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Wasabi (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) is a perennial plant, and its rhizome is widely used as a pungent spice. Wasabi rhizome has been reported to have various physiological activities, but the flower has not been studied in depth. The aim of the present study was to isolate compounds from wasabi flowers and clarify their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Three phenylpropanoids, one alkaloid and seven flavonoids were isolated from wasabi flowers. Among them, 2″-O-trans sinapoyl isovitexin was identified as a novel compound. Five compounds inhibited 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, with IC50 values of less than 100 µM. Luteolin isolated in this study was found to inhibit nitric oxide production in macrophage-like J774.1 cells, with an IC50 value of 24.1 ± 4.4 µM. Our results indicate that the phenolic compounds in wasabi flowers are effective ingredients for antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. For these reasons, wasabi flowers are expected to be used effectively as a functional food.
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... However, ten flavonoids (namely, isovitexin, isosaponarin, apigenin, luteolin, isoorientin, 7-O-trans-sinapoylisovitexin, 6"-O- . Using the HPLC method, Kurata et al.  identified luteolin, isorhamnetin-3-glucoside, astragalin, isovitexin, isoorientin, and rutin in the flowers of W. japonica. Moreover, from the leaves of W. japonica cultivated in Japan, isosaponarin [12,20] and isoorientin were isolated . ...
... Therefore, our results were in good agreement with previous investigations on the identification of isosaponarin and ferulic acid in the leaves [11,20], isorhamnetin-3-glucoside and astragalin in the flowers , and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-pcoumaric acid, in the roots  of E. japonicum. To the best of our knowledge, the other phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified for the first time in the investigated species. ...
... Ferulic acid, luteolin, isoorientin, and rutin showed a significant inhibitory activity. Importantly, luteolin (IC 50 = 4.09 ± 0.28 µg/mL) and isoorientin (IC 50 = 6.73 ± 0.45 µg/mL) showed a stronger activity compared to Trolox (IC 50 = 6.48 ± 0.73 µg/mL) . ...
Skin aging is a natural, unavoidable, and complex process caused by oxidative stress. As a consequence, it leads to an increase in the activation of extracellular matrix disruption enzymes and DNA damage. The search for natural sources that inhibit these mechanisms can be a good approach to prevent skin aging. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the composition of flavonoids and phenolic acids in the extracts obtained from the flowers, roots, and leaves of Eutrema japonicum cultivated in Poland. Then, the resultant extracts were subjected to an assessment of antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-hyaluronidase, antibacterial, and cytotoxic properties. It was demonstrated that the extract from the flowers had the highest content of flavonoid glycosides (17.15 mg/g DE). This extract showed the greatest antioxidant, anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, and anti-hyaluronidase activities compared to the other samples. Importantly, the collagenase inhibitory activity of this extract (93.34% ± 0.77%) was better than that of positive control epigallocatechin gallate (88.49% ± 0.45%). An undeniable advantage of this extract was also to possess moderate antibacterial properties and no cytotoxicity towards normal human skin fibroblasts. Our results suggest that extracts from E. japonicum flowers may be considered as a promising antiaging compound for applications in cosmetic formulations.
Propolis is a chemically complex resinous product collected from various plant sources by honeybees that has been used historically a traditional folk medicine in many parts of the world. The main constituents of propolis are beeswax and plant resins. We recently obtained Senegalese propolis, which, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. The purpose of this study was to analyze the composition of Senegalese propolis and evaluate its anti-inflammatory activity. Ten known phenolic compounds with phenanthrene or stilbene skeletons were isolated. Nitric oxide (NO) production assay revealed that Senegalese propolis suppresses lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated production of NO in J774.1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-inflammatory potency of Senegalese propolis was higher than that of other previously reported propolis. Furthermore, the eight compounds isolated from Senegalese propolis showed high anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). These results suggest that Senegalese propolis and its components have potential applications as anti-inflammatory agents.
Luteolin is a major component of many medicinal plants and traditional medicines. The current study aims at testing its protective effect against high-carbohydrate/high-fat (HCHF) diet-induced cardiac dysfunction in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups as follows: control group that received standard rat chow, group received HCHF diet (~ 30% carbohydrate and 42% fat) daily for 16 weeks, and four groups received HCHF diet concurrently with luteolin (10, 25, 50 or 100 mg/kg; 10% w/v suspension in 0.9% NaCl) daily from the first week by oral gavage. Body weight was measured weekly. At the end of the study, histopathological examinations of stained heart sections were carried out. Lipid profile, oxidative stress, and cardiac function biomarkers were measured. Furthermore, neurohumoral mediators and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-18) were assigned. Results showed a significant improvement in cardiac function, tissue integrity, and a decrease in the compensatory neurohumoral mediators by luteolin 50 and 100 mg/kg. In addition, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in collagen deposition, fibrosis percentage, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory cells (macrophages and lymphocytes) infiltration was observed. Tested doses of luteolin decreased lipid peroxidation and elevated the endogenous antioxidant biomarkers (reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase) significantly (P < 0.05). Finally, luteolin decreased TNF-α and IL-18 (P < 0.001) in a dose-dependent manner. It can be concluded that luteolin has a cardioprotective effect against HCHF diet-induced myocardial inflammation through antioxidant anti-inflammatory mechanisms.
The role of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferons, nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pathogenesis of rabies is being actively pursued. Presently, levels of certain immune molecules in pathogenesis of rabies in mice have been investigated. CVS strain of rabies infection resulted in early increase in iNOS, TNF-α, caspase-1, Fas ligand (FasL) and toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) mRNA levels in brain, and nitric oxide levels in serum. The severity of clinical signs and microscopic lesions largely correlated with NO levels. Aminoguanidine (AG; iNOS inhibitor) decreased NO production with delay in development of clinical signs and increase in survival time. Prolonged survival time correlated with reduced viral load evident by real-time PCR, reduced fluorescent signals of rabies antigen in brain and reduced immunohistochemistry signals in neuronal cytoplasm. These parameters suggested that nitric oxide did influence the rabies virus replication. Inhibition of iNOS by AG administration led to decreased expression of TNF-α, caspase-1, FasL and TLR-3 mRNA levels suggesting that increase in NO levels in rabies virus infection possibly contributed to development of disease through inflammation, apoptosis and immune-evasive mechanisms.
Free radicals and other oxidants have gained importance in the field of biology due to their central role in various physiological conditions as well as their implication in a diverse range of diseases. The free radicals, both the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS), are derived from both endogenous sources (mitochondria, peroxisomes, endoplasmic reticulum, phagocytic cells etc.) and exogenous sources (pollution, alcohol, tobacco smoke, heavy metals, transition metals, industrial solvents, pesticides, certain drugs like halothane, paracetamol, and radiation). Free radicals can adversely affect various important classes of biological molecules such as nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, thereby altering the normal redox status leading to increased oxidative stress. The free radicals induced oxidative stress has been reported to be involved in several diseased conditions such as diabetes mellitus, neurodegenerative disorders (Parkinson's disease-PD, Alzheimer's disease-AD and Multiple sclerosis-MS), cardiovascular diseases (atherosclerosis and hypertension), respiratory diseases (asthma), cataract development, rheumatoid arthritis and in various cancers (colorectal, prostate, breast, lung, bladder cancers). This review deals with chemistry, formation and sources, and molecular targets of free radicals and it provides a brief overview on the pathogenesis of various diseased conditions caused by ROS/RNS.
Perilla (Perilla frutescens L.) leaves have shown therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory disorders, allergies, bronchial asthma, and systemic damage due to free radicals. In the present study we analyzed the active constituents in perilla leaves using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and isolated luteolin, a polyphenolic flavonoid. We investigated the anti-inflammatory and antipruritic properties of luteolin. Luteolin inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) from human mast cells (HMC-1) stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate plus calcium ionophore A23187 in a dose-dependent manner. Luteolin also significantly reduced the histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated by compound 48/80, a potent histamine liberator. Furthermore, the administration of luteolin markedly inhibited the scratching behavior and vascular permeability induced by pruritogens, such as compound 48/80 or serotonin, in ICR mice. These results suggested that luteolin has potential as a therapeutic agent against inflammation and itch-related skin diseases.
The use of herbal medicinal products and supplements has increased tremendously over the past three decades with not less than 80% of people worldwide relying on them for some part of primary healthcare. Although therapies involving these agents have shown promising potential with the efficacy of a good number of herbal products clearly established, many of them remain untested and their use are either poorly monitored or not even monitored at all. The consequence of this is an inadequate knowledge of their mode of action, potential adverse reactions, contraindications, and interactions with existing orthodox pharmaceuticals and functional foods to promote both safe and rational use of these agents. Since safety continues to be a major issue with the use of herbal remedies, it becomes imperative, therefore, that relevant regulatory authorities put in place appropriate measures to protect public health by ensuring that all herbal medicines are safe and of suitable quality. This review discusses toxicity-related issues and major safety concerns arising from the use of herbal medicinal products and also highlights some important challenges associated with effective monitoring of their safety.
Spilanthes acmella Murr. (Compositae) has been used as a traditional medicine for toothache, rheumatism and fever. Its extracts had been shown to exhibit vasorelaxant and antioxidant activities. Herein, its antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were evaluated. Agar dilution method assays against 27 strains of microorganisms were performed. Results showed that fractions from the chloroform and methanol extracts inhibited the growth of many tested organisms, e.g. Corynebacterium diphtheriae NCTC 10356 with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 64-256 mg/mL and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with MIC of 128-256 mg/mL. The tested fractions all exhibited antioxidant properties in both DPPH and SOD assays. Potent radical scavenging activity was observed in the DPPH assay. No cytotoxic effects of the extracts against KB and HuCCA-1 cell lines were evident. Bioassay-guided isolation resulted in a diverse group of bioactive compounds such as phenolics [vanillic acid (2), trans-ferulic acid (5) and trans-isoferulic acid (6)], coumarin (scopoletin, 4) and triterpenoids like 3-acetylaleuritolic acid (1), b-sitostenone (3), stigmasterol and stigmasteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides, in addition to a mixture of stigmasteryl-and b-sitosteryl-3-O-b-D-glucopyranosides. The compounds 1-6 represent bioactive metabolites of S. acmella Murr. that were never previously reported. Our findings demonstrate for the first time the potential benefits of this medicinal plant as a rich source of high therapeutic value compounds for medicines, cosmetics, supplements and as a health food.
Fixed macrophages within tissues and the mononu- clear phagocytes cabled to sites of inflammation are premier scavenger cells able to eliminate most infectious threats by a wide array of toxic effector molecules and hydrolytic enzymes. Paradoxically, a variety of proto- zoa, bacteria, fungi, and viruses preferentially infect and replicate within these same scavenger cells. Sites of replication include not only the phagobysosome, but also the cytoplasm of infected cells. In many instances, these microorganisms can also be killed by the infected mac- rophage host cell. Complex signals generated through the cytokine network of local and systemic immune reactions induce a state of activation in the infected cell which kills the intracellular parasite (presumably without killing the infected macrophage). Effector molecules that such ac- tivated macrophages use to kill and eliminate these pathogens have always been a mystery. In this review, we examine the experimental approaches that identified nitrogen oxides derived from L-arginine as essential components in the microbicidab activity of cytokine- activated macrophages, and discuss the fascinating, but complex interactions of host cells, cytokines, and infec- tious pathogens that regulate production and action of toxic nitrogen oxides. Details of the biochemical pathways for nitrogen oxidation of L-arginine and its regulation within mam- mabian cells are now emerging (1-3). Although not fully characterized, it is known that nitric oxide (NO) is a short-lived intermediate product of this novel pathway
Oxidative stress is the major etiopathological factor in adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity. Relatively low amounts of endogenous antioxidant makes the heart vulnerable to oxidative stress-induced damage. Chronic oral administration of garlic has been reported to enhance the endogenous antioxidants of heart. We hypothesized that garlic-induced enhanced cardiac antioxidants may offer protection against acute adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Rats were either administered freshly prepared garlic homogenate (250 and 500 mg/kg daily, orally, for 30 days) or probucol (cumulative dose, 120 mg/kg body weight divided in 12, i.p. over a period of 30 days) or double distilled water (vehicle), followed by a single dose of adriamycin (30 mg/kg i.p.). In the adriamycin group, increased oxidative stress was evidenced by a significant increase in myocardial TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and decrease in myocardial SOD (superoxide dismutase), catalase and GPx (glutathione peroxidase) activity. Histopathological studies showed focal as well as subendocardial myocytolysis with infiltration of macrophages, lymphocytes and edema. Immunocytochemistry showed marked expression of TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor-alpha) in the myocardium. Increase in myocardial TBARS and decrease in endogenous antioxidants by adriamycin was prevented significantly in the garlic treated rat hearts, which was comparable to the probucol-treated group. Histopathological evidence of protection was also evident in both garlic-treated and probucol-treated groups. Probucol, 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of garlic reduced adriamycin induced TNF-alpha expression in the myocardium and was associated with reduced myocyte injury.
It is concluded that chronic garlic administration prevents acute adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity and decreases myocardial TNF-alpha expression.
Twelve flavonoids, including seven flavones, four flavonols and one flavanone, were isolated from methanolic extract of the herbal drug 'Crataegi folium cum flore' (hawthorn leaves and flowers) by a combination of CC (over Amberlite XAD-7 and Sephadex LH-20) and preparative HPLC. Their structures, including that of the novel flavonol 8-methoxykaempferol 3-O-(6"-malonyl-beta-glucopyranoside), were elucidated by homo- and heteronuclear NMR and electrospray/MS. The 1H- and 13C-NMR of all compounds, including rotameric pairs of five flavone C-glycosides, were assigned. The presence and relative proportion of each rotamer was shown by various NMR experiments, including two-dimensional nuclear Overhauser and exchange spectroscopy, to depend on solvent, linkage position and structure of the C-glycosyl substituent.
To investigate the compounds present in wasabi leaves (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) that inhibit the adipocyte differentiation, activity-guided fractionation was performed on these leaves. 5-Hydroxyferulic acid methyl ester (1: 5-HFA ester), one of the phenylpropanoids, was isolated from wasabi leaves as a compound that inhibits the adipocyte differentiation. Compound 1 suppressed the intracellular lipid accumulation of 3T3-L1 cells without significant cytotoxicity. Gene expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed the mRNA expression of 2 master regulators of adipocyte differentiation, PPARγ and C/EBPα. Furthermore, 1 downregulated the expression of adipogenesis-related genes, GLUT4, LPL, SREBP-1c, ACC, and FAS. Protein expression analysis revealed that 1 suppressed PPARγ protein expression. Moreover, to investigate the relationship between the structure and activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation, we synthesized 12 kinds of phenylpropanoid analog. Comparison of the activity among 1 and its analogs suggested that the compound containing the substructure that possess a common functional group at the ortho position such as a catechol group exhibits the activity of inhibiting the adipocyte differentiation. Taken together, our findings suggest that 1 from wasabi leaves inhibits adipocyte differentiation via the downregulation of PPARγ.
Fruit processing industries contribute more than 0.5 billion tonnes of waste worldwide. The global availability of this feedstock and its untapped potential has encouraged researchers to perform detailed studies on value-addition potential of fruit processing waste (FPW). Compared to general food or other biomass derived waste, FPW are found to be selective and concentrated in nature. The peels, pomace and seed fractions of FPW could potentially be a good feedstock for recovery of bioactive compounds such as pectin, lipids, flavonoids, dietary fibres etc. A novel bio-refinery approach would aim to produce a wider range of valuable chemicals from FPW. The wastes from majority of the extraction processes may further be used as renewable sources for production of biofuels. The literature on value addition to fruit derived waste is diverse. This paper presents a review of fruit waste derived bioactives. The financial challenges encountered in existing methods are also discussed.
Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts.
The methanol extracts of wasabi leaves (Wasabia japonica Matsumura) from Shizuoka, Japan have been found to inhibit the production of nitric oxide (NO) in an in vitro assay using murine macrophage J774.1 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Fourteen known compounds, including five phenylpropanoid glycosides (1 -4 and 9), three phenylpropanoids (5 -7), a phenolic glycoside (8), two flavonoid glycosides (10 and 11), two terpenoids (12 and 13) and a carotenoid (14), were isolated from wasabi leaves collected from Shizuoka and their structures elucidated using spectroscopic methods. This study therefore represents the first reported isolation of compounds 8, 9, 12, 13 and 14 from wasabi leaves. 5-Hydroxy ferulic acid methyl ester (5) and all-trans-lutein (14) were found to inhibit NO production in J774.1 cells with IC50 values of 22 and 25 μM, respectively. The results therefore suggested that these compounds are the active components of wasabi leaves.
Abstract The health and wellness of human beings is largely dictated by the consumption of nutritious foods. Various studies have linked foods as helpful in combating a number of degenerative diseases, as such lot of research on functional attributes linked directly to the health benefits of various plant and animal foods have been witnessed in recent years. Although vast number of naturally occurring health-enhancing substances are of plant origin, there are a number of physiologically-active components in animal products as well that deserve attention for their potential role in optimal health. Consumption of biologically active ingredients in fruits and vegetables has been linked to help combat diseases like cancer, CVDs, obesity and GI tract disorders. Lot of research is need to substantiate the potential health benefits of those foods for which the diet-health relationships are not sufficiently validated and create a strong scientific knowledge base for proper application of naturally present foods in combating various diseases and disorders.
A novel flavonol glycoside, mp 182-184°, named asiaticalin (I) was isolated from the fresh trophophyll of Osmunda asiatica OHWI (Osmundaceae). The structure of I was established as being kaempferol 3-β-alloside. This is the first found alloside of flavonoid, 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum of I was discussed in comparison with those of kaempferol (II), and astragalin (X) isolated from the same plant.
Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis), including its leaves, is a rich source of bioactive compounds, as polyphenols. This study investigated the in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential of aqueous extract of P. edulis leaves and identification of phenolic compounds by HPLC-PDA and ESI-MS/MS analysis. Male Wistar rats were divided in two groups (n = 6 per group). Control group received water and experimental group received P. edulis leaf extract (Tea) (1.1 mg dry leaves mL(-1)), both ad libitum. Total phenols and antioxidant potential (DPPH, FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assay) were determined in aqueous extract. Antioxidant status was analyzed by FRAP, ORAC in serum and by SOD, GR and GPx activities, GSH contents and TBARS in liver, brain and kidneys. Gut microbiota profile and short-chain fatty acids were determined in feces. Vitexin, isovitexin and isoorientin were analyzed in the extract of P. edulis leaves. The animals which received tea showed a decrease of 20% of TBARS in liver. GSH contents in kidneys increased 40% relative to control group. The GR activity was 2 times higher and GPx 3.2 times lower in liver than control group. Animals from TEA group showed a 45% reduction on SOD activities in liver and brain. Serum antioxidant potential was not altered. Tea intake also promoted colonic bacteria growth, although there was a decreasing in the SCFA production. Therefore, P. edulis leaf extract could be an option to enhance the supply of antioxidants and to safeguard against oxidative stress.
Myrosinase of horse-radish root cells is a cytosolic enzyme which has a marked tendency to bind to membranes. In preparations of isolated vacuoles which contain ca. 30% of the total extractable myrosinase, all of the enzyme is accessible for exogenous sinigrin. This myrosinase cannot react, however, with the vacuolar glucosinolates unless the vacuoles are disrupted. A revised model of the subcellular organisation of the glucosinolate-myrosinase system is presented.
Two classes of indole-phosphine oxazoline ligands have been prepared from readily available starting materials in good overall yields. These modular ligands include an indole skeleton with either a phosphine moiety or an oxazoline ring at the 2- or 3-position, respectively. The utility of these ligands was demonstrated in a catalytic asymmetric reaction: the palladium-catalyzed allylic alkylation of 1,3-diphenyl-2-propenyl acetate with dimethyl malonate was performed with enantioselectivities as high as 98%.
From the fresh leaves of Wasabia japonica Matsum., five novel flavonoids 1–5, isovitexin derivatives having a trans-sinapoyl group at C-7, were isolated together with five known flavonoids, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of their spectroscopic data (NMR, MS, UV, and IR) and chemical evidence.
Wasabi (Wasabi japonica) and horseradish (Cholearia armoracia) are used as spices of daily foodstuffs. Allylisothiocyanate (AIT) is a potent component in both plants and occurs by grating them. It is well known that AIT shows inhibitory effect on the growth of food poisoning bacteria and fungi. In this work, several functional properties of roots and leaves from wasabi and horseradish were examined in vitro. Each sample showed peroxidase activity. They also exhibited antioxidative and superoxide scavenging potency. Antimutagenic activity was observed toward 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline [MeIQx], a well-known mutagen/carcinogen in broiled fish and meat. They also decreased His+ revertant colonies of 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX) in the Ames test, a strong mutagen and carcinogen in chlorine disinfected tap water. Isolation of antimutagenic components in wasabi root was done. Three components including (-)-(R)-7-methylsulfinylheptyl isothiocyanate were identified. These data show that wasabi and horseradish might be potent functional foods for keeping human health.
This review is an updated and expanded version of the three prior reviews that were published in this journal in 1997, 2003, and 2007. In the case of all approved therapeutic agents, the time frame has been extended to cover the 30 years from January 1, 1981, to December 31, 2010, for all diseases worldwide, and from 1950 (earliest so far identified) to December 2010 for all approved antitumor drugs worldwide. We have continued to utilize our secondary subdivision of a "natural product mimic" or "NM" to join the original primary divisions and have added a new designation, "natural product botanical" or "NB", to cover those botanical "defined mixtures" that have now been recognized as drug entities by the FDA and similar organizations. From the data presented, the utility of natural products as sources of novel structures, but not necessarily the final drug entity, is still alive and well. Thus, in the area of cancer, over the time frame from around the 1940s to date, of the 175 small molecules, 131, or 74.8%, are other than "S" (synthetic), with 85, or 48.6%, actually being either natural products or directly derived therefrom. In other areas, the influence of natural product structures is quite marked, with, as expected from prior information, the anti-infective area being dependent on natural products and their structures. Although combinatorial chemistry techniques have succeeded as methods of optimizing structures and have been used very successfully in the optimization of many recently approved agents, we are able to identify only one de novo combinatorial compound approved as a drug in this 30-year time frame. We wish to draw the attention of readers to the rapidly evolving recognition that a significant number of natural product drugs/leads are actually produced by microbes and/or microbial interactions with the "host from whence it was isolated", and therefore we consider that this area of natural product research should be expanded significantly.
Cruciferae plants, banana and coriander each showed antibacterial activity. The highest activity among the food-stuffs tested was found in the stems of wasabi. An ethereal extract from wasabi stems had potent antibacterial activity and we isolated the active compound from the extract. Instrumental analysis identified the compound as 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate. Some homologues of 6-methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate were also active against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.
Photoisomerization presents the only direct method for contra-thermodynamic E-Z isomerization of olefins. Synthetic applications of this method have been limited by its reversible nature, which leads to a photostationary-state mixture of both isomers. For the first time, a highly efficient one-pot preparation-isolation of solid ionic liquid Z-cinnamic acids by photoisomerization in acetonitrile solution of ionic liquid E-cinnamic acids is described.
Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) catalyzes the production of nitric oxide (NO), a short-lived radical gas with physiological or pathophysiological roles in nearly every organ system. The inducible NO synthase (iNOS) is a high-output isoform compared to the two constitutive NOSs. The iNOS from murine macrophages tightly binds calmodulin as a subunit, and its activity is not dependent on exogenous calmodulin or elevated calcium. This iNOS is induced at the transcriptional level by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma. The promoter region of the murine iNOS gene contains at least 24 oligonucleotide motifs corresponding to elements involved in the binding of transcription factors in the promoters of other cytokine-inducible genes. Nuclear factor NF-kappa B/c-rel, interacting with cycloheximide-sensitive protein(s) and binding to the NF-kappa Bd site in the iNOS promoter, controls the induction of iNOS by LPS. However, iNOS is also regulated posttranscriptionally. Complex regulation of iNOS at multiple levels may reflect the dual role of iNOS in host defense and autotoxicity.
Each tea catechin was reacted with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and the reaction mixture was subjected to NMR analysis. The antioxidation mechanism of (+)-catechin [(+)-C] is considered to be due to the change of the B-ring to an o-quinone structure at first because of the appearance of two carbonyl signals. This is substantiated by trapping the compound as an adduct of a 1,2-phenylenediamine to an o-quinone. (-)-Epicatechin [(-)-EC] was also confirmed to give a similar result, but in the case of (-)-epigallocatechin [(-)-EGC] and ethyl gallate (EG) no carbonyl signals were observed. The antioxidation mechanisms of (-)-EGC and EG are different from those of (+)-C and (-)-EC. This may be one of the reasons for the differences of the antioxidative activities between the two types of catechins.
6-Methylsulfinylhexyl isothiocyanate (MS-ITC) was isolated from wasabi (Wasabia japonica, Japanese domestic horseradish) as a potential inhibitor of human platelet aggregation in vitro through our extensive screening of vegetables and fruits. In the course of an another screening for the induction of glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in RL34 cells, MS-ITC was inadvertently isolated from wasabi as a potential inducer of GST. MS-ITC administered to rats or mice also showed both activities in vivo. As a result from elucidation of the platelet aggregation inhibition and the GST induction mechanisms of MS-ITC, the isothiocyanate moiety of MS-ITC plays an important role for antiplatelet and anticancer activities because of its high reactivity with sulfhydryl (RSH) groups in biomolecules (GSH, cysteine residue in a certain protein, etc.).
Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in pathological conditions associated with chronic increases in hemodynamic load. Although hypertrophy can initially be viewed as a salutary response, ultimately, it often enters a phase of pathological remodeling that may lead to heart failure and premature death. A prevailing concept predicts that changes in gene expression in hypertrophied cardiac myocytes and cardiac myocyte loss by apoptosis contribute to the transition from hypertrophy to failure. In recent years, nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as an important regulator of cardiac remodeling. Specifically, NO has been recognized as a potent antihypertrophic and proapoptotic mediator in cultured cardiac myocytes. Studies in genetically engineered mice have extended these findings to the in vivo situation. It appears that low levels and transient release of NO by endothelial NO synthase exert beneficial effects on the remodeling process by reducing cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, cavity dilation and mortality. By contrast, high levels and sustained production of NO by inducible NO synthase seem to be maladaptive by reducing ventricular contractile function, and increasing cardiac myocyte apoptosis, and mortality. In the future, these novel insights into the role of NO in cardiac remodeling should allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat cardiac remodeling and failure.
Interleukin (IL)-8 plays a central role in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses in the inflammatory bowel disease. The proinflammatory cytokine-mediated production of IL-8 requires activation of various kinases, which leads to the IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB activation. In this study, we investigated the role of luteolin, a major flavonoid of Lonicera japonica, on TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production in human colonic epithelial cells. HT29 cells were stimulated with TNF-alpha in the presence or absence of luteolin. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) activation and IkappaB degradation were determined by Western blot analysis. NF-kappaB activation was assessed by the electrophoretic motility shift assay (EMSA). Luteolin suppressed TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production in dose-dependent manner. In addition, luteolin inhibited TNF-alpha-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and extracellular-regulated kinases (ERK), IkappaB degradation, and NF-kappaB activation. These results suggest that luteolin has the inhibitory effects on TNF-alpha-induced IL-8 production in the intestinal epithelial cells through blockade in the phosphorylation of MAPKs, following IkappaB degradation and NF-kappaB activation.
6-(Methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) is an active ingredient of Wasabi (Wasabia japonica (Miq.) Matsumura), which is a very popular pungent spice in Japan. To clarify the cellular signaling mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory action of 6-MITC, we investigated the effects of 6-MITC on the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated murine macrophage RAW264 cells. 6-MITC showed a dose-dependent inhibition of LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO), iNOS mRNA and protein. LPS caused the c-Jun phosphorylation (a major component of AP-1) and IkappaB-alpha degradation. 6-MITC suppressed LPS-induced c-Jun phosphorylation, but did not inhibit IkappaB-alpha degradation. Cellular signaling analysis using MAPK-(U0126 for MEK1/2, SB203580 for p38 kinase and SP600125 for JNK) and Jak2-specific (AG490) inhibitors demonstrated that LPS stimulated iNOS expression via activating Jak2-mediated JNK, but not ERK and p38, pathway. 6-MITC suppressed iNOS expression through the inhibition of Jak2-mediated JNK signaling cascade with the attendant to AP-1 activation. In addition, the structure-activity study revealed that the inhibitory potency of methylsulfinyl isothiocyanates (MITCs) depended on the methyl chain length. These findings provide the molecular basis for the first time that 6-MITC is an effective agent to attenuate iNOS production.
Many hydroxyflavone derivatives have been found in nature and shown to have many biological functions. Because their function is changed by the position and number of hydroxyl group, their structural identification is a fundamental and necessary step for understanding their functions. In the present study, the complete 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments were presented for 6 hydroxyflavones, and NMR data of additional 14 hydroxyflavone derivatives were compared with those of the 6 hydroxyflavones. In addition, the partially incorrect NMR data of two of the dihydroxyflavones whose NMR data were previously reported were corrected.
From the MeOH extract of the leaves of W. japonica, seven phenylpropanoid gentiobiosides (1-7) were isolated along with eight known phenylpropanoids (8-15). Structures of 1-7 were determined based on spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The activity of compounds 1-15 to scavenge superoxide anion radicals was investigated using an electron spin resonance (ESR) method.
G R Augusto
M R De Lima
G.R., Augusto, F., Maróstica Jr, M.R., and de Lima, Z.R. (2013).