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Phonological schematicity in multilingual constructions: A diasystematic perspective on lexical form

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This article discusses the role of intra-word phonological schematicity in multilingual con-structicons from a Diasystematic Construction Grammar perspective. It argues that, in particular with communities that use two or more typologically similar and/or closely related languages, many lexical elements (e.g. cognates) exhibit regular sound correspondences that can be analysed as consisting of different types of phonological schemas. In this view, there is a division of labour between schematic constructions that specify the words' referential meaning and others that specify their belonging to one of the 'languages', with language-specificity defined as a pragmatic property of constructions. The focus is on the question whether generalizations at this level of schematicity and abstraction are cognitively real and what can count as evidence for their existence from a usage-based perspective.
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Phonological schematicity in multilingual constructions: a diasystematic perspective on
lexical form

Abstract

 !"#$
%$
&""&''
"#$
''(
')($  
"*+
'
&'"
Keywords
  !, ,  , 
,
1 The importance of patterns
-$".'
'$ $    $ $    $
'&"/0$'
0$$$'&$'"
. + '  
0$$"''&$
'*&)($""
1
"20$*0"
0$$"#$'+$
+$+
0"$
$'+
00
'+"3
$$'*'
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2 A constructionist view on patterns: schematicity
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     " !' :;;:, /0 :;;E@ :DFH:D=, 
:;1<@AFHF1"''$
  & $   (:;;E )( '(
:;1<)( "   :;1= 4 6" B  $  
&*' &!$$'
$&!'1==??      
& (:;;1M &!".$&
' '  7'L-& # &$!'
:;;A@1AAH1E:'"9a:;;E@D<H?<$&
"30(
4:;1?@ 1<?H1F<6   "#' &!$  & 
&$'
'&$*
$$
&":;;D@=E"
'
'"$"""$
''&'
     &$     '  
"&" )(
:;11$'
? 9:;1D@:DEH:D=$&$0'&
!'"#$$
''"
A
&"#$
$'*0&
&$7
T3 &4456Z6! &46:;1<'@:;AH:;F"3
&0
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)(,90G8:;;F@
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   ,  :;1<'@ :1;H:1D$      '0
070:;;E"
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3 Diasystematic CxG: a brief introduction to key concepts
 &! &!' &!
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" :;1E," :;1:,:;1<',:;1A,:;1="
 &! &!0
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$
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)('    
009G:;1E@
?"$'+$''
$'00
:;1<@1DFH1D=$')(
$'$'0
'$'0"-
$"
# &!$'L*&'
0"')(
02:;;=@D;EHD;=$""
$&'
"!$$$'"$
)('+*
:;1E@<AH<F"$0
&$'
&$""
0"!L:;;E@::HD<
 3@$  
"C &!$$)('
'&&
0:;1<@1?;"
-$'@C$
"0&
$$0
E
'"F# &!$$
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&&#
& &4NOPQ]fggXS6$
'&'$'$)('
":;1E@?1H?:$??H?A"
''&&'
"  C  $      '       *
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')!"$)'(
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$'0
$)("
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4 Lexical diaconstructions: phonological schematicity and phonological language
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 &!$'
"-  $  
$'&"
I1"2$$'
&  &" -     $ &  &' 
"-&&4NOPQ6#&
&4NOPQ]fggXS6"1;
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m6!&"
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""  " 
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E":;1<'@::?H::E@
E " 4j63/2
4Z4j6Txl
m$jyZ  6
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m63/2
4Z4l
m6Txl
m$jyZ ! 6
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1D
$$'"$
$'&
   @   0$
3/2'&0&`_hzf_zO
+&$
/'+')("11
…-[ɑi̯]V{ɑi̯,iː}-…
CGerman
…-[iː]V{ɑi̯, }-…
CDanish
[f-V{ɑi ̯, }-n]
‘ne, delicate’
… … … …
[fɑi̯n]
‘ne, delicate’
CGerman
[fiːn]
‘ne, delicate’
CDanish
PLM PLMSLD
Figure 2.#'&&0
#+$''
0'/3/2&
&,"
I?$'C:"1:
5 Constructionhood and cognitive reality of phonological schemas
    
$$* &!"#
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0('$''
',9:;;<"
H@H'*
"M$
'&"
6 Conclusion
70$'&'
1A B*'
$')($""&
'       &    " $ #  9a
:;;E@D
$$L&'"
1F -:;1=$$'
'$'*
''0"0
"#$$00&
'G:;1F@F;HF1$
"
1E
''$''$+'
#'"9
&$""   c -     
$ &!$"#$
 &!'&$
'  "
$+
&"#$'
".
&
$$''
 & ". 
&$
'/3/2'&
"C
  $ '  
0'*$$
"
Acknowledgements
#0d-
'"-$
$"
References
-'$•" 1===" ' " !' 2 / 1F"
!'@/$!'"
9'$-G3e$":;1<"@.(
0"#9$dG0$ G3e$GM'$-
"$12(3"
3"/G:F$:D=H:?F"9@!"
1=
9a$dŽ":;;E"*"2+4
 -/E"-%3@9L"
9$9L":;;<""(E;$:=;HD11"
90$9G8$d":;;F"#"#$"$
("""$:"$"D@5
$1A=H:<;" '@ '3"
9$ " :;1D"   !"# $ G $
!"$ 67   $:DDH:?:"B&@B&
3"
9$ "G$":;1E" "-
"#9$ "G$"$121
    5    -
/:<$?HDA"-@9L"
9L$!":;1D"2 !"#$G$
!"$ 67   $:??H:FD"B&@B&
3"
9$d"G!'$-7":;11"/@
+L"(EF$??HED"
9'$d":;1;"(32 '@ '3"
9'$d/":;1D"'&"#$
G$!"$67$<=HA="B&@
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!'$-7":;;A"126?2B&
@B&3"
!'$-7":;11" '"1
(::$1D1H1?D"
!'$-7":;1="+21"33"
23@33"
!L$C•":;;E"'"2B&@B&3"
$2":;11"
&",<?$D1HE;"
$7"1=?A"@=2="3'
-:A"4""@6-'3"
'$" :;1<"     " # '$
G $ dG C'$  "$ 133
  /"   2 :E:$ 1AFH:1A" 9@  !
2"
$2":;1<"1 +27'@7
'3"
$2 G $ " :;1F" 7   "# $
d"$+""2<?
$?FHF<".@!2,-3
-"
$ " :;1:"2 @   
"#9‘$G!'$ "$;
'21D$:<1H:?F"-@9L"
$":;1<" "!'"
#•$-" G2‡$ 9 "$ 6    /
 1?<$1DFH1?:"-@9L"
$":;1<'"3 !"1
,A$:;:H:D1"
$":;1A"8C$+0"0
 e 0+" # 0$ " G $
/2  G  $    G .'$   "$ AB  5?3
'3.8?E$:=DHD;=".@9"
$":;1E"!@90'
 !"#9$ "G$"$1
:1
215 
-/:<$DFHF;"-@9L"
$":;1="2’“900
00@-e"7C@%?'=<$:FH
?;"
$  G $ ! "" :;1D" 67 
2B&@B&3"
/0$M.":;;E"152=2B&@B&
3"
/$d G /$ 3" :;;F" M” ” ”" R&  00  0
00"#7$7'G/$-2"$42A
$1=HE="/@"
2$•":;;="(2 '@ '3"
3$-+ G 3e$ " :;1<"     " 0 
0("# 9$dG0$ 
 G3e$ G M'$- "$ 1  
2( 3" 3 " / G
:F$:1=H:DE"9@!"
30$C":;1?" =  2+
      -  / 1F"-@
9L"
M''$d7"1==D"8";=2--'@2#
"
$dB":;1F"'@"-49+1
'E$1<<1"
L$d":;1="M"#G/-"$
622&'01?$D:=HDA<"9@22
"
$ !":;1<"   "#
9$dG0$ G3e$GM'$-"$1
 2(3 "3
"/G:F$:;1H:1E"9@!"
$2":;;D"12="0
2 '@3"
$7+' ":;;E"+A*A*"#9$-&
G$!'"$1/"
21=<$:DH<A"9@2!"
$3"1=EA"8/1;"B&@90"
T$d":;1A"
"4:@:;$?E;H?=D"
.$  "  1=A<" (    2  ,   2 D  "  /@
2"
[$-&" :;1F" 2 !c (
.D1$D?"
::
... De acordo com o modelo da GCxD, desenvolvido em Höder (2012;2014a, b;2018;2019), o contato linguístico está diretamente relacionado aos fenômenos estruturantes e regulares que formam as línguas em variadas situações de uso. Assim, o tratamento das diferentes formas de contato torna-se fundamental para o entendimento da interação cognitiva estabelecida entre os sistemas linguísticos no curso da formação da gramática multilíngue, que, entre outras coisas, caracteriza o multilinguismo a partir das funcionalidades (socio)pragmáticas de suas construções. ...
... I believe Diasystemic Construction Grammar, as proposed by researchers like Höder (2012Höder ( , 2014Höder ( , 2018Höder ( , 2019, is a suitable framework to deal with this extreme form of integration of two languages. There's quite likely something like a multi-lingual constructicon that's being put into place by teenagers in Flanders and the Netherlands, with several English-language items included in it. . ...
Article
Full-text available
Bert Cappelle is associate professor in English linguistics at the University of Lille. He is the author of several articles dealing with linguistic phenomena analyzed in the light of usage-based cognitive Construction Grammar. He defends the idea that a speaker’s grammar is constructed gradually. Dr Cappelle has contributed to the study of variation in a socio-constructionist perspective. The concept of allostruction, proposed by him, has been a pillar for the development of research that follows this perspective. We formulated ten questions for the scientist that can assist in the debate, in Brazil, of works related to Construction Grammar.
... Diasystematic Construction Grammar (DCxG; Höder 2012Höder , 2014ab, 2018Höder , 2019) is a usagebased Construction Grammar approach to language contact situations, including a wide range of types and degrees of individual as well as collective multilingualism. While the development of DCxG focused mainly on phenomena that are related to contact-induced language change (e.g. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Recent years have seen an increasing interest in applying Construction Grammar to additional language (AL) acquisition as well as in constructionist approaches to language contact and multilingualism, in particular Diasystematic Construction Grammar (DCxG; Höder 2018). This paper combines both perspectives by proposing a usage-based constructionist model of AL acquisition as emerging multilingualism. In line with earlier work on DCxG, we assume that multilingual speakers store and process all of their languages in terms of constructions that are organized into one common constructicon. From that perspective, AL learning amounts to an extension and reorganization of the constructicon, resulting not only in the gradual entrenchment of new constructions that represent (a learner variety of) the AL, but also in modifications of previously acquired constructions and the links between them. The model is illustrated by examples from different kinds of AL acquisition scenarios and also discussed in relation to current key concepts within non-constructionist research in the field of AL acquisition.
... Ungerer (2007) talks about process-related iconicity where the phonological form of a linguistic item mirrors a particular word-formation process. Therefore, the degree of iconicity exhibited by lexical elements, or morphemes such as suffixes, can be used to trace regular sound correspondences or morphophonological schemas (Höder 2019). A schema is an example of motivational diagrammatic iconicity in the language (Van Langendonck 2007, 400). ...
Article
This research aims to encourage a discussion of how evaluative morphemes conform to the principles of iconicity and Construction Grammar through the examination of English Adj+ie/y nominalisations (e.g. brownie, softie). Our analysis of the Adj+ie/y paradigm investigates conceptual processes that employ these evaluative morphological forms. We propose a Bidirectional Conceptualisation Model (BCM) to demonstrate a templatic correlation between iconic morphological components and evaluative connotations, by means of which the suffix -ie/y is employed to instantiate a specific iconic value of the [[x-]A ie/y]N construction. The BCM incorporates the Diminution: Pejoration ↔ Endearment scale, which accounts for the semantic duality of appreciative and depreciative values realised by the morphological concept of DIMINUTION. The results of the study support the idea that superficially different functions realised by one and the same morphological form are related through interaction of Idealised Cognitive Models.
Thesis
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Little research has been done on the way in which bilingual children acquire their first languages. This process – during which children acquire two languages simultaneously from birth – is known as bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA). Similarly, there is little research on the different language phenomena, such as code-switching, that can be observed when children acquire two closely related languages at once. Code-switching has not yet been investigated in a study involving Afrikaans-Dutch participants. Consequently, this study aimed to address this gap. To describe the code-switching in the speech of the group mentioned above, novel language data of eight preschool children between the ages of 2;3 and 6;4 who are raised bilingually in Afrikaans and Dutch in South Africa were collected and analysed. The parent-report method was employed to collect the data, and the data collection period lasted approximately two months. In aggregate, 123 utterances containing code-switching were analysed for the study. The study was undertaken within Steffen Höder’s (2014a) Diasystematic Construction Grammar (DCxG) because it provides a framework within which multilingual constructions can be analysed. DCxG is based on the general principles of traditional construction grammar (CxG) approaches but is specifically suited for analysing constructions that emerge from various language contact situations. As pointed out by Höder (2014a:138) and corroborated by Boas and Höder (2018:37) and Colleman (2018:146), language contact phenomena have only attracted the attention of a small number of construction grammarians in recent years. In fact, it also has a largely marginal status in prominent grammatical approaches. However, because of the ubiquitous nature of language contact phenomena (Boas & Höder, 2018:5), it cannot be excluded from grammatical approaches. From this perspective, DCxG was conceptualised. The main idea purported by DCxG is that a multilingual speaker’s grammar consists of two different types of constructions, namely idioconstructions and diaconstructions (Höder, 2012, 2014, 2018). These constructions respectively refer to the constructions that are unique to a specific language (idioconstructions) and the constructions that capture the overlap or similarities of the different languages (diaconstructions). Thus, a diaconstruction is a form-meaning mapping representing the mutual influence of the two (or more) languages on each other. Firstly, diaconstructions are formed by a cognitive process in which a multilingual speaker makes an interlingual identification between two (or more) corresponding idioconstructions. After that, the similarities in form and/or meaning of the respective idioconstructions are abstracted to a schematic construction through a process of generalisation. Finally, the diaconstruction is entrenched in the multilingual speaker’s grammar. The current study determined that the code-switching of the preschool, Afrikaans-Dutch participants mainly consists of intra-sentential code-switches (i.e., shifts that happen from one language or language variety to another in the middle of a word, phrase, or sentence) that take place on the (morfo-)lexical level. It was established that code-switching on the lexical level affects nouns more than any other part of speech, while verbs were affected the second most of all word classes. Furthermore, it was indicated that most of the constructions containing code-switching are structured in Afrikaans, with Afrikaans lexical items frequently being replaced with those from Dutch. Because of the overlap between Afrikaans and Dutch, these lexical items were mostly non-identical cognates (i.e., words that are etymologically related in Afrikaans and Dutch, but that differ graphemically) followed by the other two types of cognates that were identified, viz. non-cognates and false friends.
Article
In recent years, construction-based approaches to morphology have gained ground in the research community. This framework is characterized by the assumption that the mental lexicon is extensive and richly structured, containing not only a large number of stored words but also a wide variety of generalizations in the form of schemas. This review explores two construction-based theories, Construction Morphology and Relational Morphology. After outlining the basic theoretical architecture, the article presents an array of recent applications of a construction-based approach to morphological phenomena in various languages. In addition, it offers reflections on challenges and opportunities for further research. The review highlights those aspects of the theory that have proved particularly helpful in accommodating both the regularities and the quirks that are typical of the grammar of words. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Linguistics, Volume 8 is January 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
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When communicating across closely related languages or varieties (e.g. in interdialectal communication or in regions such as Mainland Scandinavia), speakers have to learn how to decode words that show partial phonological differences from the equivalents in their L1. Although contact situations like these are rather common, interlingual decoding has scarcely been addressed in the CxG literature. As a contribution to this field of research, the paper discusses how (a particular stage in) emerging receptive multilingualism can be modelled from a CxG perspective. Specifically, it deals with the idea that repeated interlingual decoding generates partially schematic cross-linguistic constructions mirroring the speaker’s knowledge about sound correspondences, as suggested by Diasystematic Construction Grammar ( Höder 2019 ).
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How is grammatical knowledge encoded in mental representations? While traditional accounts view grammar as a system of rules, construction-based theories assume declarative schemas – lexical entries with variables – as the locus of grammatical knowledge. Such schemas are evidently needed to encode productive patterns. However, morphological knowledge also includes relations between existing words, in patterns that cannot necessarily be productively extended. This contribution argues that such patterns can be encoded in two ways: by a ‘mother’ schema dominating the listed instances, or by ‘sister’ links between the instances themselves. Sister links are the more parsimonious option, since they do not require a superordinate layer in the constructional network. However, mother schemas can encode properties that sister links cannot. This paper aims to work out how the division of labour between sister links and mother schemas may be organized.
Chapter
The grammatical literature on Dutch generally distinguishes two “passive” alternatives to the active double object construction, one of which, the so-called krijgen-passive is a fairly recent addition to the grammar, the earliest reported examples dating from around 1900. The present paper addresses the early and subsequent history of this construction from a diachronic constructionist perspective. The first part of the paper uses data from the 1900-1935 volumes of the Dutch periodical De Gids to reconstruct the lexical and semantic range of the krijgen-passive in its very first decades of life, in order to investigate which (semantic and/or morphological) subclasses of ditransitive verbs played a pathbreaking role in the development of this new construction from other krijgen + participle constructions, i.e. in the constructionalization of the krijgen-passive. The second part of the paper looks into post-constructionalization semantic change, i.e. into the subsequent expansion of the newly emerged construction towards more sub-classes of ditransitive verbs, on the basis of data from the diachronic CONDIV-corpus (1950s to 1990s). Contra recent non-constructionist proposals, it will be argued that the krijgen-passive is an argument structure construction in its own right, with a semantic dynamics of its own, and that the apparently random constraints on its present-day distribution are less puzzling when viewed against the background of the construction’s genesis and subsequent semantic expansion.