effects and for within-subjects, between-subjects, and mixed designs. Different model construction and comparison strategies are discussed, and an example is provided. We show how Bayes factors may be computed with BayesFactor package in R and with the JASP statistical package. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Two experiments were conducted to assess age differences in the selectivity of visual information processing. Selectivity was measured by the amount of interference caused by nontarget letters when subjects detected a target letter in a visual display. In both experiments, young and elderly groups participated in search and nonsearch conditions; in the search condition targets appeared anywhere in the display, whereas in the nonsearch condition targets were confined to the center position of the display. In the first experiment, subjects were assigned to either condition for two sessions of testing, and in the second experiment each subject participated in both conditions. In both experiments nontargets produced larger interference effects for old compared to young adults in the search condition but not in the nonsearch condition. The obtained pattern of age effects could not be explained by age-related reductions in parafoveal acuity. The findings indicate that the magnitude of divided-attention deficit increases with age, whereas focused-attention deficits are unaffected by aging.
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When learning about a single topic in natural reading environments, readers are confronted with multiple sources varying in the type and amount of information. In this situation, readers are free to adaptively respond to the constraints of the environment (e.g., through selection of resources and time allocation for study), but there may be costs of exploring and switching between sources (e.g., disruption of attention, opportunity costs for study). From an ecological perspective, such properties of the environment are expected to influence learning strategies. In the current study, we used a novel reading paradigm to investigate age differences in the effects of information richness (i.e., sentence elaboration) and costs of switching between texts (i.e., time delay) on selection of sources and study time allocation. Consistent with the ecological view, participants progressed from less informative to more informative texts. Furthermore, increased switch cost led to a tendency to allocate more effort to easier materials and to greater persistence in reading, which in turn, led to better memory in both immediate and delayed recall. Older adults showed larger effects of switch cost, such that the age difference in delayed recall was eliminated in the high switch cost condition. Based on an ecological paradigm of reading that affords choice and self-regulation, our study provided evidence for preservation with age in the ability to adapt to changing learning environments so as to improve performance. (PsycINFO Database Record
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This book attempts to resolve the Great Rationality Debate in cognitive science-the debate about how much irrationality to ascribe to human cognition. It shows how the insights of dual-process theory and evolutionary psychology can be combined to explain why humans are sometimes irrational even though they possess remarkably adaptive cognitive machinery. The book argues that to characterize fully differences in rational thinking, we need to replace dual-process theories with tripartite models of cognition. Using a unique individual differences approach, it shows that the traditional second system (System 2) of dual-process theory must be further divided into the reflective mind and the algorithmic mind. Distinguishing them gives a better appreciation of the significant differences in their key functions: the key function of the reflective mind is to detect the need to interrupt autonomous processing and to begin simulation activities, whereas that of the algorithmic mind is to sustain the processing of decoupled secondary representations in cognitive simulation. The book then uses this algorithmic/reflective distinction to develop a taxonomy of cognitive errors made on tasks in the heuristics and biases literature. It presents the empirical data to show that the tendency to make these thinking errors is not highly related to intelligence. Using a tripartite model of cognition, the book shows how, when both are properly defined, rationality is a more encompassing construct than intelligence, and that IQ tests fail to assess individual differences in rational thought. It then goes on to discuss the types of thinking processes that would be measured if rational thinking were to be assessed as IQ has been.
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In "hybrid" search tasks, observers hold multiple possible targets in memory while searching for those targets among distractor items in visual displays. Wolfe (2012) found that, if the target set is held constant over a block of trials, reaction times (RTs) in such tasks were a linear function of the number of items in the visual display and a linear function of the log of the number of items held in memory. However, in such tasks, the targets can become far more familiar than the distractors. Does this "familiarity"- operationalized here as the frequency and recency with which an item has appeared-influence performance in hybrid tasks In Experiment 1, we compared searches where distractors appeared with the same frequency as the targets to searches where all distractors were novel. Distractor familiarity did not have any reliable effect on search. In Experiment 2, most distractors were novel but some critical distractors were as common as the targets while others were 4× more common. Familiar distractors did not produce false alarm errors, though they did slightly increase RTs. In Experiment 3, observers successfully searched for the new, unfamiliar item among distractors that, in many cases, had been seen only once before. We conclude that when the memory set is held constant for many trials, item familiarity alone does not cause observers to mistakenly confuse target with distractors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of the current status of description and explanation of age trends for various forms of memory. Strong evidence suggests that age-related dissociations in memory functions and findings are consistent with the recollection-familiarity distinction and with multiple systems models of memory. This general pattern implicates the importance of examining age-memory relationships in terms of the neural substrates most affected by aging, especially regions of the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe, and their mappings to regions engaged by the task domain and response requirements. At the macro-level, a large portion of the age variance observed in memory performance is attributable to task-general effects of slowing, which add overhead to any speeded measures of responding. At a more micro-level, questions arise regarding the aging of specific cognitive processes and specific neurocognitive mechanisms that reliably account for behavioral data on memory aging.
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In this study, we used a word search puzzle paradigm to investigate age differences in the rate of information gain (RG; i.e., word gain as a function of time) and the cues used to make patch-departure decisions in information foraging. The likelihood of patch departure increased as the profitability of the patch decreased generally. Both younger and older adults persisted past the point of optimality as defined by the marginal value theorem (Charnov, 1976), which assumes perfect knowledge of the foraging ecology. Nevertheless, there was evidence that adults were rational in terms of being sensitive to the change in RG for making the patch-departure decisions. However, given the limitations in cognitive resources and knowledge about the ecology, the estimation of RG may not be accurate. Younger adults were more likely to leave the puzzle as the long-term RG incrementally decreased, whereas older adults were more likely to leave the puzzle as the local RG decreased. However, older adults with better executive control were more likely to adjust their likelihood of patch-departure decisions to the long-term change in RG. Thus, age-dependent reliance on the long-term or local change in RG to make patch-departure decisions might be due to individual differences in executive control. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
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Search is a prerequisite for successful performance in a broad range of tasks ranging from making decisions between consumer goods to memory retrieval. How does aging impact search processes in such disparate situations? Aging is associated with structural and neuromodulatory brain changes that underlie cognitive control processes, which in turn have been proposed as a domain-general mechanism controlling search in external environments as well as memory. We review the aging literature to evaluate the cognitive control hypothesis that suggests that age-related change in cognitive control underlies age differences in both external and internal search. We also consider the limits of the cognitive control hypothesis and propose additional mechanisms such as changes in strategy use and affect that may be necessary to understand how aging affects search. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Article
In hybrid search, observers search for any of several possible targets in a visual display containing distracting items and, perhaps, a target. Wolfe (2012) found that response times (RTs) in such tasks increased linearly with increases in the number of items in the display. However, RT increased linearly with the log of the number of items in the memory set. In earlier work, all items in the memory set were unique instances (e.g., this apple in this pose). Typical real-world tasks involve more broadly defined sets of stimuli (e.g., any "apple" or, perhaps, "fruit"). The present experiments show how sets or categories of targets are handled in joint visual and memory search. In Experiment 1, searching for a digit among letters was not like searching for targets from a 10-item memory set, though searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary alphanumeric characters was like searching for targets from an N-item memory set of arbitrary objects. In Experiment 2, observers searched for any instance of N sets or categories held in memory. This hybrid search was harder than search for specific objects. However, memory search remained logarithmic. Experiment 3 illustrates the interaction of visual guidance and memory search when a subset of visual stimuli are drawn from a target category. Furthermore, we outline a conceptual model, supported by our results, defining the core components that would be necessary to support such categorical hybrid searches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
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Bayes factors have been advocated as superior to pp-values for assessing statistical evidence in data. Despite the advantages of Bayes factors and the drawbacks of pp-values, inference by pp-values is still nearly ubiquitous. One impediment to the adoption of Bayes factors is a lack of practical development, particularly a lack of ready-to-use formulas and algorithms. In this paper, we discuss and expand a set of default Bayes factor tests for ANOVA designs. These tests are based on multivariate generalizations of Cauchy priors on standardized effects, and have the desirable properties of being invariant with respect to linear transformations of measurement units. Moreover, these Bayes factors are computationally convenient, and straightforward sampling algorithms are provided. We cover models with fixed, random, and mixed effects, including random interactions, and do so for within-subject, between-subject, and mixed designs. We extend the discussion to regression models with continuous covariates. We also discuss how these Bayes factors may be applied in nonlinear settings, and show how they are useful in differentiating between the power law and the exponential law of skill acquisition. In sum, the current development makes the computation of Bayes factors straightforward for the vast majority of designs in experimental psychology.
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• This volume centers around the theory, findings and applications of the author's Adult Intelligence Scales (Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale [W-B I] and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS]), but its scope as well as its content has been considerably extended from previous editions. Whatever has been retained from the older editions has been extensively rewritten, and five new chapters have been added. At the same time certain parts have been entirely omitted. The additions include chapters on the Factorial Composition of the W-B I and the WAIS, Changes in Intellectual Ability with Age, Sex Differences in Intelligence, Changes in Intelligence Consequent to Brain Damage and the Use of the W-B I and WAIS in Counseling and Guidance. The reader will find that the specific changes that have been made in the revised Adult Intelligence Scale (now called the WAIS) are amply discussed. I have also devoted some space in this volume to a comparative analysis of the 1939 and 1955 standardizations, and have included many data not previously published. I hope that these additional data on the WAIS which is rapidly replacing the W-B I, will be useful to the clinician as well as the researcher. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved) • This volume centers around the theory, findings and applications of the author's Adult Intelligence Scales (Wechsler Bellevue Intelligence Scale [W-B I] and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale [WAIS]), but its scope as well as its content has been considerably extended from previous editions. Whatever has been retained from the older editions has been extensively rewritten, and five new chapters have been added. At the same time certain parts have been entirely omitted. The additions include chapters on the Factorial Composition of the W-B I and the WAIS, Changes in Intellectual Ability with Age, Sex Differences in Intelligence, Changes in Intelligence Consequent to Brain Damage and the Use of the W-B I and WAIS in Counseling and Guidance. The reader will find that the specific changes that have been made in the revised Adult Intelligence Scale (now called the WAIS) are amply discussed. I have also devoted some space in this volume to a comparative analysis of the 1939 and 1955 standardizations, and have included many data not previously published. I hope that these additional data on the WAIS which is rapidly replacing the W-B I, will be useful to the clinician as well as the researcher. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Suggests that animals probably cannot compute the optimal patch residence time in the same manner that is calculated in optimal foraging models. Instead they may only approximate the optimal solution using a simple, robust rule-of-thumb. Three rules-of-thumb that great tits Parus major foraging in a simple experimental habitat may use are considered: a number expectation, a time expectation, and a giving-up time. Statistical analysis showed that there was a strong tencency for tits to leave the patch only after several successive hops had gone unrewarded. Computer simulation showed that a simple giving-up rule could produce a distribution of patch residence times similar to that observed. An experiment in which the reward schedule was manipulated, successfully altered the patch residence times in accord with predictions made on the basis of a giving-up time rule.-from Author
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The National Adult Reading Test (NART) has promise as an assessment tool for the determination of premorbid intellectual function, but needs to be modified for current use in a North American population and validated against the WAIS-R. A revision based on American and Canadian pronunciation rules was prepared. Sixty-six unimpaired subjects were tested with a revised NART and all subtests of the WAIS-R. Demographic variables were also recorded. Correlations between actual VIQ, PIQ and FSIQ, and predicted IQs on the basis of revised NART score were .83, .40, and .75, respectively (all p < .001). Prediction of IQs was more accurate with equations based on revised NART score than with demographic variable prediction equations developed by Barona, Reynolds, and Chastain (1984).
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Whether men and women are fundamentally different or similar has been debated for more than a century. This review summarizes major theories designed to explain gender differences: evolutionary theories, cognitive social learning theory, sociocultural theory, and expectancy-value theory. The gender similarities hypothesis raises the possibility of theorizing gender similarities. Statistical methods for the analysis of gender differences and similarities are reviewed, including effect sizes, meta-analysis, taxometric analysis, and equivalence testing. Then, relying mainly on evidence from meta-analyses, gender differences are reviewed in cognitive performance (e.g., math performance), personality and social behaviors (e.g., temperament, emotions, aggression, and leadership), and psychological well-being. The evidence on gender differences in variance is summarized. The final sections explore applications of intersectionality and directions for future research. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 65 is January 03, 2014. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/catalog/pubdates.aspx for revised estimates.
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The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
Article
Animals, including humans, engage in many forms of foraging behavior in which resources are collected from the world. This paper examines human foraging in a visual search context. A real-world analog would be berry picking. The selection of individual berries is not the most interesting problem in such a task. Of more interest is when does a forager leave one patch or berry bush for the next one? Marginal Value Theorem (MVT; Charnov, 1976) predicts that observers will leave a patch when the instantaneous yield from that patch drops below the average yield from the entire "field." Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 4 show that MVT gives a good description of human behavior for roughly uniform collections of patches. Experiments 5 and 6 show strong departures from MVT when patch quality varies and when visual information is degraded.
Article
An experiment examined potential age-related differences in priming of pop-out (Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1994, 1996, 2000; McPeek, Maljkovic & Nakayama, 1999), an implicit, memory-based phenomenon that facilitates repeated gaze or attention shifts between visually similar stimuli. Older and younger adults performed a visual search task requiring them to judge the orientation of a color singleton target. Trial-to-trial repetition of target color and/or target position primed attentional selection for both age groups, producing faster and more accurate responses. Age-related increases in the strength of priming by target color appeared to arise from generalized slowing in older observers’, but marginal age-related increases in the strength of priming by target position remained even after transformation to account for generalized slowing.
Article
Reviews data related to age differences in attentional competence, primarily those data that have been published since the previous edition of this handbook (1992), discusses the functional consequences of such differences, and considers the theoretical constructs hypothesized to account for the findings. The authors devote separate sections to research related to selective, divided, switching, and sustained attention. After considering the relevant data, they discuss the consequences of age-related attentional impairments, then conclude with theoretical considerations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Prominent models of attentional control assert a dichotomy between top-down and bottom-up control, with the former determined by current selection goals and the latter determined by physical salience. This theoretical dichotomy, however, fails to explain a growing number of cases in which neither current goals nor physical salience can account for strong selection biases. For example, equally salient stimuli associated with reward can capture attention, even when this contradicts current selection goals. Thus, although 'top-down' sources of bias are sometimes defined as those that are not due to physical salience, this conception conflates distinct--and sometimes contradictory--sources of selection bias. We describe an alternative framework, in which past selection history is integrated with current goals and physical salience to shape an integrated priority map.
Article
Computers and associated technology have become central to modern life. In a society where the population is rapidly ageing, the acceptance and utilisation of developing technologies by an older population is becoming increasingly important. This review highlights similarities and differences between the attitudes and acceptance of technology by older and younger people, leading to the conclusion that similar factors influence both age groups—hence, older people could well be taught to use technology in a similar manner to younger people. While all learners, irrespective of age, should receive sufficient time for training in a positive and supportive environment, this review suggests that due consideration ought to be given to the amount of time allowed for older users to learn new skills and the manner in which learners are treated in a positive and valued manner.
Article
To account for dissociations observed in recognition memory tests, several dual-process models have been proposed that assume that recognition judgments can be based on the recollection of details about previous events or on the assessment of stimulus familiarity. In the current article, these models are examined, along with the methods that have been developed to measure recollection and familiarity. The relevant empirical literature from behavioral, neuropsychological, and neuroimaging studies is then reviewed in order to assess model predictions. Results from a variety of measurement methods, including task-dissociation and process-estimation methods, are found to lead to remarkably consistent conclusions about the nature of recollection and familiarity, particularly when ceiling effects are avoided. For example, recollection is found to be more sensitive than familiarity to response speeding, division of attention, generation, semantic encoding, the effects of aging, and the amnestic effects of benzodiazepines, but it is less sensitive than familiarity to shifts in response criterion, fluency manipulations, forgetting over short retention intervals, and some perceptual manipulations. Moreover, neuropsychological and neuroimaging results indicate that the two processes rely on partially distinct neural substrates and provide support for models that assume that recollection relies on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, whereas familiarity relies on regions surrounding the hippocampus. Double dissociations produced by experimental manipulations at time of test indicate that the two processes are independent at retrieval, and single dissociations produced by study manipulations indicate that they are partially independent during encoding. Recollection is similar but not identical to free recall, whereas familiarity is similar to conceptual implicit memory, but is dissociable from perceptual implicit memory. Finally, the results indicate that recollection reflects a thresholdlike retrieval process that supports novel learning, whereas familiarity reflects a signal-detection process that can support novel learning only under certain conditions. The results verify a number of model predictions and prove useful in resolving several theoretical disagreements.