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Abstract

The paper represents an analytical overview of decadal changes of mangrove cover in India with special emphasis on Gujarat state since 1987 based on published reports of Forest Survey of India. During last three decades in India, the mangrove cover has shown an increase of 21.6%. However, the mangrove cover increased from 0.12% to 0.15% of the total geographical area of the country. Among all the states and UTs, Gujarat has shown the maximum increase (about 167%) in mangrove cover during the same period. In Gujarat, as compared to mangrove cover in 1987 (427 km2) it increased by 2.66 times to 1140km2 in 2017 during the last three decades.
Indian Forester, 145 (7) : 607-613, 2019
http://www.indianforester.co.in
ISSN No. 0019-4816 (Print)
ISSN No. 2321-094X (Online)
The Dynamics of Mangrove
Cover in India
Based on Assessment done by
Forest Survey of India
from 1987 to 2017
The paper represents an analytical overview of decadal changes of
mangrove cover in India with special emphasis on Gujarat state since 1987
based on published reports of Forest Survey of India. During last three
decades in India, the mangrove cover has shown an increase of 21.6%.
However, the mangrove cover increased from 0.12% to 0.15% of the total
geographical area of the country. Among all the states and UTs, Gujarat
has shown the maximum increase (about 167%) in mangrove cover during
the same period. In Gujarat, as compared to mangrove cover in 1987 (427
2 2
km ) it increased by 2.66 times to 1140km in 2017 during the last three
decades.
Key words: Mangrove cover, India, Gujarat, Decadal changes
Introduction
A Mangrove forest is defined as a salt-tolerant forest ecosystem of the
intertidal region on sheltered coastlines and normally occurs above
mean sea level. "If there are no mangrove forests, then the sea will
have no meaning. It is like having a tree with no roots, for the
mangroves are the roots of the sea" (MAP, 1999). The mangroves are
adapted to wet and loose soils and periodic submergence in the saline
water. They survive in harsh conditions of low oxygen and nutrient
availability and high salinity in the soil, wind and wave action and
substrate instability. Mangrove forests are distributed in the intertidal
region between the sea and the land in the tropical and subtropical
regions of the world, between approximately 30° N and 30° S latitude
(Giri et al., 2011).
Mangrove ecosystem is one of the most productive natural ecosystems
on the earth with great ecological, biodiversity and socio- economic
importance. They provide habitat to many diverse species of birds,
mammals, crustacean, fish etc. Many ecological services are also
regulated by mangroves such as preservation of water quality and
pollution reduction by filtering suspended material and assimilating
dissolved nutrients. Other ecological functions include biogeochemical
cycling, purification and detoxification, nutrient flows, carbon
assimilation etc. Furthermore, the mangrove forests play a major role in
reducing the severity of tsunami wave, cyclones, sea currents and wind
erosion (Mazda et al., 1997a, 1997b; Kathiresan and Rajendran, 2005).
It is also reported that, the mangroves of Bhitarkanika in Orissa, India
have greatly reduced the impact of the 'super cyclone' that had struck in
October l999 (Kathiresan and Rajendran, 2005). There were little
human causality and less economic damage in the dense mangrove
cover areas of Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India during 2004 tsunami
and during the same time, the dense mangrove cover of Sundarbans
saved West Bengal (India) and Bangladesh from the killer impact of
tsunami (Kathiresan and Rajendran, 2005; Patel et al., 2014)
Mangroves are one of the most valuable coastal habitats from socio-
economic point of view as they provide enormous benefits (both
Distribution and
decadal changes
of Mangrove
cover in India with
special emphasis
on Gujarat state
since 1987.
R. D. KAMBOJ AND LOPAMUDRA DAS
Gujarat Ecological Education and Research
(GEER) Foundation,
Indroda Nature Park, P.O. Sector-7,
Gandhinagar (Gujarat)
E-mail: lopa.das1@gmail.com
Received September, 2018
Accepted April, 2019
2019] The dynamics of mangrove cover in India based on assessment done by Forest Survey of India from...
609
[July
608
tangible and non-tangible) to the local communities as
well as the ecology and environment surrounding
them. Local communities that live near mangrove
areas derive a number of natural resources such as
firewood, fodder, honey, timber; fish etc. from the
mangrove forests.
2
In the world, the total mangrove cover is 150,000 Km
(World Atlas of Mangroves, 2010). Mangroves are
mostly distributed over 123 countries and territories in
tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Asia has
the largest mangrove cover in the world. The most
extensive area of mangrove is found in South East
Asia (33.50%) followed by South America (15.60%),
North Central America (14.70%) and West and Central
Africa (13.20%). The mangrove cover of South Asia is
2
10,344 km which constitute 6.8% of the world's
mangrove cover. In south Asia, India's contribution is
45.8% of the total mangrove cover (FSI, 2017).
Forest survey of India published the first report in 1987
and so far a total of 15 independent assessment
reports report have been published. From 1987 to
1999 the mangrove cover was not classified density
wise. Thereafter from 2001 the mangrove cover was
also classified according to canopy density classes. In
the present paper an attempt has been made to
assess the changes in Mangrove cover in India as well
as at Gujarat state level, over last three decades.
Methodology
The data from published reports of Forest Survey of
India were used to calculate change in mangrove
2
cover (km ) and mangrove cover as percent of
geographical area from 1987 to 2017 by applying
Mathematical equations in Micro Soft Office, 2010.
Overviews of Mangrove cover in India from 1987 to
2017
The status of mangrove cover in India assessed from
st
1987 to 2017 is presented in Table 1. The 1
assessment of FSI (1987) reveals mangrove cover
2 nd
area to be 4046 Km in India. Thereafter, the 2 cycle
2 2
(1989) recorded an increase of 209 Km (4255 Km ) in
mangrove cover in India which constituted 0.13% of
the total country's geographical area. Mangrove cover
2 rd
showed decline by 13 Km during the 3 assessment
th th
cycle (1991). Afterwards from 4 to 7 assessment
cycle the mangrove cover of India increased from
2 2
4256 Km to 4871 Km indicating an average increase
of 14.4%.
The mangrove cover declined by 8.7% from 1999 to
2 2
2005 (4871 Km to 4445 Km ). According to FSI report
(2001) the main reason for this decline was change in
methodology (digital interpretation) and scale of
interpretation (1:50,000) due to which small water
bodies (creeks, straits etc.) and non-mangrove areas
which earlier could not be delineated, had been
detected and extracted out from areas under
mangrove cover. The next two cycles (2009 and 2011)
2 2
reported an increase of 194 km and 23.56 km in
mangrove cover, respectively. The 2013 assessment
2
recorded decline in mangrove area by 34.56 km
followed by an increase in mangrove area, i.e., 112
2
Km in 2015.
The current assessment by FSI, 2017 shows that
2
mangrove cover in India is 4921 Km , which is 0.15%
of the total country's geographical area (32,87,469
2
Km , Census of India- 2011). As per this assessment,
2
the very dense mangroves comprise of 1481 Km
2
(30.10%), moderately dense mangrove is 1480 Km
(30.07%) and open mangroves constitute an area of
2
1960 Km (39.03%). Thus the mangrove cover in India
during last three decades has shown increase of
21.6%. However, the mangrove cover increased from
0.12% to 0.15% of the total geographical area of the
country.
In India, mangroves are spread over an area of 4921
2
Km which is 3.3% of the world's mangrove cover (FSI,
2017). West Bengal exhibits the maximum mangrove
2
cover (2,114 Km ) followed by Gujarat state (1,140
2 2
Km ) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (617 Km )
(Table 2). Among the states and UT's, all except
Andhra Pradesh and Andaman & Nicobar have
recorded increase in mangrove cover during last three
decades. However, Gujarat has shown the maximum
increase (about 167%) in mangrove cover during the
same period. As compared to mangrove cover in 1987
2 2
(427 km ) it increased by 2.66 times to 1140km in
2017 during the last three decades.
Overview of Mangrove cover in Gujarat from 1987
to 2017
Gujarat is the northernmost maritime state of India.
The state has a long coastline of 1,650 km,
constituting over 21% of the Indian coastline and the
longest among all states. There are two major
indentations in Gujarat's coast – the Gulf of Kachchh
(GoK) and the Gulf of Khambhat. Of the total wetland
2
area of 27,175 km in the state, coastal wetlands
comprise as much as 92.3% (SAC 1998). Based on
the evaporation rate and hydrological inflow, Gujarat is
categorized as an arid or semiarid zone. These
coastal stretches are rich in biodiversity and the GoK
have the Marine National Park and sanctuaries
located along it.
Regular mapping of mangrove cover in the country
has been conducted by the Forest Survey of India
(FSI). According to FSI data, the trend of mangrove
cover from 1987 to 2017 for Gujarat is shown in Table
3. However, due to natural calamities there was a
significant loss of mangrove cover during the late
1990s and in 2001 along the Gujarat coast. The
mangrove cover in Gujarat gradually increased from
1991 to 1999 and from 2009 to 2017. The positive
change in the mangrove cover of Gujarat is mainly due
to conservational efforts such as plantation and
regeneration particularly in Jamnagar, Bhavnagar,
Kachchh and Junagadh districts.
Under different plantation schemes, the Gujarat Forest
Department (GFD) planted about 50, 000 ha and
49,385ha of mangroves from 1983-84 to 2007-2008
Table 1: The status of mangrove cover in India from 1987-2017.
2
Year of Mangrove cover (km ) Change in mangrove Mangrove cover as %
2
report cover (Km ) of geographical area
Very dense Dense Open Total
1987 4046 0 0.12
1989 4255 209 0.13
1991 4242 -13 0.13
1993 4256 14 0.13
1995 4533 277 0.14
1997 4827 294 0.15
1999 4871 130 0.15
2001 2859 1623 4482 -389 0.14
2003 1162 1657 1642 4461 -21 0.14
2005 1147 1629 1669 4445 -16 0.14
2009 1405 1659 1575 4639 194 0.14
2011 1403 1658.12 1601.44 4662.56 23.56 0.14
2013 1351 1457.1 1819 4628 -34.56 0.14
2015 1472 1391 1877 4740 112 0.14
2017 1481 1480 1960 4921 181 0.15
Change since 1987 875
Not classified according to density
classes
State/UT 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017
Andhra Pradesh 495 405 399 378 383 383 397 333 329 329 353 352 352 367 404
Goa 0 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 10 16 17 22 22 26 26
Gujarat 427 412 397 419 689 901 1031 911 960 936 1046 1058 1103 1107 1140
Karnataka 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 10
Kerala 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 5 6 6 9 9
Maharashtra 140 114 113 155 155 124 108 118 116 158 186 186 186 222 304
Orissa 199 192 195 195 195 211 215 219 207 203 221 222 213 231 243
Tamil Nadu 23 47 47 21 21 21 21 23 35 35 39 39 39 47 49
West Bengal 2076 2109 2119 2119 2119 2123 2125 2081 2120 2118 2152 2155 2097 2106 2114
Andaman & Nicobar 686 973 971 966 966 966 966 789 671 637 615 617 604 617 617
Daman & Diu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1.56 1 3 3
Pondicherry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0.63 2 2
Total 4046 4255 4244 4256 4533 4737 4871 4482 4461 4445 4639 4663 4628 4740 4921
2
Table 2: The status of mangrove cover (area in km ) in States and UT's of India from 1987-2017.
Table 3: The status of mangrove cover in Gujarat from 1987-2017.
2
Year of Mangrove cover (km ) Change in mangrove Mangrove cover as %
2
report cover (Km ) of geographical area
Very dense Dense Open Total
1987 427 0 0.22
1989 412 -15 0.21
1991 397 -15 0.20
1993 419 22 0.21
1995 689 270 0.35
1997 901 212 0.46
1999 1031 130 0.53
2001 0 184 827 911 -120 0.46
2003 0 198 762 960 49 0.49
2005 0 195 741 936 -24 0.48
2009 0 188 858 1046 55 0.53
2011 0 182 876 1058 12 0.54
2013 0 175 928 1103 45 0.56
2015 0 174 933 1107 4 0.56
2017 0 172 968 1140 33 0.58
Change since 1987 713
Not classified according to density
classes
(Source FSI reports -1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2013, 2015 & 2017)
(Source FSI reports -1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2013, 2015 & 2017)
(Source FSI reports -1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2013, 2015 & 2017)
2019] The dynamics of mangrove cover in India based on assessment done by Forest Survey of India from...
609
[July
608
tangible and non-tangible) to the local communities as
well as the ecology and environment surrounding
them. Local communities that live near mangrove
areas derive a number of natural resources such as
firewood, fodder, honey, timber; fish etc. from the
mangrove forests.
2
In the world, the total mangrove cover is 150,000 Km
(World Atlas of Mangroves, 2010). Mangroves are
mostly distributed over 123 countries and territories in
tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Asia has
the largest mangrove cover in the world. The most
extensive area of mangrove is found in South East
Asia (33.50%) followed by South America (15.60%),
North Central America (14.70%) and West and Central
Africa (13.20%). The mangrove cover of South Asia is
2
10,344 km which constitute 6.8% of the world's
mangrove cover. In south Asia, India's contribution is
45.8% of the total mangrove cover (FSI, 2017).
Forest survey of India published the first report in 1987
and so far a total of 15 independent assessment
reports report have been published. From 1987 to
1999 the mangrove cover was not classified density
wise. Thereafter from 2001 the mangrove cover was
also classified according to canopy density classes. In
the present paper an attempt has been made to
assess the changes in Mangrove cover in India as well
as at Gujarat state level, over last three decades.
Methodology
The data from published reports of Forest Survey of
India were used to calculate change in mangrove
2
cover (km ) and mangrove cover as percent of
geographical area from 1987 to 2017 by applying
Mathematical equations in Micro Soft Office, 2010.
Overviews of Mangrove cover in India from 1987 to
2017
The status of mangrove cover in India assessed from
st
1987 to 2017 is presented in Table 1. The 1
assessment of FSI (1987) reveals mangrove cover
2 nd
area to be 4046 Km in India. Thereafter, the 2 cycle
2 2
(1989) recorded an increase of 209 Km (4255 Km ) in
mangrove cover in India which constituted 0.13% of
the total country's geographical area. Mangrove cover
2 rd
showed decline by 13 Km during the 3 assessment
th th
cycle (1991). Afterwards from 4 to 7 assessment
cycle the mangrove cover of India increased from
2 2
4256 Km to 4871 Km indicating an average increase
of 14.4%.
The mangrove cover declined by 8.7% from 1999 to
2 2
2005 (4871 Km to 4445 Km ). According to FSI report
(2001) the main reason for this decline was change in
methodology (digital interpretation) and scale of
interpretation (1:50,000) due to which small water
bodies (creeks, straits etc.) and non-mangrove areas
which earlier could not be delineated, had been
detected and extracted out from areas under
mangrove cover. The next two cycles (2009 and 2011)
2 2
reported an increase of 194 km and 23.56 km in
mangrove cover, respectively. The 2013 assessment
2
recorded decline in mangrove area by 34.56 km
followed by an increase in mangrove area, i.e., 112
2
Km in 2015.
The current assessment by FSI, 2017 shows that
2
mangrove cover in India is 4921 Km , which is 0.15%
of the total country's geographical area (32,87,469
2
Km , Census of India- 2011). As per this assessment,
2
the very dense mangroves comprise of 1481 Km
2
(30.10%), moderately dense mangrove is 1480 Km
(30.07%) and open mangroves constitute an area of
2
1960 Km (39.03%). Thus the mangrove cover in India
during last three decades has shown increase of
21.6%. However, the mangrove cover increased from
0.12% to 0.15% of the total geographical area of the
country.
In India, mangroves are spread over an area of 4921
2
Km which is 3.3% of the world's mangrove cover (FSI,
2017). West Bengal exhibits the maximum mangrove
2
cover (2,114 Km ) followed by Gujarat state (1,140
2 2
Km ) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (617 Km )
(Table 2). Among the states and UT's, all except
Andhra Pradesh and Andaman & Nicobar have
recorded increase in mangrove cover during last three
decades. However, Gujarat has shown the maximum
increase (about 167%) in mangrove cover during the
same period. As compared to mangrove cover in 1987
2 2
(427 km ) it increased by 2.66 times to 1140km in
2017 during the last three decades.
Overview of Mangrove cover in Gujarat from 1987
to 2017
Gujarat is the northernmost maritime state of India.
The state has a long coastline of 1,650 km,
constituting over 21% of the Indian coastline and the
longest among all states. There are two major
indentations in Gujarat's coast – the Gulf of Kachchh
(GoK) and the Gulf of Khambhat. Of the total wetland
2
area of 27,175 km in the state, coastal wetlands
comprise as much as 92.3% (SAC 1998). Based on
the evaporation rate and hydrological inflow, Gujarat is
categorized as an arid or semiarid zone. These
coastal stretches are rich in biodiversity and the GoK
have the Marine National Park and sanctuaries
located along it.
Regular mapping of mangrove cover in the country
has been conducted by the Forest Survey of India
(FSI). According to FSI data, the trend of mangrove
cover from 1987 to 2017 for Gujarat is shown in Table
3. However, due to natural calamities there was a
significant loss of mangrove cover during the late
1990s and in 2001 along the Gujarat coast. The
mangrove cover in Gujarat gradually increased from
1991 to 1999 and from 2009 to 2017. The positive
change in the mangrove cover of Gujarat is mainly due
to conservational efforts such as plantation and
regeneration particularly in Jamnagar, Bhavnagar,
Kachchh and Junagadh districts.
Under different plantation schemes, the Gujarat Forest
Department (GFD) planted about 50, 000 ha and
49,385ha of mangroves from 1983-84 to 2007-2008
Table 1: The status of mangrove cover in India from 1987-2017.
2
Year of Mangrove cover (km ) Change in mangrove Mangrove cover as %
2
report cover (Km ) of geographical area
Very dense Dense Open Total
1987 4046 0 0.12
1989 4255 209 0.13
1991 4242 -13 0.13
1993 4256 14 0.13
1995 4533 277 0.14
1997 4827 294 0.15
1999 4871 130 0.15
2001 2859 1623 4482 -389 0.14
2003 1162 1657 1642 4461 -21 0.14
2005 1147 1629 1669 4445 -16 0.14
2009 1405 1659 1575 4639 194 0.14
2011 1403 1658.12 1601.44 4662.56 23.56 0.14
2013 1351 1457.1 1819 4628 -34.56 0.14
2015 1472 1391 1877 4740 112 0.14
2017 1481 1480 1960 4921 181 0.15
Change since 1987 875
Not classified according to density
classes
State/UT 1987 1989 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017
Andhra Pradesh 495 405 399 378 383 383 397 333 329 329 353 352 352 367 404
Goa 0 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 10 16 17 22 22 26 26
Gujarat 427 412 397 419 689 901 1031 911 960 936 1046 1058 1103 1107 1140
Karnataka 0 0 0 0 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 10
Kerala 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 8 5 6 6 9 9
Maharashtra 140 114 113 155 155 124 108 118 116 158 186 186 186 222 304
Orissa 199 192 195 195 195 211 215 219 207 203 221 222 213 231 243
Tamil Nadu 23 47 47 21 21 21 21 23 35 35 39 39 39 47 49
West Bengal 2076 2109 2119 2119 2119 2123 2125 2081 2120 2118 2152 2155 2097 2106 2114
Andaman & Nicobar 686 973 971 966 966 966 966 789 671 637 615 617 604 617 617
Daman & Diu 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1.56 1 3 3
Pondicherry 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0.63 2 2
Total 4046 4255 4244 4256 4533 4737 4871 4482 4461 4445 4639 4663 4628 4740 4921
2
Table 2: The status of mangrove cover (area in km ) in States and UT's of India from 1987-2017.
Table 3: The status of mangrove cover in Gujarat from 1987-2017.
2
Year of Mangrove cover (km ) Change in mangrove Mangrove cover as %
2
report cover (Km ) of geographical area
Very dense Dense Open Total
1987 427 0 0.22
1989 412 -15 0.21
1991 397 -15 0.20
1993 419 22 0.21
1995 689 270 0.35
1997 901 212 0.46
1999 1031 130 0.53
2001 0 184 827 911 -120 0.46
2003 0 198 762 960 49 0.49
2005 0 195 741 936 -24 0.48
2009 0 188 858 1046 55 0.53
2011 0 182 876 1058 12 0.54
2013 0 175 928 1103 45 0.56
2015 0 174 933 1107 4 0.56
2017 0 172 968 1140 33 0.58
Change since 1987 713
Not classified according to density
classes
(Source FSI reports -1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2013, 2015 & 2017)
(Source FSI reports -1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2013, 2015 & 2017)
(Source FSI reports -1987, 1989, 1991, 1993, 1995, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2011, 2013, 2015 & 2017)
and 2008-09 to 2016-2017, respectively in various
coastal areas and islands of Gujarat (Pandey and
Pandey, 2009; Gujarat Forest statistics, 2008-2017).
Apart from Gujarat Forest Department, Gujarat
Ecology Commission has also raised plantation of
mangroves in an area of 5546 ha during 2001 to 2007
by involving local communities (Pandey and Pandey,
2009).
2
Gujarat mangrove forest covers an area of 1140 km ;
2 2
of which 172 km are moderately dense and 968 km
are open mangrove forests (FSI, 2017). Broadly, in
Gujarat's coast, mangrove forest is distributed in five
major regions that include the Gulf of Kachchh, the
Gulf of Khambhat, the Saurashtra Coast, the South
Gujarat Coast and the Kachchh region. Region wise
distribution of mangrove cover in Gujarat is given in
Table 4.
The Kachchh Region
The Kachchh region falls in the northern arid coastal
part of the Gujarat state. The whole region is
represented by a single district, Kachchh which has
long coastline of 337.9 km. Among different coastal
regions of Gujarat, Kachchh region exhibits the
maximum (70%) of the total mangrove cover of the
2
state. The region has 798 km of mangrove cover,
2
which comprised of 118 km of moderately dense
2
forests and 680 km of sparse forests. The mangrove
area of this zone has a very low precipitation-
evapotranspiration ratio. The average rainfall of this
zone is less than 400 mm annually, which is the lowest
among all the five mangrove regions of Gujarat and
these forests are characterized by semiarid and arid
climatic conditions. This region has a very high salinity
level. The mangrove forests of this zone
predominantly comprise (99.9%) of Avicennia marina
(Fosrk.) Vierh. which is known to be the hardiest
mangrove species in terms of salinity and aridity
tolerance. The region also has a very sporadic
presence of a few other mangrove species such as
Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Ceriops tagal Arnold.
The Gulf of Kachchh and Saurashtra region
The mangrove areas of Gulf of Kachchh are found in
Devbhoomi Dwarka, Jamnagar and Morbi Districts.
The majority of the mangrove forests of the Gulf of
Kachchh occur in its various islands. In the Gulf of
Kachchh, out of 42 islands, about 20 islands are
represented with mangrove forests. The Gulf of
2
Kachchh has 188 km of mangrove cover which is
16.49% of the total mangrove cover of the state. This
2
region comprises of 29 km of moderately dense
2
mangrove forests and 159 km of sparse mangrove
forests. At present, four species of mangrove generally
found in this region are Avicennia marina (Fosrk.)
Vierh., Ceriops tagal Arnold, Rhizophora mucronata
Lam., and Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco. In this
area the fresh water inflow is much less than that in
South Gujarat with no perennial rivers draining into the
sea. The combination of good tidal inundation but less
fresh water inflow has caused good mangrove cover
with relatively less growth and less mangrove species
diversity as compared to those in South Gujarat.
One of the first Marine National Park and Sanctuary
(MNP&S) located along the Southern part of the Gulf
of Kachchh, in Morbi, Jamnagar and Devbhoomi
Dwarka districts between 20°15' N to 23°40' N
latitudes and 68°20' to 70°40' E longitudes, is
endowed with ecologically sensitive habitats such as
mangroves, mudflats, coral reefs, seagrasses and
sand dune (IRADe, 2017). Marine Sanctuary (MS)
2
covers an area of 457.92 km whereas the Marine
National Park (MNP) is established in an area of
2
162.89 km . (Jain, 2007-08 to 2016-17). The coastline
of Jamnagar had luxuriant mangrove cover before
independence and most of the coastal mudflats from
Okha to Maliya were with dense mangrove cover
(Singh, 2000). In the year, 1972, in MNP&S, the total
2
mangrove cover estimated was 175.36 km (IRADe,
2017).
Nayak et al. (1989) used satellite images to map
mangroves area of a stretch of MNP&S between Rozi
and Vadinar, and reported the mangrove cover in 1975
2
to be 138.5 km Mangrove cover in this stretch
2 2
declined to 50 km in 1982 and 33 km in 1985 (Nayak
et al., 1989). However, some improvement was
reported in 1988 as the mangrove area in this stretch
2
increased to 47 km in this year (Nayak et al., 1989). In
1998, the mangrove area of Jamnagar coast was
2 2
estimated as 141.44 km and this includes 58.21 km
of mangrove cover on various islands (Singh, 2000).
The mangroves around Jindra Island suffered severe
degradation due to recurring oil spill incidences in
2
1998-99 and an estimated 14.7 km of mangrove
cover in south-east of Jindra bet was considerably
affected (Navalgund and Bahuguna, 1999; IRADe,
2017).
In 2006 mangrove cover increased substantially, the
increase was more in case of sparse mangroves (7.05
2 2
km ) then in case of dense mangroves (1.97 km )
(Kumar et al., 2013). The area impacted by oil spill at
southeast of Jindra bet was recorded with sparse
mangrove cover in 2006 (Kumar et al., 2013). The
mangrove cover in Jamnagar was calculated as
2
149.62 km using satellite data of 2005-07 periods
(SAC, 2012). The mangrove cover in Marine National
Park and Sanctuary-Jamnagar has increased and
2 2
estimated as 182.10 km and 237.25 km during 2009
and 2012, respectively (GEER, 2019).
In 1983 Mangrove plantation was initiated by the MNP
authorities to increase the mangrove cover, and by
2
2015 an area of 472.44 km of mangroves was planted
at various locations within MNP&S (IRADe, 2017).
Mangrove area mapped by Forest Survey of India
(FSI) for Jamnagar district for different years from
2001 to 2017 showed consistent increase in mangrove
cover (Table 5). This progressive increase in
mangrove cover attributed to mangrove plantation
initiatives carried out by MNP authorities every year.
The mangrove areas of Saurashtra region occur in 3
districts, viz., Amreli, Junagadh and Porbandar. This
2
region possesses only 6 km of mangrove cover which
is 0.53% of the total mangrove cover of the state and
mostly comprises of sparse mangrove forests.
The Gulf of Khambhat and South Gujarat Region
The Gulf of Khambhat and South Gujarat region
includes a total of 8 coastal districts viz. Ahmedabad,
Vadodara, Anand, Bharuch, Surat, Bhavnagar, Navsari
2
and Valsad. South Gujarat region has 148 km of
mangrove cover which is 12.98 % of the total
mangrove cover of the state. The region comprises of
2 2
123 km of sparse mangrove cover and 25 km of open
mangrove cover. Most of the mangrove species which
are rare in the state have been reported from these
estuarine mangrove forest areas. Many perennial
rivers such as Narmada, Sabarmati, Mahi, Kim,
Dhandhar, Tapti, Ambika, Purna, Auranga and Daman
Ganga drain their fresh water into the Arabian Sea
through the Gulf of Khambhat and south Gujarat
region. The continuous fresh water inflow brings
nutrients and regulates the salinity, which facilitates
the growth and development of mangroves in this
area. There is a great potential of raising mangrove
forests of different species in this zone. Fourteen
mangrove species have been reported from this zone.
They are Aegiceras corniculatum (L.), Avicennia alba
Bl., Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh, Avicennia
officinalis L., Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou.,
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) Robinson, Blanco, Excoecaria
agallocha L., Sonneratia apetala Buch.- Ham.,
Rhizophora mucronata Lamk., Bruguiera cylindrica (L.)
Bl., Acanthus ilicifolius L., Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.)
Savigny., Kandelia candel ( L.) Druce, Lumnitzera
racemosa Willd (Pandey and Pandey, 2009).
District-wise distributions of mangrove cover 2001
to 2017
The district wise status of mangrove cover in Gujarat
from 2001-2017 is presented in Table 5. During this
assessment period (2001-2017) the highest increase
in mangrove cover are observed in Kachchh district
2 2
(92 Km ) followed by Jamnagar (42 Km ), Ahmedabad
2 2
(30 Km ) and Bharuch district (17 Km ). The increase
2
in mangrove cover in Navsari district is 12 Km and for
2
both Anand and Surat District it is 8 Km .
The state of Gujarat has 33 districts, 15 of which are
coastal district. The FSI report (2017) reveals that the
2
mangrove cover of 1140 km is spread over 15 districts
(Table 6). Kachchh district alone represents 70% (798
2
km ) of the total mangrove cover of the state, which
2
comprises of 680 km of open mangrove forest area
2
and 118 km of moderately dense mangrove area.
Moreover, Jamnagar, Devbhoomi Dwarka and Morbi
2
districts exhibits 188 km of mangrove forests, which
[July
610
2019] The dynamics of mangrove cover in India based on assessment done by Forest Survey of India from...
611
Table 4: Region wise distribution of mangrove cover in Gujarat in 2017.
2
S.N. Region Mangrove Cover (km ) Percentage of State's mangrove cover
1 South Gujarat 17 1.49
2 Gulf of Khambhat 31 11.49
3 Gulf of Kachchh 188 16.49
4 Saurashtra region 6 0.53
5 Kachchh Region (including Kori Creek ) 798 70.00
Total 1140 100
(Source: FSI, 2017)
Table 5: District wise status of mangrove cover assessed from 2001 to 2017.
2
Sl. No. Name of Districts Mangrove Cover (Km ) with respect to assessment year
2001 2003 2005 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017
1 Ahmedabad 2 2 6 27 30 36 33 32
2 Amreli 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2
3 Anand 0 0 0 3 0 8 8 8
4 Bharuch 28 33 36 42 43 44 42 45
5 Bhavnagar 16 16 14 13 19 11 17 22
6 Jamnagar & Devbhoomi 142 141 150 157 159 167 173 184
Dwarka
7 Junagadh 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3
8 Kachchh 706 749 707 775 778 789 786 798
9 Navsari 2 1 1 1 1 13 13 14
10 Porbandar 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
11 Morbi 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4
12 Surat 13 13 17 17 20 21 21 21
13 Vadodara 0 0 0 4 2 3 3 3
14 Valsad 0 2 2 5 2 3 3 3
Total 911 960 936 1046 1058 1103 1107 1140
and 2008-09 to 2016-2017, respectively in various
coastal areas and islands of Gujarat (Pandey and
Pandey, 2009; Gujarat Forest statistics, 2008-2017).
Apart from Gujarat Forest Department, Gujarat
Ecology Commission has also raised plantation of
mangroves in an area of 5546 ha during 2001 to 2007
by involving local communities (Pandey and Pandey,
2009).
2
Gujarat mangrove forest covers an area of 1140 km ;
2 2
of which 172 km are moderately dense and 968 km
are open mangrove forests (FSI, 2017). Broadly, in
Gujarat's coast, mangrove forest is distributed in five
major regions that include the Gulf of Kachchh, the
Gulf of Khambhat, the Saurashtra Coast, the South
Gujarat Coast and the Kachchh region. Region wise
distribution of mangrove cover in Gujarat is given in
Table 4.
The Kachchh Region
The Kachchh region falls in the northern arid coastal
part of the Gujarat state. The whole region is
represented by a single district, Kachchh which has
long coastline of 337.9 km. Among different coastal
regions of Gujarat, Kachchh region exhibits the
maximum (70%) of the total mangrove cover of the
2
state. The region has 798 km of mangrove cover,
2
which comprised of 118 km of moderately dense
2
forests and 680 km of sparse forests. The mangrove
area of this zone has a very low precipitation-
evapotranspiration ratio. The average rainfall of this
zone is less than 400 mm annually, which is the lowest
among all the five mangrove regions of Gujarat and
these forests are characterized by semiarid and arid
climatic conditions. This region has a very high salinity
level. The mangrove forests of this zone
predominantly comprise (99.9%) of Avicennia marina
(Fosrk.) Vierh. which is known to be the hardiest
mangrove species in terms of salinity and aridity
tolerance. The region also has a very sporadic
presence of a few other mangrove species such as
Rhizophora mucronata Lam. and Ceriops tagal Arnold.
The Gulf of Kachchh and Saurashtra region
The mangrove areas of Gulf of Kachchh are found in
Devbhoomi Dwarka, Jamnagar and Morbi Districts.
The majority of the mangrove forests of the Gulf of
Kachchh occur in its various islands. In the Gulf of
Kachchh, out of 42 islands, about 20 islands are
represented with mangrove forests. The Gulf of
2
Kachchh has 188 km of mangrove cover which is
16.49% of the total mangrove cover of the state. This
2
region comprises of 29 km of moderately dense
2
mangrove forests and 159 km of sparse mangrove
forests. At present, four species of mangrove generally
found in this region are Avicennia marina (Fosrk.)
Vierh., Ceriops tagal Arnold, Rhizophora mucronata
Lam., and Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco. In this
area the fresh water inflow is much less than that in
South Gujarat with no perennial rivers draining into the
sea. The combination of good tidal inundation but less
fresh water inflow has caused good mangrove cover
with relatively less growth and less mangrove species
diversity as compared to those in South Gujarat.
One of the first Marine National Park and Sanctuary
(MNP&S) located along the Southern part of the Gulf
of Kachchh, in Morbi, Jamnagar and Devbhoomi
Dwarka districts between 20°15' N to 23°40' N
latitudes and 68°20' to 70°40' E longitudes, is
endowed with ecologically sensitive habitats such as
mangroves, mudflats, coral reefs, seagrasses and
sand dune (IRADe, 2017). Marine Sanctuary (MS)
2
covers an area of 457.92 km whereas the Marine
National Park (MNP) is established in an area of
2
162.89 km . (Jain, 2007-08 to 2016-17). The coastline
of Jamnagar had luxuriant mangrove cover before
independence and most of the coastal mudflats from
Okha to Maliya were with dense mangrove cover
(Singh, 2000). In the year, 1972, in MNP&S, the total
2
mangrove cover estimated was 175.36 km (IRADe,
2017).
Nayak et al. (1989) used satellite images to map
mangroves area of a stretch of MNP&S between Rozi
and Vadinar, and reported the mangrove cover in 1975
2
to be 138.5 km Mangrove cover in this stretch
2 2
declined to 50 km in 1982 and 33 km in 1985 (Nayak
et al., 1989). However, some improvement was
reported in 1988 as the mangrove area in this stretch
2
increased to 47 km in this year (Nayak et al., 1989). In
1998, the mangrove area of Jamnagar coast was
2 2
estimated as 141.44 km and this includes 58.21 km
of mangrove cover on various islands (Singh, 2000).
The mangroves around Jindra Island suffered severe
degradation due to recurring oil spill incidences in
2
1998-99 and an estimated 14.7 km of mangrove
cover in south-east of Jindra bet was considerably
affected (Navalgund and Bahuguna, 1999; IRADe,
2017).
In 2006 mangrove cover increased substantially, the
increase was more in case of sparse mangroves (7.05
2 2
km ) then in case of dense mangroves (1.97 km )
(Kumar et al., 2013). The area impacted by oil spill at
southeast of Jindra bet was recorded with sparse
mangrove cover in 2006 (Kumar et al., 2013). The
mangrove cover in Jamnagar was calculated as
2
149.62 km using satellite data of 2005-07 periods
(SAC, 2012). The mangrove cover in Marine National
Park and Sanctuary-Jamnagar has increased and
2 2
estimated as 182.10 km and 237.25 km during 2009
and 2012, respectively (GEER, 2019).
In 1983 Mangrove plantation was initiated by the MNP
authorities to increase the mangrove cover, and by
2
2015 an area of 472.44 km of mangroves was planted
at various locations within MNP&S (IRADe, 2017).
Mangrove area mapped by Forest Survey of India
(FSI) for Jamnagar district for different years from
2001 to 2017 showed consistent increase in mangrove
cover (Table 5). This progressive increase in
mangrove cover attributed to mangrove plantation
initiatives carried out by MNP authorities every year.
The mangrove areas of Saurashtra region occur in 3
districts, viz., Amreli, Junagadh and Porbandar. This
2
region possesses only 6 km of mangrove cover which
is 0.53% of the total mangrove cover of the state and
mostly comprises of sparse mangrove forests.
The Gulf of Khambhat and South Gujarat Region
The Gulf of Khambhat and South Gujarat region
includes a total of 8 coastal districts viz. Ahmedabad,
Vadodara, Anand, Bharuch, Surat, Bhavnagar, Navsari
2
and Valsad. South Gujarat region has 148 km of
mangrove cover which is 12.98 % of the total
mangrove cover of the state. The region comprises of
2 2
123 km of sparse mangrove cover and 25 km of open
mangrove cover. Most of the mangrove species which
are rare in the state have been reported from these
estuarine mangrove forest areas. Many perennial
rivers such as Narmada, Sabarmati, Mahi, Kim,
Dhandhar, Tapti, Ambika, Purna, Auranga and Daman
Ganga drain their fresh water into the Arabian Sea
through the Gulf of Khambhat and south Gujarat
region. The continuous fresh water inflow brings
nutrients and regulates the salinity, which facilitates
the growth and development of mangroves in this
area. There is a great potential of raising mangrove
forests of different species in this zone. Fourteen
mangrove species have been reported from this zone.
They are Aegiceras corniculatum (L.), Avicennia alba
Bl., Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh, Avicennia
officinalis L., Ceriops decandra (Griff.) Ding Hou.,
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) Robinson, Blanco, Excoecaria
agallocha L., Sonneratia apetala Buch.- Ham.,
Rhizophora mucronata Lamk., Bruguiera cylindrica (L.)
Bl., Acanthus ilicifolius L., Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.)
Savigny., Kandelia candel ( L.) Druce, Lumnitzera
racemosa Willd (Pandey and Pandey, 2009).
District-wise distributions of mangrove cover 2001
to 2017
The district wise status of mangrove cover in Gujarat
from 2001-2017 is presented in Table 5. During this
assessment period (2001-2017) the highest increase
in mangrove cover are observed in Kachchh district
2 2
(92 Km ) followed by Jamnagar (42 Km ), Ahmedabad
2 2
(30 Km ) and Bharuch district (17 Km ). The increase
2
in mangrove cover in Navsari district is 12 Km and for
2
both Anand and Surat District it is 8 Km .
The state of Gujarat has 33 districts, 15 of which are
coastal district. The FSI report (2017) reveals that the
2
mangrove cover of 1140 km is spread over 15 districts
(Table 6). Kachchh district alone represents 70% (798
2
km ) of the total mangrove cover of the state, which
2
comprises of 680 km of open mangrove forest area
2
and 118 km of moderately dense mangrove area.
Moreover, Jamnagar, Devbhoomi Dwarka and Morbi
2
districts exhibits 188 km of mangrove forests, which
[July
610
2019] The dynamics of mangrove cover in India based on assessment done by Forest Survey of India from...
611
Table 4: Region wise distribution of mangrove cover in Gujarat in 2017.
2
S.N. Region Mangrove Cover (km ) Percentage of State's mangrove cover
1 South Gujarat 17 1.49
2 Gulf of Khambhat 31 11.49
3 Gulf of Kachchh 188 16.49
4 Saurashtra region 6 0.53
5 Kachchh Region (including Kori Creek ) 798 70.00
Total 1140 100
(Source: FSI, 2017)
Table 5: District wise status of mangrove cover assessed from 2001 to 2017.
2
Sl. No. Name of Districts Mangrove Cover (Km ) with respect to assessment year
2001 2003 2005 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017
1 Ahmedabad 2 2 6 27 30 36 33 32
2 Amreli 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2
3 Anand 0 0 0 3 0 8 8 8
4 Bharuch 28 33 36 42 43 44 42 45
5 Bhavnagar 16 16 14 13 19 11 17 22
6 Jamnagar & Devbhoomi 142 141 150 157 159 167 173 184
Dwarka
7 Junagadh 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 3
8 Kachchh 706 749 707 775 778 789 786 798
9 Navsari 2 1 1 1 1 13 13 14
10 Porbandar 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1
11 Morbi 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 4
12 Surat 13 13 17 17 20 21 21 21
13 Vadodara 0 0 0 4 2 3 3 3
14 Valsad 0 2 2 5 2 3 3 3
Total 911 960 936 1046 1058 1103 1107 1140
cover the mangroves of the Gulf of Kachchh. The
2
remaining 13.86% (158 km ) mangrove cover is
distributed in eleven districts of Gujarat.
Table 6 indicate that Kachchh district has got the
highest mangrove area as per cent of its geographical
area, i.e., 1.748% and the lowest mangrove cover per cent
of its geographical area is 0.027% in Amreli district
Conclusion
This paper highlighted the decadal changes in
mangrove cover in India with special emphasis on
Gujarat state. It has been observed that the overall
mangrove cover of India increased during the 1987 to
st th
1996 (Assessment cycle 1 to 5 ) whereas in the
consecutive decade i.e. 1997-2006 (Assessment cycle
th th
6 to 10 ) considerable decline was noted due to
natural hazards. However, during 2007 to 2017
th th
(Assessment cycle 11 to 15 ) mangrove cover has
increased again. Gujarat state has shown consistent
visible increase in mangrove cover from 1987 to 2017,
2
i.e., 713 km .
Hkkjrh; ou losZ{k.k }kjk 1987 ls 2017 rd fd, x,
eYw ;kda u ij vk/kfjr Hkkjr e as dPN ouLifr vkoj.k dh xfrdh
vkj-Mh- dkEckst vkSj yksikeqnzk nkl
lkjka'k
'kks/i=k esa Hkkjrh; ou losZ{k.k dh izdkf'kr fjiksVZ ij vk/kfjr
1987 ls xqtjkr jkT; ij fo'ks"k tksj nsus ds lkFk Hkkjr esa dPN
ouLifr vkoj.k ds n'kdh; ifjorZuksa ds fo"k; esa fo'ys"k.kkRed
n`f"Vdks.k izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA Hkkjr esa xr rhu n'kdkas ds nkSjku
dPN ouLifr vkoj.k u s 21-6 ifz r'kr dh of` ¼ n'kkbZ Z gAS rFkkfi]
dPN ouLifr vkoj.k ns'k ds dqy HkkSxksfyd {ks=k dk 0-12
izfr'kr ls 0-15 izfr'kr rd c<+k gSA lHkh jkT;ksa vkSj la?k {ks=kksa esa
xqtjkr us blh vof/ esa dPN ouLifr vkoj.k esa vf/dre
o`f¼ (djhc 167 izfr'kr) fn[kkbZA xqtjkr ea 1987 esa dPN
ouLifr vkoj.k (427 oxZ fd-eh-) dh rqyuk esa ;g xr rhu
n'kdks ds nkSjku 2017 esa 1140 oxZ fd-eh- rd 2-66 xquk rd
c<+kA
References
FSI (1987). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1989). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1991). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1993). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1995). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1999). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (2001). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 36-39 pp.
FSI (2003). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 39-43 pp.
FSI (2005). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 27-30pp
FSI (2011). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 35-39 pp.
FSI (2013). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 33-37 pp.
FSI (2015). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 62-67 pp.
FSI (2017). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 55-61pp.
GEER (2019). A report on status of Mangrove forest cover-
Kachchh (East & West) division and Marine National Park &
Sanctuary, Jamnagar using remote sensing technology, at
midterm period ( study under Gujarat Forest Development
Project) Gandhinagar, Gujarat, 30 pp.
Giri C. Ochieng E., Tieszen L. L., Zhu Z., Singh A., Loveland
T., Masek J. and Duke N. (2011) Status and distribution of
mangrove forests of the world using earth observation
satellite data. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 20: 154-
159pp.
Gujarat Forest statistics. (2008-2017). Gujarat Forest
department, Gandhinagar
Integrated Research and Action for Development (IRADe).
(2017). Review of Status of Marine National Park, Jamnagar
& Evolving Vision Statement for Management of MNP. New
Dehi 110017, INDIA, pp. 156.
Jain S.P. (2007-08 to 2016-17). Management Plan of Marine
National Park & Sanctuary, Jamnagar, Forest Department
Gujarat, 175pp.
Kathiresan K. and Rajendran N. (2005). Coastal mangrove
forests mitigated tsunami. Estuarine, Coastal and shelf
science, 65(3): 601-606.
Kumar M., Chauhan H.B., Rajawat A.S., Kamboj R.D. and
Ajai (2013). Monitoring marine protected areas (MPAs) using
Geomatics: A case study in Gulf of Kachchh, Gujarat, India.
ISG Newsletter, 19 (3): 56-62.
MAP (1999). Mangrove Action Project. Standing at the Roots
of the Sea. Web Source:http://mangroveactionproject.org/
wp-content/uploads/2015/02/ Mangrove-Action-Project-
Presentation.pdf
Mazda Y., Magi M., Kogo M. and Hong P.N. (1997a).
Mangrove as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong
King delta, Vietnam. Mangroves Salt Marshes, 1: 127-135.
Mazda Y., Wolanski E., King B., Sase A., Ohtsuka D. and
Magi M. (1997b). Drag force due to vegetation in mangrove
swamps. Mangroves Salt Marshes, 1: 193-199.
Navalgund R. and Bahuguna A. (1999). Applications of
Remote Sensing and GIS in Coastal Zone Management and
Conservation: Indian Experience. Invited paper at UN
ESCAP/ISRO Science Symposium.
Nayak S., Pandeya A., Gupta M.C., Trivedi C.R., Prasad K.N.
and Kadri S.A. (1989). Application of satellite data for
monitoring degradation of tidal wetlands of Gulf of Kachchh,
Western India. Acta Astronautica, 20: 171-178.
Patel D.M., Patel V.M., Bhupesh K. and Patel K.A. (2014).
Performance of mangrove in tsunami resistance. Inter. J.
Emerging Technology and Research, 1(3): 29-32.
SAC (1998) Wetlands of India, Web Source:
http://www.gec.gov.in/envis/SoER_Table_htm/AreInlCoaWet.
htm
SAC (2012): Coastal zones of India. Ahmedabad, India.
Singh H.S. (2000). Mangroves in Gujarat (Current status and
strategy for conservation). GEER Foundation, Gandhinagar,
128p.
[July
612
2019] The dynamics of mangrove cover in India based on assessment done by Forest Survey of India from...
613
2
Table 6: District wise Mangroves cover in Gujarat (Area in Km ) (FSI, 2017).
S.N. Districts Very dense Moderately Open Total Change Mangrove cover as % of
mangrove dense mangrove w.r.t. 2015 geographical area of
mangrove assessment respective districts
A. South Gujarat
1 Navsari 0 0 14 14 1 0.634
2 Valsad 0 0 3 3 0 0.099
Total 0 0 17 17 1 -
B. Gulf of Khambhat
3 Ahmedabad 0 1 31 32 -1 0.396
4 Vadodara 0 0 3 3 0 0.040
5 Anand 0 0 8 8 0 0.271
6 Bharuch 0 14 31 45 3 0.689
7 Surat 0 4 17 21 0 0.475
8 Bhavnagar 0 6 16 22 5 0.220
Total 0 25 106 131 7 -
C. Gulf of Kachchh
9 Devbhoomi Dwarka 0 28 156 184 11 1.328
10 Jamnagar
11 Morbi 0 1 3 4 0 0.036
Total 0 29 159 188 11 -
D. Saurashtra region
12 Amreli 0 0 2 2 0 0.027
13 Junagadh 0 0 3 3 2 0.034
14 Porbandar 0 0 1 1 0 0.044
Total 0 0 6 6 2 -
D. Kachchh Region
15 Kachchh 0 118 680 798 12 1.748
Total 0 118 680 798 12 -
Total area for Gujarat 0 172 968 1140 33 -
cover the mangroves of the Gulf of Kachchh. The
2
remaining 13.86% (158 km ) mangrove cover is
distributed in eleven districts of Gujarat.
Table 6 indicate that Kachchh district has got the
highest mangrove area as per cent of its geographical
area, i.e., 1.748% and the lowest mangrove cover per cent
of its geographical area is 0.027% in Amreli district
Conclusion
This paper highlighted the decadal changes in
mangrove cover in India with special emphasis on
Gujarat state. It has been observed that the overall
mangrove cover of India increased during the 1987 to
st th
1996 (Assessment cycle 1 to 5 ) whereas in the
consecutive decade i.e. 1997-2006 (Assessment cycle
th th
6 to 10 ) considerable decline was noted due to
natural hazards. However, during 2007 to 2017
th th
(Assessment cycle 11 to 15 ) mangrove cover has
increased again. Gujarat state has shown consistent
visible increase in mangrove cover from 1987 to 2017,
2
i.e., 713 km .
Hkkjrh; ou losZ{k.k }kjk 1987 ls 2017 rd fd, x,
eYw ;kda u ij vk/kfjr Hkkjr e as dPN ouLifr vkoj.k dh xfrdh
vkj-Mh- dkEckst vkSj yksikeqnzk nkl
lkjka'k
'kks/i=k esa Hkkjrh; ou losZ{k.k dh izdkf'kr fjiksVZ ij vk/kfjr
1987 ls xqtjkr jkT; ij fo'ks"k tksj nsus ds lkFk Hkkjr esa dPN
ouLifr vkoj.k ds n'kdh; ifjorZuksa ds fo"k; esa fo'ys"k.kkRed
n`f"Vdks.k izLrqr fd;k x;k gSA Hkkjr esa xr rhu n'kdkas ds nkSjku
dPN ouLifr vkoj.k u s 21-6 ifz r'kr dh of` ¼ n'kkbZ Z gAS rFkkfi]
dPN ouLifr vkoj.k ns'k ds dqy HkkSxksfyd {ks=k dk 0-12
izfr'kr ls 0-15 izfr'kr rd c<+k gSA lHkh jkT;ksa vkSj la?k {ks=kksa esa
xqtjkr us blh vof/ esa dPN ouLifr vkoj.k esa vf/dre
o`f¼ (djhc 167 izfr'kr) fn[kkbZA xqtjkr ea 1987 esa dPN
ouLifr vkoj.k (427 oxZ fd-eh-) dh rqyuk esa ;g xr rhu
n'kdks ds nkSjku 2017 esa 1140 oxZ fd-eh- rd 2-66 xquk rd
c<+kA
References
FSI (1987). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1989). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1991). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1993). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1995). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (1999). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest.
FSI (2001). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 36-39 pp.
FSI (2003). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
Forest. 39-43 pp.
FSI (2005). Forest Survey of India. The state of Forest
Report. Government of India-Ministry of Environment and
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Table 6: District wise Mangroves cover in Gujarat (Area in Km ) (FSI, 2017).
S.N. Districts Very dense Moderately Open Total Change Mangrove cover as % of
mangrove dense mangrove w.r.t. 2015 geographical area of
mangrove assessment respective districts
A. South Gujarat
1 Navsari 0 0 14 14 1 0.634
2 Valsad 0 0 3 3 0 0.099
Total 0 0 17 17 1 -
B. Gulf of Khambhat
3 Ahmedabad 0 1 31 32 -1 0.396
4 Vadodara 0 0 3 3 0 0.040
5 Anand 0 0 8 8 0 0.271
6 Bharuch 0 14 31 45 3 0.689
7 Surat 0 4 17 21 0 0.475
8 Bhavnagar 0 6 16 22 5 0.220
Total 0 25 106 131 7 -
C. Gulf of Kachchh
9 Devbhoomi Dwarka 0 28 156 184 11 1.328
10 Jamnagar
11 Morbi 0 1 3 4 0 0.036
Total 0 29 159 188 11 -
D. Saurashtra region
12 Amreli 0 0 2 2 0 0.027
13 Junagadh 0 0 3 3 2 0.034
14 Porbandar 0 0 1 1 0 0.044
Total 0 0 6 6 2 -
D. Kachchh Region
15 Kachchh 0 118 680 798 12 1.748
Total 0 118 680 798 12 -
Total area for Gujarat 0 172 968 1140 33 -
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