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Abstract

Challenges for Navigation in the Arctic – the presentation for NAVSUP Conference (The Role of Navigation in support of Human Activity at Sea). Parts of the presentation: 1. Arctic Sea surveys; 2. Update of sea charts and Nautical publications 3. Monitoring tides and currents for navigation; 4. Extending the operating range and coverage of navigation systems; 5. Summary.
THE ROLE OF NAVIGATION IN SUPPORT OF HUMAN ACTIVITY AT SEA
POLISH NAVAL ACADEMY
Czesław Dyrcz
CHALLENGES FOR NAVIGATION IN THE ARCTIC
Gdynia 2018
1. Introduction
2. Arctic Sea surveys
3. Update of sea charts and nautical publications
4. Tides monitoring and distribution of ocean currents
5. Extending the operating range and coverage of navigation systems
6. Prevention of navigational accidents
7. Summary
AGENDA
Source: NORDREGIO and IMO.
INTRODUCTION
Source: NOAA. Chart nr 00080.
INTRODUCTION
Inne wyzwania
ARCTIC NAVIGATION CHALLENGES
Arctic Sea surveys
Update of sea charts and
nautical publications
Tides Monitoring and
distribution of ocean
currents Extending the operating
range and coverage of
navigation systems
Prevention of navigational
accidents
Other challenges
Climate change Global
warming
INTRODUCTION
1. ARCTIC SEA SURVEYS
Source: NOAA.
1. ARCTIC SEA SURVEYS
1. Most Arctic waters charted were surveyed with imprecise
technology, dating back to the 1800s, before the region was part
of the United States. Most of the shoreline along Alaska’s
northern and western coasts has not been mapped since 1960.
As a result, confidence in the region’s nautical charts is low (Nov.
2018).
2. At present, less than 10% of Arctic waters are surveyed to
modern standards. In addition, the mariner must be aware of
the horizontal datum used for the chart. GPS positions can only
be plotted directly on NAD 83 (equivalent to WGS 84) charts. For
charts with other datums, the appropriate correction must be
applied (2018).
1. ARCTIC SEA SURVEYS
3. Some Arctic charts do not have a reference datum and therefore
no available corrections. In such cases, alternative sources of
positional information should be used such as radar and visual
lines of position when possible. It is always recommended that
more than one means be used to fix a position (2018).
4. One percent of the Alaskan shoreline is updated annually using
aerial and satellite imagery, compared to five percent elsewhere
in the United States (2018).
5. Approximately 10% of Canada's Arctic waters are adequately
surveyed, with 1% surveyed to modern standards (Jun. 2017).
1. ARCTIC SEA SURVEYS
6. NOAA began acquiring hydrographic data to support these
emerging Arctic priorities in 2010 with a hydrographic survey of
the Bering Strait and Port Clarence, Alaska.
7. In 2012, NOAA conducted a 1,500 nautical mile reconnaissance
survey, from Dutch Harbor, Alaska, to the Canadian border,
checking historic data against current depth readings. That
reconnaissance informs priorities for surveys in 2013 and
beyond.
8. The Office of Coast Survey updates hydrographic priorities
annually.
1. ARCTIC SEA SURVEYS
9. Approximately 32% of the Arctic marine corridors are adequately
surveyed, with an additional 3% of them surveyed to modern
standards (Jun. 2018).
10. A marine corridor is an area where there exists a measurable
amount of diverse marine transportation in support of
navigation activities and economic development such as
community resupply, mining, oil & gas, tourism and passage.
11. Canada's Arctic covers more than 4.4 million square kilometres
and contains more than 36,000 islands! About 47 per cent is
underwater with intricate coastlines characterised by inlets,
channels, fjords and bays (Jun. 2018).
1. ARCTIC SEA SURVEYS
12. Of the 568,000 square nautical miles (SNM) in the U.S. Arctic
Exclusive Economic Zone, less than half is what NOAA considers
navigationally significant. Surveying over a quarter of a million
SNM would take decades, so NOAA has designated 38,000 SNM
as survey priority areas in the Arctic. Estimates range up to 25
years for surveying those priority areas, if resources remain at
their current level (2018).
13. The Arctic region especially needs the gravity data necessary for
a modern vertical reference system, so NOAAs National
Geodetic Survey is collecting airborne gravity data in Alaska.
National Geodetic Survey also manages a network of GPS
receivers that monitor three-dimension land movement over
time (2018).
Source: NOAA.
2. UPDATE OF SEA CHARTS AND NAUTICAL PUBLICATIONS
1. Modern U.S. navigational charts are a compilation of the best
data available. Nevertheless, many of the soundings on the
charts are from as early as the 1800s. NOAA is now working to
update outdated Arctic nautical charts to meet modern needs
(2018).
2. In 2011, NOAA issued an Arctic Nautical Charting Plan after
consultations with maritime interests and the public, as well as
with other federal, state, and local governments. NOAA updated
the plan in 2013, outlining the creation of 14 new charts to
complement the existing chart coverage.
2. UPDATE OF SEA CHARTS AND NAUTICAL PUBLICATIONS
3. New nautical chart for the Arctic - Bering Strait. Chart 16190
(Bering Strait North) incorporates precise depth measurements
acquired recently by NOAA Ship Fairweather hydrographic
surveys (2018).
4. Mariners must use up-to-date nautical charts and nautical
publications to plan each voyage.
Source:
NOAA.
Source: NOAA.
3. MONITORING TIDES AND CURRENTS FOR NAVIGATION
1. NOAA's Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and
Services (CO-OPS) operates 10 long-term National Water Level
Observation Network (NWLON) tide stations in the Arctic region
of Alaska and 16 others throughout the rest of the state.
2. There are 27 identified gaps in water level observation coverage
in Alaska, and 19 of those are located within the Arctic region.
The gaps encompass most of the Arctic.
3. Long-term plans include establishing new NWLON stations to
simultaneously provide measurements of local sea level change
and land movement from the same position.
3. MONITORING TIDES AND CURRENTS FOR NAVIGATION
4. In many Arctic locations, tide and current predictions have never
been calculated. For many other locations, tide and current
predictions have not been measured since the early 1950s when
only a few days of data were collected.
5. Accurate predictions require at least 30 days of continuous data
collection.
6. Sea currents are chaotic and not well predictable if satellite
images are not available.
4. EXTENDING THE OPERATING RANGE AND COVERAGE
OF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
Source: Jensen A., Sicard J-P, Challenges for Positioning and Navigation in the Arctic, Oct. 2010. Plots generated with Leica Geo Office software.
Skyplots of GPS satellite constalation
for Copenhagen (56ºN)
Skyplots of GPS satellite constalation
for Longyearbyen (78ºN)
4. EXTENDING THE OPERATING RANGE AND COVERAGE
OF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
1. Low EGNOS coverage due to the poor visibility of geostationary
(GEO) satellites.
2. New satellite constellations in low-Earth or highly elliptic orbits
were seen as a promising solution.
3. The changing GNSS environment in the Arctic (Galileo provides
good service overall in both navigation and SAR, and that, in
combination with GPS and GLONASS, it would offer excellent
service).
4. GPS satellites are not impervious to ionospheric activity
(implementation of multi-channel L-band frequencies in satellite
navigation systems).
4. EXTENDING THE OPERATING RANGE AND COVERAGE
OF NAVIGATION SYSTEMS
5. A potential solution to the problem of poor visibility of GEO
satellites will be planning to launch by the company Space
Norway HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit) satellites in 2022, which
would be provide broadband access to the Arctic region
(a solution for communications and navigation challenges).
6. Medium Earth orbit augmentation satellite constellations could
also be implemented to improve the accuracy of GPS in the
Arctic.
5. PREVENTION OF NAVIGATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Northern Sea Route Transit
in years 2011-2017
Source: NSR Administration.
Bering Strait Transit in years
2011-2017
Source: USCG.
Vessel traffic density in Arctic Sea
(2014)
Source: Ocean Conservancy (2017). Navigating the North: An Assessment of the
Environmental Risks of Arctic Vessel Traffic. Anchorage, AK.
5. PREVENTION OF NAVIGATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Accidents in the Arctic in years
2006-2017
Source: Loyd’s List Intelligence Casualty Statistics. Data Analysies & Graphic Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty.
5. PREVENTION OF NAVIGATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Source: Loyd’s List Intelligence Casualty Statistics. Data Analysies & Graphic Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty.
5. PREVENTION OF NAVIGATIONAL ACCIDENTS
Source: Canadian Ice Service.
Source: North American Ice Service.
Source: Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute. Russia.
Source: National Snow and Ice Data Center. NASA.
SUMMARY
1. At present, less than 10% of Arctic waters are surveyed to modern
standards.
2. Approximately 32% of the Arctic marine corridors are adequately
surveyed, with an additional 3% of them surveyed to modern
standards (Jun. 2018).
3. The Arctic region especially needs the gravity data necessary for a
modern vertical reference system.
4. Modern U.S. navigational charts are a compilation of the best data
available. Nevertheless, many of the soundings on the charts are from
as early as the 1800s.
SUMMARY
5. In many Arctic locations, tide and current predictions have never been
calculated. For many other locations, tide and current predictions have
not been measured since the early 1950s when only a few days of data
were collected.
6. New satellite constellations in low-Earth or highly elliptic orbits were
seen as a promising solution.
7. GPS satellites are not impervious to ionospheric activity
(implementation of multi-channel L-band frequencies in satellite
navigation systems).
8. As vessel traffic and energy exploration continues to increase in the
Arctic, so does the likelihood of oil spills and other incidents.
Source: own study.
SUMMARY
Source: The Arctic Institute Center for Circumpolar Security Studies.
Climate change Global warming
We have too
many challenges
for navigation in
the Arctic!
Photo: Krick McNeil.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION
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