Article

Hashemites, Egyptians and Saudis: the tripartite struggle for the pilgrimage in the shadow of Ottoman defeat

Article

Hashemites, Egyptians and Saudis: the tripartite struggle for the pilgrimage in the shadow of Ottoman defeat

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Abstract

Most analyses of the fate of the Hijaz and the Muslim pilgrimage after the First World War have focused on the struggle between Hashemites and Saudis. But in actuality the Egyptians were heavily involved in this dispute, for the Hijaz had been for centuries part of a geopolitical system based on the Red Sea littoral states. Indeed, this was a tripartite struggle, which afforded much more room for maneuver than a simple bilateral one. This article covers the maneuvers of all three parties, demonstrating how they tried to gain possession of the hajj, and all that meant for world Islamic leadership.

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The aim of this article is to present data from the first study using interviews with Swedish hajj pilgrims, conducted during 2016 and 2017 by the Institute for Language and Folklore, Gothenburg; the Museum of World Culture, Gothenburg; Södertörn University, Stockholm; and Gothenburg Univetsity. Among the questions asked within the framework of the project were, for example, how Swedish Muslims experience the hajj; how they prepare for the trip to Saudi Arabia; how the pilgrimage is organized by Swedish Muslim organizations (e.g. hajj travel agencies); whether the pilgrimage is only perceived as a religious journey; and whether the intergroup conflicts and varia- tions that exist among Muslims effect the hajj? The last question will be addressed by focusing on how Swedish Ahmadiyya Muslims are affected by the fact that the Pakistani and Saudi states do not regard them as Muslims.
Article
It is common knowledge that religion and politics in Islam are closely related, and that in this relationship, the prevalent mode has been for the man of the sword to dominate the man of the pen. This is so both in theory and practice: passive obedience to the ruler has been erected into a religious duty, while religious dignitaries, muftis, qadls, and such have been usually content to play the rôle of an attendant lord, one that will do To swell a progress, start a scene or two, Advise the prince; no doubt an easy tool, Deferential, glad to be of use, Politic, cautious and meticulous; Full of high sentence, but a bit obtuse;…
Article
In the latter years of the nineteenth and the first years of this century, Arab nationalists began to articulate their vision of a polity that would eventually replace the Ottoman framework. By the time Sharif Husayn ibn Ali alHashimi assumed the mantle of the Sharifate in Mecca in 1908, three ideas were in circulation which would have an impact on Husayn's vision of the post-Ottoman order. These were: the idea of a spiritual Sharifian or Arabian Caliphate; the importance of the Arabs, and of the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula in particular in an Islamic revival; and the important role the Hijaz should play in a post-Ottoman polity. While the polity that Husayn envisaged borrowed from previous formulations, it included ideas developed from his own experience as the leader of an Arabian chieftaincy. Husayn's vision was of a suzerainty, a ri'asah.
For an extensive examination of the Red Sea in history, see A. Wick, The Red Sea: in search of lost space
  • J Teitelbaum
J. Teitelbaum, 'Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the longue dur ee Struggle for Islam's Holiest Places', The Historical Journal Vol.60 (2017), pp.1-23; For an extensive examination of the Red Sea in history, see A. Wick, The Red Sea: in search of lost space (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2016).
The Early Wahhabis and the Sharifs of Makkah
  • Abdul Bari
M. Abdul Bari, 'The Early Wahhabis and the Sharifs of Makkah', Journal of the Pakistan Historical Society, 3 (1955), p.93; G. De Gaury, Rulers of Mecca (London: Harrap, 1951), p.181.
Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf
  • Lorimer
Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, p.1068;
On the Egyptian mahmal, see J. Jomier, Le Mahmal et La Caravane Egyptienne des P elerins de la Mecque (XIII-XX si ecles) (Cairo: L'Institut français, 1953)
  • Gazetteer Lorimer
  • Of The Persian
  • Gulf
Lorimer, Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, pp.1068-9. On the Egyptian mahmal, see J. Jomier, Le Mahmal et La Caravane Egyptienne des P elerins de la Mecque (XIII-XX si ecles) (Cairo: L'Institut français, 1953). On the Syrian Mahmal, see R. Tresse, Le P elerinage Syrien Aux Villes Saintes de L'Islam (Paris: Chaumette, 1937).
The Making of Saudi Arabia
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J. Kostiner, 'The Making of Saudi Arabia' (PhD thesis, LSE, 1982), p.160;
particularly after the capture of al-Hasa from the Ottomans in 1913, but during the war years the strategic location of the Hijaz next to Egypt and the Suez Canal, along with Husayn's religious bona fides, made it no contest
The Government of India, which was responsible for the Persian Gulf, tended to support Ibn Saud, particularly after the capture of al-Hasa from the Ottomans in 1913, but during the war years the strategic location of the Hijaz next to Egypt and the Suez Canal, along with Husayn's religious bona fides, made it no contest. After the war, however, a combination of Ibn Saud's successes and Husayn's excesses with Indian pilgrims moved the Government of India to throw its full support behind the Wahhabi chieftain. See Gary Troeller, 'Ibn Saud and Sharif Husain: A Comparison in Importance in the Early Years of the First World War', The Historical Journal 14 (1971), pp.627-33.
India Office L/P&S/10/926, P3115; Marshall to Curzon
  • Curzon Marshall To
Marshall to Curzon, 22 May 1922, FO 371/7713/E 6037; Marshall to Balfour, 20 June 1922 (Jidda Report for 1-20 June), India Office L/P&S/10/926, P3115; Marshall to Curzon, 21 November 1922 (Jidda Report for 1-31
India Office, L/P&S/10/936, P1888; the letter was most certainly written before Husayn's proclamation of himself as caliph
Bombay Chronicle, 1 April 1924, India Office, L/P&S/10/936, P1888; the letter was most certainly written before Husayn's proclamation of himself as caliph;
The Khilafat Committee was actually divided between pro-Husayn and pro-Ibn Saud forces. Muhammad and Shawkat Ali initially supported Ibn Saud, while Maulana Abdul Bari and other Sufi leaders were wary of Wahhabism and founded a rival organization, the Jamiat al-Khuddam al-Haramain
  • A C Niemeijer
The two major sources on the Khilafat movement are Gail Minault, The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India (New York: CU Press, 1982), and A. C. Niemeijer, The Khilafat Movement in India, 1919-1924 (The Hague: Nijhoff, 1972). The Khilafat Committee was actually divided between pro-Husayn and pro-Ibn Saud forces. Muhammad and Shawkat Ali initially supported Ibn Saud, while Maulana Abdul Bari and other Sufi leaders were wary of Wahhabism and founded a rival organization, the Jamiat al-Khuddam al-Haramain. See Minault, The Khilafat Movement, pp.206-7;
FO 371/10809/E 4126; Loder Park, Aden, to Secretary of State
  • Chamberlain Bullard To
Bullard to Chamberlain, 30 June 1925 (Jidda Report for 30 May-30 June), FO 371/10809/E 4126; Loder Park, Aden, to Secretary of State, 8 July 1925, in I. al-Rashid, Documents on the History of Saudi Arabia, I (Salisbury, NC: Documentary Publications, 1976), I, pp.1-10.
Egypt and the Caliphate
  • Kedourie
Kedourie, 'Egypt and the Caliphate, 1914-1946'.
Alexandria) to Foreign Office
  • Kerr
Kerr (Alexandria) to Foreign Office, no. 330, 11 October 1924, FO 371/10014; Teitelbaum, 'Saudi Arabia'.
Shaykh Maraghi's Mission to the Hijaz
  • M Kramer
M. Kramer, 'Shaykh Maraghi's Mission to the Hijaz, 1925', Asian and African Studies Vol.16 (1982), pp.121-36;
FO 371/10809; A. Sayed, 'Friendship & Cooperation Treaty between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the kingdom of Egypt
  • Henderson
Henderson (Alexandria) to FO, no. 352, 6 October 1925, FO 371/10809; A. Sayed, 'Friendship & Cooperation Treaty between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the kingdom of Egypt May-November 1936', Liwa: Journal of the National Archives, Vol.6 (2014), pp.27-52;
The Arab Cold War: Gamal Abd al-Nasir and His Rivals
  • M Kerr
M. Kerr, The Arab Cold War: Gamal Abd al-Nasir and His Rivals, 1958-1970 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971).