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There are many strategies and models that attempt to measure the impacts and losses from environmental crises. However, there remains a conceptual and methodological bias as assessments provide estimates of tangible and quantifiable indicators, whilst impact to intangible resources that are not easily quantifiable remain a significant oversight in disaster studies more specifically, and sustainability research more broadly. In this paper we use in-depth longitudinal qualitative data to theoretically and empirically demonstrate how intangible resources shape people's experience of so-called "natural" disasters. Building on this, we critically unpack how intangible resources facilitate household disaster recovery. We focus on home-an intangible resource-in order to explore these issues. The case study in Puerto Rico shows that the social characteristics of home are challenged, transformed, and/or exacerbated in different ways, and at different times, in post-disaster contexts. Our longitudinal approach reveals how people's feelings of belonging and attachment, alienation and detachment from home, fluctuate over time. In this way, the paper sheds light on how intangible resources are experienced temporally and spatially. The paper also reveals that the performance of actors such as the State and Non-governmental organisations significantly shape how intangible resources such as home are transformed, and households' agency to maintain and recover such intangibles in post-disaster contexts. The analysis directly challenges the skewed and reductive hierarchies of what counts as a disaster loss. This is an innately political endeavour because it aims to develop strategic decision-making, from preparedness to recovery, that is sustainable for affected populations. Introduction:
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... Especially where socio-economic vulnerability already exists, which is the case of the communities located in all cited regions of Brazil, the effects are even more severe due to the inability to respond immediately (Maikhuri et al., 2017). In addition to affecting the marketing activities of destinations (Silva Junior et al., 2018), the marginal condition of communities, for example, is not usually the priority of emergency government policies (Belchior, Braga, & Themudo, 2017;Sou & Webber, 2019). ...
... Due to the occurrence of environmental disasters, local populations may be in a situation of vulnerability and many times are not the priority of emergency public policies (Belchior et al., 2017;Sou & Webber, 2019). Bearing in mind that the sense of collectiveness can be applied to the need to be at the service of groups (Triandis, 2001), the collective trait of individuals can induce them to participate more actively in favor of the reconstitution of those communities. ...
... It is also believed that the political motivation behind the activism orientation may be another determining factor for this decision, in addition to the identification of individuals with the environment (Schmitt et al., 2019), a quality that is supported by ecotourism. In the case of destinations that have undergone environmental disasters, some intangible issues, such as the marginalization of local communities, are not usually the priority of government policies (Belchior et al., 2017;Sou & Webber, 2019). As such, since environmental activism is an essentially political act (Tam, 2020), individuals oriented towards this behavior can be motivated by filling a governmental gap. ...
This study investigated how utilitarian reference group influence, socially responsible consumption, activism orientation and collectivism affect the intention to visit ecotourism destinations that have suffered environmental disasters. Quantitative research was carried out, with a sample of 397 individuals analyzed through Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). The results indicated that the potential visitors of this segment do not have their choices determined by the evaluations and opinions of their closest groups, but rather the ones with whom they identify themselves with. Still, the reference groups are important contributors to the in-dividuals' responsible consumption, but the latter, contradictorily, does not predict the intention to visit ecotourism destinations, which seems to be more of a hedonistic than a utilitarian attitude. Moreover, collec-tivism was perceived as a cultural dimension instead of an individual personality trait, which was not enough for the conception of a potential demand. The study's key finding is in the identification of politically and socially engaged individuals as the main potential visitors of locations which have faced environmental disasters.
... To fill this gap, this article asks, 'How does the experience of "home" change over time in the context of ageing in place?' Drawing on literature discussed below, we conceptualise home as not spatially bounded but involving the interrelationship between the dwelling and its surrounding material, social, and relational environment. We furthermore demonstrate that a home is not fixed but is actively 'made' and can become 'unmade' (Baxter and Brickell, 2014;Sou and Webber, 2019;Visser, 2019). ...
... In other words, the participants experienced their homes not as bounded, but in relation to the wider environment. Because the experience of home in later life has not previously been examined with longitudinal qualitative data and because longitudinal data illustrate change over time (Sou and Webber, 2019;Vogl et al., 2018), we decided to focus this article on the dynamic nature of home as it relates to ageing place. ...
‘Ageing in place’ is a key component of UK policy, aimed at supporting older people to remain living in their own homes and communities for as long as possible. Although wide-ranging, the scholarly literature in this field has not sufficiently examined the interconnections between ageing in place and the changing experience of ‘home’ over time. This article addresses this gap in a novel way by bringing together qualitative secondary analysis of longitudinal data with critical literature on ‘home’ and Mason’s cutting-edge concept of ‘affinities’ to understand the multi-dimensionality of home in relation to ageing in place. The article makes significant methodological, empirical, and theoretical contributions to the field of scholarship on home, by demonstrating how homes are made and unmade over time. Discussions of home emerged organically in the longitudinal data that focused on people’s travel and transport use, allowing our qualitative secondary analysis approach to look anew at how experiences of home are dynamically shaped by people’s potent connections inside and outside the dwelling. Presenting an empirical analysis of four case studies, the article suggests that future discussions in the field of ageing in place should pay closer attention to the factors that shape experiences of the un/making of home over time, such as how deteriorating physical and mental health can shape how people experience their dwelling and neighbourhood as well as their relationships across these settings.
... Research suggests that disasters which require large-scale reconstruction may cause market swings that localise price hikes of commodities until supply overtakes demand (Sou & Webber, 2019). For instance, following the Nepalese earthquake in 2015, the availability of materials for house reconstruction was undermined by post-disaster market processes (Twigg et al, 2017). ...
... These activities allowed households to recover agency to control domestic spaces, which was largely undermined by uncertain external societal conditions, particularly public service provision. Routine household activities also enable households to recover a sense of homeliness, comfort and familiarity, supporting research on the restoration of intangibles such as home as overlooked, yet important, elements of recovery (Sou & Webber, 2019). ...
Research on household disaster recovery has principally applied quantitative methods to explain, in a
correlative way, the speeds at which households recover. Yet there are limited explanatory models of
household recovery. This study adopts a qualitative, longitudinal methodology to develop a model of
how and why household recovery pathways and speeds are heterogenous. Data was collected over five
field visits to Puerto Rico during the first year after Hurricane Maria in 2017. Households mobilise their
agency to leverage their assets and recovery priorities to mitigate and/or adapt to four major societal conditions
(disaster support; public services; markets; employment and public financial assistance). These
societal conditions and household characteristics act as enablers and barriers, which vary over time,
and interact to shape households’ capacity to recover. The paper also proposes a new definition of disaster
recovery, which reflects households’ pursuit of recovery needs that do not directly adapt to, reduce or
avoid the impacts from disasters.
... For the initial six weeks after the hurricane, households' access to consumables depleted rapidly for three reasons. Puerto Rico's lack of food reserves, the island's import dependency on the US, and the federal government's focus on importing disaster aid (Sou and Webber 2019). Thus, the Puerto Rican populationincluding many families in Ingeniobecame highly reliant on relief aid. ...
This paper challenges resilience literature, which often strips grassroots actors of their political agency and reduces their resilient actions to no more than adapting, mitigating and recovering from an exogenous hazard. It does so by applying an everyday resistance framework to unpack Puerto Ricans’ responses to the impacts of hurricane Maria, which devastated the Caribbean Island in 2017. This methodological approach contextualises acts of resilience within the colonial relations that characterise the United States‐Puerto Rico relationship. I demonstrate that people’s acts of resilience signify acts of resistance to pursue self‐determination and relinquish their dependency on the US for their everyday lives and disaster recovery. Second, I demonstrate how resistance is enacted by women in the domestic space, which challenges masculinist and patriarchal notions of resistance. Third, I suggest that exploring resilience “from below”, exposes how state‐centric conceptualisations of resilience do not fit neatly with how disaster‐affected people define and intuitively enact resilience.
The long, open‐ended period of recovery from a disaster event is the phase of a disaster that the interdisciplinary field of disaster studies struggles to understand. In the process of rebuilding, places do not simply reset – they transform, often in ways that confound any reduction of disaster risk, instead making people and settings more vulnerable to future hazard events. Reducing disaster risk is regarded as a global priority, but policies intended to reduce disaster risk have been largely ineffective. This obduracy represents a grand challenge in disaster studies. Here, I propose that the correlated trends of runaway economic costs of disaster events, growing social inequity, environmental degradation, and resistance to policy intervention in disaster settings are hallmark indicators of a system trap – a dynamic in which self‐reinforcing feedbacks drive a system toward an undesirable and seemingly inescapable state, with negative consequences that tend to amplify each other over time. I offer that these trends in disaster settings are the collective expression of an especially powerful and distinct kind of system trap, which here I term the "disaster trap" – a new theoretical concept to help explain and address runaway disaster risk. I suggest that disaster traps are likely strongest in tourism‐dominated coastal settings with high exposure to tropical cyclones and colonial histories of racial capitalism, which I explore with an empirical illustration from Antigua & Barbuda. Formalising a linkage between gilded and safe‐development traps matters because their effects likely compound each other nonlinearly, such that disaster risk only increases and disaster risk reduction becomes increasingly difficult to achieve. Addressing traps requires understanding them as dynamic systems, described as fundamentally and completely as possible – their components, mechanisms, drivers, and structure – in order to reveal when and where interventions might be most effective at reducing disaster risk.
In this paper, we further develop the notion of the ‘sensory home’. We reveal how gustatory, olfactory and sonic experiences shape where and when one feels ‘at home’. We draw on a qualitative, longitudinal methodology to explore how low-income Puerto Ricans experienced domestic tastescapes, smellscapes and soundscapes during the first 12 months after Hurricane Maria in 2017. We first show how the sensory home is made with familiar and routine sensory experiences, and unmade by intrusive and unfamiliar tastes, smells and sounds. Second, the sensory home is temporally dynamic as it is constituted by changing processes taking place on multiple scales and by multiple actors – particularly the state and neighbourhood. Thus, un/making the sensory home is inherently political as it is tied to state-citizen power relations – our third contribution. Finally, in disasters people asymmetrically recover not just economically or materially, but as we show, sensorially.
Scholarship prompted by 40 years of mass repatriations has highlighted that repatriations and returns are shaped by social navigation and renegotiation of ‘home’. This article argues that the original experience of displacement itself, and the interconnected social rupture or continuity, moderates this negotiation and has consequences for social distinction, class reproduction, and political emplacement as refugees return. Specifically, the article considers the diverse social implications of both refugee camp education and wartime militarization, and the mediation of their social consequences by the specificities of histories of initial displacement. We do this by exploring the first 10 years of socio-political struggles of men born in Southern Sudan in the 1980s who lived in Kakuma Refugee Camp (Kenya) in the 1990s and who returned to Southern Sudan after the 2005 peace agreement. The article contrasts experiences of those who were born in Greater Gogrial and Greater Bor as a way to take account of different histories of displacement.
The April/May 2015 Nepal earthquakes and aftershocks had catastrophic impacts on rural households living in biophysical extremes. Recoveries from natural hazards that become disasters have tangible and intangible short- and long-term dynamics, which require linked quantitative and qualitative methods to understand. With these premises in mind, we randomly selected 400 households in two accessible and two inaccessible settlements across two of the highest impacted districts to assess variation in household and settlement recoveries through tangible impacts to infrastructure and livelihood and intangible impacts to place attachment and mental well-being. We conducted household surveys, in-depth interviews, and focus groups over two tenweek intervals at 9 months and 1.5 years after the earthquakes and returned at 2.5 years to share and contextualize results. Previously, we used non-metric multidimensional scaling ordination to illustrate associations among recovery indicators, demographics, and adaptive capacity domains composed of multiple variables. Results indicated that socio-economic status, hazard exposure, livelihood, and displacement influenced recovery outcomes the most. Here, we triangulate and broaden those findings with 797 surveys, 40 interviews, eight focus groups, and eight research return workshops to illustrate the tangible and intangible dynamics of shortterm recoveries through three interconnected and multi-faceted thematic sections: 1) inequality; 2) hazards, livelihood, and displacement; and 3) place, uncertainty, and mental well-being. Our contributions include: 1) providing a linked quantitative and qualitative dataset with a random sample collected at two short-term post-disaster time intervals; 2) illustrating how inequalities shape tangible and intangible recovery dynamics; and 3) documenting linkages between recovery and nascent transformations.
Hurricane Maria was the largest disaster in Puerto Rico's history, affecting Puerto Rican communities throughout the United States. We conducted focus groups using a grounded theory approach with adults displaced from Puerto Rico to a northeastern community 12 (n = 5) and 17 months (n = 7) postdisaster. Key informant interviews were also conducted with nine community advocates working with displaced hurricane survivors. Emerging themes reflect narrative and social identity processes following collective trauma. Findings emphasize the need for timely and long-term disaster responses that build on community strengths without leaving communities to cope on their own. We discuss how incorporating group storytelling in postdisaster research is a culturally sensitive practice that can promote resiliency among survivors.
Home comfort is posited here as the state of relaxation and wellbeing that results from companionship and control to manage the home as desired. To date, studies of comfort have been dominated by building and natural scientists, laboratory settings and technical approaches, which understand comfort in physical, and primarily thermal, terms. Yet, the extensive research on the meaning and making of home by sociologists, human geographers, historians, anthropologists and philosophers highlights that there is much more to inhabitants’ expectations of the home than ensuring physiological ‘needs’ such as warmth. The home is imbued with emotional, social and cultural meaning, and is significant to individuals’ wellbeing in terms of it being (idealized as) a place of rest, family, continuity, control and security. For the first time, this paper brings together home and housing scholarship to conceptualize the findings of a qualitative study on the meanings of home comfort. In doing so, it offers a broad empirically and conceptually informed framework of home comfort and challenges the existing constrained notions and practices for the provision of comfort.
This article unpacks the relationship between risk perceptions and responses in cities of the global south. It first challenges the assumption that people are irrational and/or lack the ability to comprehend risk when they do not prioritize risk reduction. Second, it argues that the nature of risk perceptions has less direct influence on responses than previous research suggests. A social constructivist approach is applied to explore how individuals process risk and to what extent these perceptions shape preparedness activities. Results are based on ethnographic research in Cochabamba city in Bolivia, where everyday climatic hazards are linked to slow-onset and small-scale impacts. Findings first suggest that people comprehend risk in sophisticated ways. Then through exploration of self-build housing and the adoption of an anthropocentric conceptualization of the house, the article shows that people with high- and low-risk perceptions equally prepare for the impacts of climatic hazards. This is because people prioritize the transformation and consolidation of social, cultural and economic processes which are not directly related to risk reduction when designing and constructing self-built houses. However, disaster risk reduction is automatically mainstreamed into housing because the design and construction features which people associate with risk reduction represent local architectural norms that are associated with ‘good practice’.
Disasters result in devastating human, economic, and environmental effects. The paper highlights women’s active participation in community-based disaster recovery efforts drawing from the results of the ‘Rebuilding Lives Post-disaster: Innovative Community Practices for Sustainable Development’ by an international research partnership. Two case studies are presented from Pakistan and the USA to demonstrate how women contribute to building resilience and promoting sustainable development in diverse post-disaster contexts. The policy and practice implications are relevant for discussions regarding the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals and framework.
This paper examines how and if the post-disaster distribution of housing assistance in two cities of Bam, in Iran, and Bhuj, in India, fulfilled the broad aim of enabling the stricken population to achieve housing recovery. Drawing on interviews with stricken households and officials as well as document review, the paper provides an account of the housing assistance distribution policies in these cities as they were formed, evolved, interpreted, and implemented as well as the ways they were experienced by disaster-stricken people. The paper investigates who did not receive assistance, who did not recover (yet) despite receiving assistance, and – in contrast to these groups – who recovered/accumulated new assets during the recovery process. While in both cities public policies of assistance distribution expanded the capacity of the majority of the stricken people to recover, they failed to provide a timely and appropriate support for the recovery of lower income groups, tenants, and squatters, in line with their needs and priorities.
This paper focuses on the US Billion-dollar Weather/Climate Disaster report by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Climatic Data Center. The current methodology for the production of this loss dataset is described, highlighting its strengths and limitations including sources of uncertainty and bias. The Insurance Services Office/Property Claims Service, the US Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Flood Insurance Program and the US Department of Agriculture’s crop insurance program are key sources of quantified disaster loss data, among others. The methodology uses a factor approach to convert from insured losses to total direct losses, one potential limitation. An increasing trend in annual aggregate losses is shown to be primarily attributable to a statistically significant increasing trend of about 5 % per year in the frequency of billion-dollar disasters. So the question arises of how such trend estimates are affected by uncertainties and biases in the billion-dollar disaster data. The net effect of all biases appears to be an underestimation of average loss. In particular, it is shown that the factor approach can result in a considerable underestimation of average loss of roughly 10–15 %. Because this bias is systematic, any trends in losses from tropical cyclones appear to be robust to variations in insurance participation rates. Any attribution of the marked increasing trends in crop losses is complicated by a major expansion of the federally subsidized crop insurance program, as a consequence encompassing more marginal land. Recommendations concerning how the current methodology can be improved to increase the quality of the billion-dollar disaster dataset include refining the factor approach to more realistically take into account spatial and temporal variations in insurance participation rates.
This paper presents a large panel study on the macroeconomic consequences of natural catastrophes and analyses the extent to which risk transfer to insurance markets facilitates economic recovery. Our main results are that major natural catastrophes have large and significant negative effects on economic activity, both on impact and over the longer run. However, it is mainly the uninsured losses that drive the subsequent macroeconomic cost, whereas sufficiently insured events are inconsequential in terms of foregone output. This result helps to disentangle conflicting findings in the literature, and puts the focus on risk transfer mechanisms to help mitigate the macroeconomic costs of natural catastrophes.
The settlement of refugees and asylum-seekers in countries of asylum depends on a range of factors that include the policies of the country of asylum as well as the experiences to and attitudes of individuals to exile. This article examines the direction of social policy towards refugees and asylum-seekers in Britain and the impact of policy on participation. Drawing on a sample of 180 refugees and asylum-seekers from the Somali, Tamil and Congolese communities in the London Borough of Newham, this article shows the importance of immigration status, and the associated citizenship rights, on the social and economic settlement of refugees and asylum-seekers. Labour market participation is known to be a key factor affecting the settlement of refugees. Labour market activity is explored along with the impact of policy on participation. The article concludes that the direction of government policy, which continues to erode access to social and economic institutions, has an adverse affect on the settlement of refugee people in Britain.
Hurricane Katrina scoured the political economic landscape of New Orleans revealing the toll of decades of disinvestment in and 'hostile privatism' toward social reproduction in a city with corrosive inequalities around class, race, and gender. This piece addresses the failures of the state and capital around issues of social reproduction in the wake of Katrina, and gestures toward the sorts of activism these failures have called forth. Organized around five elements of social reproduction, including the environment and relief infrastructure, health care, education, housing, and social justice, the essay argues that the absence of these elements of the social wage both created conditions that made Katrina a disaster and thwarted response to the storm's social, economic, and physical destruction in New Orleans. The costs can be seen most obviously in the unevenness of neighborhood and infrastructural recovery, the difficulty of establishing a stable workforce of residents because of the lack of support for workers and their families which especially affects women and lone parents, and the deepening of various neoliberal tendencies toward privatization in education, health care, and housing. Examining the classed, gendered, and racialized nature of these issues, I will look at community based social movements working to redress this situation, and interrogate the underlying politics and policies - explicit and implicit - that have produced this situation.
This paper has several objectives. These are: (1) to analyse the meaning of homelessness in the light of recent contributions on the meaning of home: (2) to criticize some current perspectives on homelessness as a social problem; (3) to identify and explore a number of different dimensions of the meaning of home and homelessness; (4) to reassess the evidence on the context of home and homelessness, and re-examine the meaning of homelessness in the light of that reassessed evidence; and (5) to explain the political meaning of homelessness as expressed in official definitions, legislation and state provision (or lack of it).
Hurricane Katrina caused over one hundred billion dollars in property damage in the Greater New Orleans region. Although much attention has been paid to why particular communities have begun to recover and others have failed to rebound, very little attention has been paid to how the communities that have recovered actually went about doing so. This paper attempts to close that gap by examining how the church provision of club goods can foster social cooperation and community redevelopment in the wake of a disaster. In particular, we investigate the swift return of the community surrounding the Mary Queen of Vietnam (MQVN) Catholic Church in New Orleans East after Hurricane Katrina. Utilizing a unique bundle of club goods provided by the MQVN Catholic Church, residents in the New Orleans East Vietnamese-American community (a) rebuilt their distinct ethnic–religious–language community, (b) overcame the social coordination difficulties created by Katrina, and (c) engaged in successful political action to protect their community.
Large-scale disasters regularly affect societies over the globe, causing large destruction and damage. After each of these events, media, insurance companies, and international institutions publish numerous assessments of the cost of the disaster. However these assessments are based on different methodologies and approaches, and they often reach different results. Besides methodological differences, these discrepancies are due to the multi-dimensionality in disaster impacts and their large redistributive effects, which make it unclear what is included in the estimates. But most importantly, the purpose of these assessments is rarely specified, although different purposes correspond to different perimeters of analysis and different definitions of what a cost is. To clarify this situation, this paper proposes a definition of the cost of a disaster, and emphasizes the most important mechanisms that explain and determine this cost. It does so by first explaining why the direct economic cost, that is, the value of what has been damaged or destroyed by the disaster, is not a sufficient indicator of disaster seriousness and why estimating indirect losses is crucial to assess the consequences on welfare. The paper describes the main indirect consequences of a disaster and the following reconstruction phase, and discusses the economic mechanisms at play. It proposes a review of available methodologies to assess indirect economic consequences, illustrated with examples from the literature. Finally, it highlights the need for a better understanding of the economics of natural disasters and suggests a few promising areas for research on this topic.
By ignoring how conflict and displacement disrupt the location of home for those who flee within national borders, studies on displacement have largely failed to fully understand the material and symbolic impacts of living without a place called home. Drawing on the experiences of internally displaced people in Colombia, this paper argues that following conflict and displacement home becomes neither an entirely fixed place those who escape conflict unequivocally want to return nor an entirely mobile space they necessarily experience on the move. Rather than ambiguously attached to the place left behind or refashioned on the move, the empirical findings reveal that home is consistently experienced by the displaced as a tension between ‘here’ and ‘there’ or ‘nowhere’. Although many displaced people do find a physical place to live following displacement they experience the sense of being trapped in a liminal space where they feel emotionally and existentially homeless. Analysis of detailed interviews shows that most of them continue to search for a sense, rather than a place called, home. A home which is emotional and affective rather than purely physical. The paper concludes by highlighting how sedentarist and non-sedentarist understandings of home coexist in the displaced location of home.
Collecting multiple perspectives data (e.g. from related individuals) in a qualitative longitudinal design can provide rich understanding of the dynamics at play in complex relational systems, and the different perceptions of people involved. However, such approaches are inherently challenging due to the complexity and volume of data involved. So far, little attention has been paid to the methodological challenges of data analysis in multiple perspectives longitudinal research. This paper contributes to the development of a systematized analysis process for multiple perspectives qualitative longitudinal interviews (MPQLI). We present a framework for handling the complexity and multi-dimensionality of MPQLI, describing discrete steps in such analyses, and related aims and insights. We exemplify the suggested strategies with our own research on the transition to parenthood. The proposed framework can increase both traceability and credibility of analysis of MPQLI, and help to realize the potential of multiple perspectives longitudinal interviews.
The field of disaster loss assessment attempts to provide comprehensive estimates of the cost of disasters. Assessment of intangibles remains a major weakness. Existing costing frameworks have acknowledged losses to cultural – as distinct from economic, social, human or environmental – capital. However, the inclusion of cultural line items has usually been conducted in an ad hoc and under-theorised way, with little empirical evidence. This paper presents the possibility of using cultural capital itself as an overarching category for specifically cultural losses. It further focuses on the specific concept of sense of place as one area that has been neglected even in frameworks that consider other kinds of intangibles, and argues, on both theoretical and pragmatic grounds, that a collective or shared sense of place can be subsumed within cultural capital loss estimates. Christchurch provides an illustration of the idea as relevant and comparable empirical material is available from before and since the 2011 earthquake.
This research investigates a “dark side of home,” created when the experiential quality of home is compromised by ‘clutter,’ defined as an overabundance of possessions that collectively create chaotic and disorderly living spaces. Based on relationships among constructs largely developed by phenomenologists, we conceptualize psychological home as a reflection of one’s need to identify self with a physical environment. Clutter was proposed as an antagonist to the normally positive benefits and consequences of home for subjective well-being. An online survey was conducted with a population of U.S. and Canadian adults. A structural equation model was used to test hypotheses. Findings reveal that place attachment and self-extension tendencies toward possessions positively contribute to psychological home. Clutter had a negative impact on psychological home and subjective well-being. These findings contribute to a broader understanding of how meanings of home are both cultivated and undermined by individuals’ place-making efforts.
This article aims to conceptualize home and homemaking for people in protracted displacement.The article serves three purposes: To present an overview of the area of inquiry; to develop an analytical framework for understanding home and homemaking for forced migrants in protracted displacement; and to introduce the special issue.It explores how protracted displacement has been defined-from policy definitions to people's experiences of protractedness, including "waiting" and "the permanence of temporariness." The article identifies the ambivalence embedded in experiences and practices of homemaking in long-term displacement, demonstrating how static notions of home and displacement might be unsettled.It achieves this through examining relationships between mobility and stasis, the material and symbolic, between the past, present, and future, and multiple places and scales.The article proposes a conceptual framework-a triadic constellation of home-that enables an analysis of home in different contexts of protracted displacement.The framework helps to explore home both as an idea and a practice, distinguishing among three elements: "home" as the day-to-day practices of homemaking, "Home" as representing values, traditions, memories, and feelings of home, and the broader political and historical contexts in which "HOME" is understood in the current global order and embedded in institutions.In conclusion, the article argues that a feminist and dynamic understanding of home-Home-HOME provides a more holistic perspective of making home in protracted displacement that promotes a more extensive and more sophisticated academic work, policies, and practices.
Domicide, the intentional destruction of home, is a concept first conceived by Canadian geographers Porteous and Smith in 2001. In the current global sociopolitical landscape, domicide and its impact is writ large, present in both the Global North and South, and spanning a variety of scales, from mass displacement through the Syrian civil war to controversial UK housing policy. However, it has been under-represented in critical geographies of home literature. This paper calls for a resurrection and recasting of the term, highlighting the multitude of contexts in which rethinking domicide provides an important contribution towards the expansion of critical geographies of home scholarship. The paper focuses on four areas of geography in which scholars have begun to explore and extend the term: emerging literature concerning home unmaking; socio-symbolic domicide in the geopolitical context; domicide and heteronormativity in post-disaster home loss; and agency and resistance to domicide through both political activism and banal resistances of the everyday. In sum, this fourfold exploration highlights both the current and potential contributions of domicide towards expanding critical geographies of home.
There has been a notable absence in geographic literature concerning the connection between disasters and the concept of ‘home’. Similarly, return migration has largely been overlooked in geographical enquiries, reflecting the assumption that migrants are returning ‘home’ in a journey that involves little adjustment. Moving beyond a consideration of the socio-economic factors that undoubtedly play a part in whether the displaced are able to return, and exploring what it means to return somewhere that is expected to be familiar and safe, this paper examines the understudied emotional motivations that influence post-disaster return decisions. Contributing to geographic literature on trauma, disasters and the concept of ‘home’, this paper uses semi-structured interviews with Hurricane Katrina evacuees, to explore the influence of loss and nostalgia on their decisions to return or relocate following displacement. Instead of trying to instrumentalise these decisions, I argue that they are complex, multidimensional and individually unique. This paper stresses that there is a powerful emotional quality associated with how people relate to place, recognising that return decisions are emotionally driven and not necessarily based on material constraints. In order to plan for future catastrophic events, I identify the need for a deeper understanding of the emotional intensity of the post-disaster situation, and a sustained research focus on the many factors that influence the decision to return following disaster displacement.
This article reviews literature on the concept of 'place' and discusses its relevance to housing research. The article begins by providing a working definition of place before embarking upon an examination of the connections between place and identity. The nature of such attachments to place is examined through the work of Martin Heidegger (1973) and Pierre Bourdieu (1979). The relationship between place attachment and the volatile political-economy of place construction is subsequently discussed. The paper then continues with an outline of the importance of the concept of 'place' for housing researchers and concludes with some suggestions for further research. While discussions about 'place' have been a key preoccupation of geographers for some decades, housing researchers have barely touched on the subject. Yet, at the present time - a time of increasing migration, expanding urbanization, and swelling investments in place-construction (ranging from individual real-estate sales to city and regional re-developments) - the importance of the concept of place for housing researchers has come to the fore. The literature on 'place', especially the literature which sees 'home' as a particularly significant type of place, provides insight into the relationship between places and people's identities and psychological well-being; the dynamics of conflicts surrounding home-places; and the political-economy of home places. It also points to the need for a more integrated approach to housing research that looks beyond the scale of individual households to the regional, national and international scale.
This paper reviews the diverse literatures on negative experiences of home at the domestic scale and sets out an agenda to further ‘critical geographies of home’. Tying into broader debates in critical geography on the delineations between the ‘mapping’ of exclusionary landscapes versus the ‘doing’ of something to transform them, the paper finds that the line between these two modes should not always be dichotomously drawn. Now is the time that the burgeoning interest in, and catalogue of research on, home is capitalized upon by pushing towards a critical geography that simultaneously illuminates and catalyses the addressing of domestic injustice.
This paper reviews the empirical literature on the economic impacts of natural disasters to inform both climate adaptation policy and the estimation of potential climate damages. It covers papers that estimate the short- and long-run economic impacts of weather-related extreme events as well as studies regarding the determinants of the magnitude of those damages (including fatalities). The paper also includes a discussion of risk reduction options and the use of such measures as an adaptation strategy for predicted changes in extreme events with climate change.
Our contribution is to show that the relationship between wealth and disasters is mainly formed by the exposure to disaster hazard. We first build a simple analytical model that demonstrates how countries that face a low hazard of disasters are likely to see first increasing losses and then decreasing ones with increasing economic development. At the same time, countries that face a high hazard of disasters are likely to experience first decreasing losses and then increasing ones with increasing economic development. We then use a cross-country panel dataset in conjunction with a hazard exposure index to investigate whether the data is consistent with the predictions from the model. In line with our model, we find that the relationship of losses with wealth crucially depends on the level of hazard of natural disasters faced by countries.
Sustainability assessment is a recent framing of impact assessment that places emphasis on delivering positive net sustainability gains now and into the future. It can be directed to any type of decision-making, can take many forms and is fundamentally pluralistic. Drawing mainly on theoretical papers along with the few case study examples published to date (from England, Western Australia, South Africa and Canada), this paper outlines what might be considered state-of-the-art sustainability assessment. Such processes must: (i) address sustainability imperatives with positive progress towards sustainability; (ii) establish a workable concept of sustainability in the context of individual decisions/assessments; (iii) adopt formal mechanisms for managing unavoidable trade-offs in an open, participative and accountable manner; (iv) embrace the pluralistic inevitabilities of sustainability assessment; and (v) engender learning throughout. We postulate that sustainability assessment may be at the beginning of a phase of expansion not seen since environmental impact assessment was adopted worldwide.
This review surveys an emergent methodological trend in anthropological research that concerns the adaptation of long-standing modes of ethnographic practices to more complex objects of study. Ethnography moves from its conventional single-site location, contextualized by macro-constructions of a larger social order, such as the capitalist world system, to multiple sites of observation and participation that cross-cut dichotomies such as the “local” and the “global,” the “lifeworld” and the “system.” Resulting ethnographies are therefore both in and out of the world system. The anxieties to which this methodological shift gives rise are considered in terms of testing the limits of ethnography, attenuating the power of fieldwork, and losing the perspective of the subaltern. The emergence of multi-sited ethnography is located within new spheres of interdisciplinary work, including media studies, science and technology studies, and cultural studies broadly. Several “tracking” strategies that shape multi-site...
The cities of Latin America are expanding rapidly largely through the energy and efforts of ordinary people who are creating their own dwelling environments in informal settlements with varying degrees of support or condemnation from municipal authorities. Although there is considerable diversity between settlements, most share three key characteristics. Firstly, these environments are conceived and constructed by the occupants themselves independently of external controls or professional advice; secondly, occupation and construction frequently take place simultaneously; and thirdly, such places are usually in a process of dynamic change and demonstrate considerable ingenuity and creativity within limited resource constraints. To explore these process of informal place-making and the resulting environments this chapter draws on data from a study of squatter settlements in northern Colombia. Through analysis of the processes of making, both collectively and at household level, we will gain insights into the multiple influences on the decision-making processes involved. Far from the common image of inadequate, chaotically organised places it will be argued that these environments respond to clear, culturally embedded ideas about how cities and dwellings should be configured.
This paper provides insights into the dynamic linkages between the ongoing construction of houses for people displaced by war and disaster, conceptions of homemaking and processes of recovery and reconstruction in the post-tsunami context in Sri Lanka. In so doing, it also uncovers the dilemmas and ambiguities that are embedded in the recovery process. A case from Eastern Province, Sri Lanka illustrates how recovery works in local areas are driven by various stakeholders from outside, whose negotiations and power, voices and preferences, both independently and collectively, define the scope for homemaking processes. Our findings recommend that debates of ‘building back better’ following such disasters should embody an understanding of houses as political, cultural, social and economic constructs, and be cognizant of the wider processes of homemaking.
The central focus of this paper is the notion that the home can provide a locale in which people can work at attaining a sense of ontological security in a world that at times is experienced as threatening and uncontrollable. The paper builds on and develops the ideas of Giddens and Saunders on ontological security and seeks to break down and operationalise the concept and explore it through a set of empirical data drawn from interviews with a group of older New Zealand home owners. The extent to which home and home life meets the conditions for the maintenance of ontological security is assessed through an exploration of home as the site of constancy in the social and material environment; home as a spatial context in which the day to day routines of human existence are performed; home as a site free from the surveillance that is part of the contemporary world which allows for a sense of control that is missing in other locales; and home as a secure base around which identities are constructed. The paper also argues that meanings of home are context specific and thus the data need to be seen in relation to New Zealanders’ long standing pre-occupation with land and home ownership. The paper concludes by speculating on how meanings of home may be changing.
A disaster is a serious disruption for the operation of a society, causing extensive lives and property losses. Since construction activities are highly knowledge-intensive, knowledge management (KM) practices will encourage continuous improvement, distribute best practices, quick respond to beneficiaries, share valuable tacit knowledge, reduce rework, improve competitiveness and innovations, and reduce complexities in post disaster housing reconstruction. Therefore, this research is to study and explore the degree to which the KM is involved in post disaster housing reconstruction and the effect that (KM) have on it (post disaster housing reconstruction) in the Sri Lankan context. This study was done through systematically reviewing the literature in Knowledge (K), KM to highlight the basic principles. Data collection mode for the study was close end questionnaires and semi structured interviews. Data was collected from donor and consultancy organisations who are involved in post disaster housing reconstruction in Sri Lanka.
In recent years there has been a proliferation of writing on the meaning of home within the disciplines of sociology, anthropology, psychology, human geography, history, architecture and philosophy. Although many researchers now understand home as a multidimensional concept and acknowledge the presence of and need for multidisciplinary research in the field, there has been little sustained reflection and critique of the multidisciplinary field of home research and the diverse, even contradictory meanings of this term. This paper brings together and examines the dominant and recurring ideas about home represented in the relevant theoretical and empirical literature. It raises the question whether or not home is (a) place(s), (a) space(s), feeling(s), practices, and/or an active state of state of being in the world? Home is variously described in the literature as conflated with or related to house, family, haven, self, gender, and journeying. Many authors also consider notions of being-at-home, creating or making home and the ideal home. In an effort to facilitate interdisciplinary conversations about the meaning and experience of home each of these themes are briefly considered in this critical literature review.