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Risks to Health and Well-Being From Radio-Frequency Radiation Emitted by Cell Phones and Other Wireless Devices

  • Environmental Health Trust


Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to radio-frequency radiation 1 (RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published literature and categorized RFR as a "possible" (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume, and the young, thin skull's bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose. Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.
published: 13 August 2019
doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00223
Frontiers in Public Health | 1August 2019 | Volume 7 | Article 223
Edited by:
Dariusz Leszczynski,
University of Helsinki, Finland
Reviewed by:
Lorenzo Manti,
University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Sareesh Naduvil Narayanan,
Ras al-Khaimah Medical and Health
Sciences University,
United Arab Emirates
Anthony B. Miller
Specialty section:
This article was submitted to
Radiation and Health,
a section of the journal
Frontiers in Public Health
Received: 10 April 2019
Accepted: 25 July 2019
Published: 13 August 2019
Miller AB, Sears ME, Morgan LL,
Davis DL, Hardell L, Oremus M and
Soskolne CL (2019) Risks to Health
and Well-Being From
Radio-Frequency Radiation Emitted by
Cell Phones and Other Wireless
Devices. Front. Public Health 7:223.
doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00223
Risks to Health and Well-Being From
Radio-Frequency Radiation Emitted
by Cell Phones and Other Wireless
Anthony B. Miller 1
*, Margaret E. Sears 2, L. Lloyd Morgan 3, Devra L. Davis 3,
Lennart Hardell 4, Mark Oremus 5and Colin L. Soskolne 6,7
1Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2Ottawa Hospital Research Institute,
Prevent Cancer Now, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 3Environmental Health Trust, Teton Village, WY, United States, 4The Environment
and Cancer Research Foundation, Örebro, Sweden, 5School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo,
Waterloo, ON, Canada, 6School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada, 7Health Research Institute,
University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia
Radiation exposure has long been a concern for the public, policy makers, and
health researchers. Beginning with radar during World War II, human exposure to
radio-frequency radiation1(RFR) technologies has grown substantially over time. In
2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reviewed the published
literature and categorized RFR as a “possible” (Group 2B) human carcinogen. A broad
range of adverse human health effects associated with RFR have been reported
since the IARC review. In addition, three large-scale carcinogenicity studies in rodents
exposed to levels of RFR that mimic lifetime human exposures have shown significantly
increased rates of Schwannomas and malignant gliomas, as well as chromosomal DNA
damage. Of particular concern are the effects of RFR exposure on the developing
brain in children. Compared with an adult male, a cell phone held against the head
of a child exposes deeper brain structures to greater radiation doses per unit volume,
and the young, thin skull’s bone marrow absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher local dose.
Experimental and observational studies also suggest that men who keep cell phones
in their trouser pockets have significantly lower sperm counts and significantly impaired
sperm motility and morphology, including mitochondrial DNA damage. Based on the
accumulated evidence, we recommend that IARC re-evaluate its 2011 classification
of the human carcinogenicity of RFR, and that WHO complete a systematic review of
multiple other health effects such as sperm damage. In the interim, current knowledge
provides justification for governments, public health authorities, and physicians/allied
health professionals to warn the population that having a cell phone next to the body
is harmful, and to support measures to reduce all exposures to RFR.
Keywords: brain cancer, electromagnetic hypersensitivity, glioma, non-cancer outcomes, policy
recommendations, radiofrequency fields, child development, acoustic neuroma
1Per IEEE C95.1-1991, the radio-frequency radiation frequency range is from 3 kHz to 300 GHz and is non-ionizing.
Miller et al. Risks From Radiofrequency Radiation
We live in a generation that relies heavily on technology. Whether
for personal use or work, wireless devices, such as cell phones,
are commonly used around the world, and exposure to radio-
frequency radiation (RFR) is widespread, including in public
spaces (1,2).
In this review, we address the current scientific evidence
on health risks from exposure to RFR, which is in the non-
ionizing frequency range. We focus here on human health effects,
but also note evidence that RFR can cause physiological and/or
morphological effects on bees, plants and trees (35).
We recognize a diversity of opinions on the potential adverse
effects of RFR exposure from cell or mobile phones and other
wireless transmitting devices (WTDs) including cordless phones
and Wi-Fi. The paradigmatic approach in cancer epidemiology,
which considers the body of epidemiological, toxicological,
and mechanistic/cellular evidence when assessing causality,
is applied.
Since 1998, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing
Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has maintained that no evidence
of adverse biological effects of RFR exist, other than tissue heating
at exposures above prescribed thresholds (6).
In contrast, in 2011, an expert working group of the
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) categorized
RFR emitted by cell phones and other WTDs as a Group 2B
(“possible”) human carcinogen (7).
Since the IARC categorization, analyses of the large
international Interphone study, a series of studies by the Hardell
group in Sweden, and the French CERENAT case-control
studies, signal increased risks of brain tumors, particularly
with ipsilateral use (8). The largest case-control studies on cell
phone exposure and glioma and acoustic neuroma demonstrated
significantly elevated risks that tended to increase with increasing
latency, increasing cumulative duration of use, ipsilateral phone
use, and earlier age at first exposure (8).
Pooled analyses by the Hardell group that examined risk of
glioma and acoustic neuroma stratified by age at first exposure
to cell phones found the highest odds ratios among those first
exposed before age 20 years (911). For glioma, first use of cell
phones before age 20 years resulted in an odds ratio (OR) of 1.8
(95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2–2.8). For ipsilateral use, the
OR was 2.3 (CI 1.3-4.2); contralateral use was 1.9 (CI 0.9-3.7).
Use of cordless phone before age 20 yielded OR 2.3 (CI 1.4–3.9),
ipsilateral OR 3.1 (CI 1.6–6.3) and contralateral use OR 1.5 (CI
0.6–3.8) (9).
Although Karipidis et al. (12) and Nilsson et al. (13) found
no evidence of an increased incidence of gliomas in recent years
in Australia and Sweden, respectively, Karipidis et al. (12) only
reported on brain tumor data for ages 20–59 and Nilsson et al.
(13) failed to include data for high grade glioma. In contrast,
others have reported evidence that increases in specific types of
brain tumors seen in laboratory studies are occurring in Britain
and the US:
The incidence of neuro-epithelial brain cancers has
significantly increased in all children, adolescent, and
young adult age groupings from birth to 24 years in the
United States (14,15).
A sustained and statistically significant rise in glioblastoma
multiforme across all ages has been described in the UK (16).
The incidence of several brain tumors are increasing at
statistically significant rates, according to the 2010–2017 Central
Brain Tumor Registry of the U.S. (CBTRUS) dataset (17).
There was a significant increase in incidence of
radiographically diagnosed tumors of the pituitary from
2006 to 2012 (APC =7.3% [95% CI: 4.1%, 10.5%]), with no
significant change in incidence from 2012 to 2015 (18).
Meningioma rates have increased in all age groups from 15
through 85+years.
Nerve sheath tumor (Schwannoma) rates have increased in all
age groups from age 20 through 84 years.
Vestibular Schwannoma rates, as a percentage of nerve sheath
tumors, have also increased from 58% in 2004 to 95% in
Epidemiological evidence was subsequently reviewed and
incorporated in a meta-analysis by Röösli et al. (19). They
concluded that overall, epidemiological evidence does not
suggest increased brain or salivary gland tumor risk with mobile
phone (MP) use, although the authors admitted that some
uncertainty remains regarding long latency periods (>15 years),
rare brain tumor subtypes, and MP usage during childhood. Of
concern is that these analyses included cohort studies with poor
exposure classification (20).
In epidemiological studies, recall bias can play a substantial
role in the attenuation of odds ratios toward the null hypothesis.
An analysis of data from one large multicenter case-control
study of RFR exposure, did not find that recall bias was
an issue (21). In another multi-country study it was found
that young people can recall phone use moderately well, with
recall depending on the amount of phone use and participants’
characteristics (22). With less rigorous querying of exposure,
prospective cohort studies are unfortunately vulnerable to
exposure misclassification and imprecision in identifying risk
from rare events, to the point that negative results from such
studies are misleading (8,23).
Another example of disparate results from studies of different
design focuses on prognosis for patients with gliomas, depending
upon cell phone use. A Swedish study on glioma found lower
survival in patients with glioblastoma associated with long term
use of wireless phones (24). Ollson et al. (25), however, reported
no indication of reduced survival among glioblastoma patients
in Denmark, Finland and Sweden with a history of mobile
phone use (ever regular use, time since start of regular use,
cumulative call time overall or in the last 12 months) relative to
no or non-regular use. Notably, Olsson et al. (25) differed from
Carlberg and Hardell (24) in that the study did not include use of
cordless phones, used shorter latency time and excluded patients
older than 69 years. Furthermore, a major shortcoming was that
patients with the worst prognosis were excluded, as in Finland
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inoperable cases were excluded, all of which would bias the risk
estimate toward unity.
In the interim, three large-scale toxicological (animal
carcinogenicity) studies support the human evidence, as do
modeling, cellular and DNA studies identifying vulnerable sub-
groups of the population.
The U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) (National
Toxicology Program (26,27) has reported significantly increased
incidence of glioma and malignant Schwannoma (mostly on the
nerves on the heart, but also additional organs) in large animal
carcinogenicity studies with exposure to levels of RFR that did
not significantly heat tissue. Multiple organs (e.g., brain, heart)
also had evidence of DNA damage. Although these findings have
been dismissed by the ICNIRP (28), one of the key originators of
the NTP study has refuted the criticisms (29).
A study by Italy’s Ramazzini Institute has evaluated lifespan
environmental exposure of rodents to RFR, as generated by 1.8
GHz GSM antennae of cell phone radio base stations. Although
the exposures were 60 to 6,000 times lower than those in the
NTP study, statistically significant increases in Schwannomas
of the heart in male rodents exposed to the highest dose, and
Schwann-cell hyperplasia in the heart in male and female rodents
were observed (30). A non-statistically significant increase in
malignant glial tumors in female rodents also was detected. These
findings with far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and
reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure.
Both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the
brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats, which are
tumors of the same histological type as those observed in some
epidemiological studies on cell phone users.
Further, in a 2015 animal carcinogenicity study, tumor
promotion by exposure of mice to RFR at levels below exposure
limits for humans was demonstrated (31). Co-carcinogenicity
of RFR was also demonstrated by Soffritti and Giuliani (32)
who examined both power-line frequency magnetic fields as
well as 1.8 GHz modulated RFR. They found that exposure to
Sinusoidal-50 Hz Magnetic Field (S-50 Hz MF) combined with
acute exposure to gamma radiation or to chronic administration
of formaldehyde in drinking water induced a significantly
increased incidence of malignant tumors in male and female
Sprague Dawley rats. In the same report, preliminary results
indicate higher incidence of malignant Schwannoma of the heart
after exposure to RFR in male rats. Given the ubiquity of many of
these co-carcinogens, this provides further evidence to support
the recommendation to reduce the public’s exposure to RFR to as
low as is reasonably achievable.
Finally, a case series highlights potential cancer risk from
cell phones carried close to the body. West et al. (33) reported
four “extraordinary” multifocal breast cancers that arose directly
under the antennae of the cell phones habitually carried within
the bra, on the sternal side of the breast (the opposite of
the norm). We note that case reports can point to major
unrecognized hazards and avenues for further investigation,
although they do not usually provide direct causal evidence.
In a study of four groups of men, of which one group did not
use mobile phones, it was found that DNA damage indicators in
hair follicle cells in the ear canal were higher in the RFR exposure
groups than in the control subjects. In addition, DNA damage
increased with the daily duration of exposure (34).
Many profess that RFR cannot be carcinogenic as it has
insufficient energy to cause direct DNA damage. In a review,
Vijayalaxmi and Prihoda (35) found some studies suggested
significantly increased damage in cells exposed to RF energy
compared to unexposed and/or sham-exposed control cells,
others did not. Unfortunately, however, in grading the evidence,
these authors failed to consider baseline DNA status or the fact
that genotoxicity has been poorly predicted using tissue culture
studies (36). As well funding, a strong source of bias in this field
of enquiry, was not considered (37).
As a result of rapid growth rates and the greater vulnerability of
developing nervous systems, the long-term risks to children from
RFR exposure from cell phones and other WTDs are expected
to be greater than those to adults (38). By analogy with other
carcinogens, longer opportunities for exposure due to earlier use
of cell phones and other WTDs could be associated with greater
cancer risks in later life.
Modeling of energy absorption can be an indicator of potential
exposure to RFR. A study modeling the exposure of children 3–
14 years of age to RFR has indicated that a cell phone held against
the head of a child exposes deeper brain structures to roughly
double the radiation doses (including fluctuating electrical and
magnetic fields) per unit volume than in adults, and also that the
marrow in the young, thin skull absorbs a roughly 10-fold higher
local dose than in the skull of an adult male (39). Thus, pediatric
populations are among the most vulnerable to RFR exposure.
The increasing use of cell phones in children, which can be
regarded as a form of addictive behavior (40), has been shown
to be associated with emotional and behavioral disorders. Divan
et al. (41) studied 13,000 mothers and children and found that
prenatal exposure to cell phones was associated with behavioral
problems and hyperactivity in children. A subsequent Danish
study of 24,499 children found a 23% increased odds of emotional
and behavioral difficulties at age 11 years among children whose
mothers reported any cell phone use at age 7 years, compared to
children whose mothers reported no use at age 7 years (42). A
cross-sectional study of 4,524 US children aged 8–11 years from
20 study sites indicated that shorter screen time and longer sleep
periods independently improved child cognition, with maximum
benefits achieved with low screen time and age-appropriate
sleep times (43). Similarly, a cohort study of Swiss adolescents
suggested a potential adverse effect of RFR on cognitive functions
that involve brain regions mostly exposed during mobile phone
use (44). Sage and Burgio et al. (45) posit that epigenetic drivers
and DNA damage underlie adverse effects of wireless devices on
childhood development.
RFR exposure occurs in the context of other exposures, both
beneficial (e.g., nutrition) and adverse (e.g., toxicants or stress).
Two studies identified that RFR potentiated adverse effects of
lead on neurodevelopment, with higher maternal use of mobile
phones during pregnancy [1,198 mother-child pairs, (46)] and
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Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD) with higher
cell phone use and higher blood lead levels, in 2,422 elementary
school children (47).
A study of Mobile Phone Base Station Tower settings adjacent
to school buildings has found that high exposure of male students
to RFR from these towers was associated with delayed fine and
gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in
adolescent students, compared with students who were exposed
to low RFR (48). A recent prospective cohort study showed
a potential adverse effect of RFR brain dose on adolescents’
cognitive functions including spatial memory that involve brain
regions exposed during cell phone use (44).
In a review, Pall (49) concluded that various non-thermal
microwave EMF exposures produce diverse neuropsychiatric
effects. Both animal research (5052) and human studies of
brain imaging research (5356) indicate potential roles of RFR
in these outcomes.
Male fertility has been addressed in cross-sectional studies
in men. Associations between keeping cell phones in trouser
pockets and lower sperm quantity and quality have been reported
(57). Both in vivo and in vitro studies with human sperm
confirm adverse effects of RFR on the testicular proteome and
other indicators of male reproductive health (57,58), including
infertility (59). Rago et al. (60) found significantly altered sperm
DNA fragmentation in subjects who use mobile phones for
more than 4 h/day and in particular those who place the device
in the trousers pocket. In a cohort study, Zhang et al. (61)
found that cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality
in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration,
or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility. Gautam et al. (62)
studied the effect of 3G (1.8–2.5 GHz) mobile phone radiation
on the reproductive system of male Wistar rats. They found
that exposure to mobile phone radiation induces oxidative stress
in the rats which may lead to alteration in sperm parameters
affecting their fertility.
An extensive review of numerous published studies confirms
non-thermally induced biological effects or damage (e.g.,
oxidative stress, damaged DNA, gene and protein expression,
breakdown of the blood-brain barrier) from exposure to RFR
(63), as well as adverse (chronic) health effects from long-
term exposure (64). Biological effects of typical population
exposures to RFR are largely attributed to fluctuating electrical
and magnetic fields (6567).
Indeed, an increasing number of people have developed
constellations of symptoms attributed to exposure to RFR (e.g.,
headaches, fatigue, appetite loss, insomnia), a syndrome termed
Microwave Sickness or Electro-Hyper-Sensitivity (EHS) (6870).
Causal inference is supported by consistency between
epidemiological studies of the effects of RFR on induction of
human cancer, especially glioma and vestibular Schwannomas,
and evidence from animal studies (8). The combined weight
of the evidence linking RFR to public health risks includes
a broad array of findings: experimental biological evidence of
non-thermal effects of RFR; concordance of evidence regarding
carcinogenicity of RFR; human evidence of male reproductive
damage; human and animal evidence of developmental harms;
and limited human and animal evidence of potentiation of effects
from chemical toxicants. Thus, diverse, independent evidence
of a potentially troubling and escalating problem warrants
policy intervention.
Advances in RFR-related technologies have been and continue
to be rapid. Changes in carrier frequencies and the growing
complexity of modulation technologies can quickly render
“yesterdays” technologies obsolete. This rapid obsolescence
restricts the amount of data on human RFR exposure to
particular frequencies, modulations and related health outcomes
that can be collected during the lifespan of the technology
in question.
Epidemiological studies with adequate statistical power must
be based upon large numbers of participants with sufficient
latency and intensity of exposure to specific technologies.
Therefore, a lack of epidemiological evidence does not necessarily
indicate an absence of effect, but rather an inability to
study an exposure for the length of time necessary, with an
adequate sample size and unexposed comparators, to draw
clear conclusions. For example, no case-control study has been
published on fourth generation (4G; 2–8 GHz) Long-term
Evolution (LTE) modulation, even though the modulation was
introduced in 2010 and achieved a 39% market share worldwide
by 2018 (71).
With this absence of human evidence, governments must
require large-scale animal studies (or other appropriate studies
of indicators of carcinogenicity and other adverse health effects)
to determine whether the newest modulation technologies incur
risks, prior to release into the marketplace. Governments should
also investigate short-term impacts such as insomnia, memory,
reaction time, hearing and vision, especially those that can occur
in children and adolescents, whose use of wireless devices has
grown exponentially within the past few years.
The Telecom industry’s fifth generation (5G) wireless
service will require the placement of many times more small
antennae/cell towers close to all recipients of the service,
because solid structures, rain and foliage block the associated
millimeter wave RFR (72). Frequency bands for 5G are separated
into two different frequency ranges. Frequency Range 1 (FR1)
includes sub-6 GHz frequency bands, some of which are bands
traditionally used by previous standards, but has been extended
to cover potential new spectrum offerings from 410 to 7,125
MHz. Frequency Range 2 (FR2) includes higher frequency
bands from 24.25 to 52.6 GHz. Bands in FR2 are largely of
millimeter wave length, these have a shorter range but a higher
available bandwidth than bands in the FR1. 5G technology is
being developed as it is also being deployed, with large arrays
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of directional, steerable, beam-forming antennae, operating at
higher power than previous technologies. 5G is not stand-alone—
it will operate and interface with other (including 3G and 4G)
frequencies and modulations to enable diverse devices under
continual development for the “internet of things,” driverless
vehicles and more (72).
Novel 5G technology is being rolled out in several
densely populated cities, although potential chronic health
or environmental impacts have not been evaluated and are
not being followed. Higher frequency (shorter wavelength)
radiation associated with 5G does not penetrate the body as
deeply as frequencies from older technologies although its
effects may be systemic (73,74). The range and magnitude
of potential impacts of 5G technologies are under-researched,
although important biological outcomes have been reported with
millimeter wavelength exposure. These include oxidative stress
and altered gene expression, effects on skin and systemic effects
such as on immune function (74). In vivo studies reporting
resonance with human sweat ducts (73), acceleration of bacterial
and viral replication, and other endpoints indicate the potential
for novel as well as more commonly recognized biological
impacts from this range of frequencies, and highlight the need
for research before population-wide continuous exposures.
Current exposure limits are based on an assumption that the
only adverse health effect from RFR is heating from short-term
(acute), time-averaged exposures (75). Unfortunately, in some
countries, notably the US, scientific evidence of the potential
hazards of RFR has been largely dismissed (76). Findings of
carcinogenicity, infertility and cell damage occurring at daily
exposure levels—within current limits—indicate that existing
exposure standards are not sufficiently protective of public
health. Evidence of carcinogenicity alone, such as that from
the NTP study, should be sufficient to recognize that current
exposure limits are inadequate.
Public health authorities in many jurisdictions have not yet
incorporated the latest science from the U.S. NTP or other
groups. Many cite 28-year old guidelines by the Institute of
Electrical and Electronic Engineers which claimed that “Research
on the effects of chronic exposure and speculations on the
biological significance of non-thermal interactions have not
yet resulted in any meaningful basis for alteration of the
standard” (77)2.
Conversely, some authorities have taken specific actions to
reduce exposure to their citizens (78), including testing and
recalling phones that exceed current exposure limits.
While we do not know how risks to individuals from using cell
phones may be offset by the benefits to public health of being able
to summon timely health, fire and police emergency services, the
findings reported above underscore the importance of evaluating
potential adverse health effects from RFR exposure, and taking
pragmatic, practical actions to minimize exposure.
2The FCC adopted the IEEE C95.1 1991 standard in 1996.
We propose the following considerations to address gaps in
the current body of evidence:
As many claim that we should by now be seeing an increase in
the incidence of brain tumors if RFR causes them, ignoring
the increases in brain tumors summarized above, a detailed
evaluation of age-specific, location-specific trends in the
incidence of gliomas in many countries is warranted.
Studies should be designed to yield the strongest evidence,
most efficiently:
Population-based case-control designs can be more
statistically powerful to determine relationships with rare
outcomes such as glioma, than cohort studies. Such studies
should explore the relationship between energy absorption
(SAR3), duration of exposure, and adverse outcomes,
especially brain cancer, cardiomyopathies and abnormal
cardiac rythms, hematologic malignancies, thyroid cancer.
Cohort studies are inefficient in the study of rare outcomes
with long latencies, such as glioma, because of cost-
considerations relating to the follow-up required of very
large cohorts needed for the study of rare outcomes. In
addition, without continual resource-consuming follow-
up at frequent intervals, it is not possible to ascertain
ongoing information about changing technologies, uses
(e.g., phoning vs. texting or accessing the Internet)
and/or exposures.
Cross-sectional studies comparing high-, medium-, and
low-exposure persons may yield hypothesis-generating
information about a range of outcomes relating to
memory, vision, hearing, reaction-time, pain, fertility, and
sleep patterns.
Exposure assessment is poor in this field, with very little fine-
grained detail as to frequencies and modulations, doses and
dose rates, and peak exposures, particularly over the long-
term. Solutions such as wearable meters and phone apps have
not yet been incorporated in large-scale research.
Systematic reviews on the topic could use existing databases
of research reports, such as the one created by Oceania
Radiofrequency Science Advisory Association (79) or EMF
Portal (80), to facilitate literature searches.
Studies should be conducted to determine appropriate
locations for installation of antennae and other broadcasting
systems; these studies should include examination of
biomarkers of inflammation, genotoxicity, and other health
indicators in persons who live at different radiuses around
these installations. This is difficult to study in the general
population because many people’s greatest exposure arises
from their personal devices.
Further work should be undertaken to determine the
distance that wireless technology antennae should be kept
away from humans to ensure acceptable levels of safety,
distinguishing among a broad range of sources (e.g., from
commercial transmitters to Bluetooth devices), recognizing
that exposures fall with the inverse of the square of the distance
3When necessary, SAR values should be adjusted for age of child in W/kg.
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(The inverse-square law specifies that intensity is inversely
proportional to the square of the distance from the source of
radiation). The effective radiated power from cell towers needs
to be regularly measured and monitored.
At the time of writing, a total of 32 countries or governmental
bodies within these countries4have issued policies and health
recommendations concerning exposure to RFR (78). Three U.S.
states have issued advisories to limit exposure to RFR (8183)
and the Worcester Massachusetts Public Schools (84) voted to post
precautionary guidelines on Wi-Fi radiation on its website. In
France, Wi-Fi has been removed from pre-schools and ordered to
be shut off in elementary schools when not in use, and children
aged 16 years or under are banned from bringing cell phones
to school (85). Because the national test agency found 9 out of
10 phones exceeded permissible radiation limits, France is also
recalling several million phones.
We therefore recommend the following:
1. Governmental and institutional support of data collection and
analysis to monitor potential links between RFR associated
with wireless technology and cancers, sperm, the heart,
the nervous system, sleep, vision and hearing, and effects
on children.
2. Further dissemination of information regarding potential
health risk information that is in wireless devices and manuals
is necessary to respect users’ Right To Know. Cautionary
statements and protective measures should be posted on
packaging and at points of sale. Governments should follow
the practice of France, Israel and Belgium and mandate
labeling, as for tobacco and alcohol.
3. Regulations should require that any WTD that could be used
or carried directly against the skin (e.g., a cell phone) or in
close proximity (e.g., a device being used on the lap of a
small child) be tested appropriately as used, and that this
information be prominently displayed at point of sale, on
packaging, and both on the exterior and within the device.
4. IARC should convene a new working group to update the
categorization of RFR, including current scientific findings
4Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Cyprus, Denmark,
European Environmental Agency, European Parliament, Finland, France, French
Polynesia, Germany, Greece, Italy, India, Ireland, Israel, Namibia, New Zealand,
Poland, Romania, Russia, Singapore, Spain, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania,
Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.
that highlight, in particular, risks to youngsters of subsequent
cancers. We note that an IARC Advisory Group has recently
recommended that RFR should be re-evaluated by the IARC
Monographs program with high priority.
5. The World Health Organization (WHO) should complete
its long-standing RFR systematic review project, using
strong modern scientific methods. National and regional
public health authorities similarly need to update their
understanding and to provide adequate precautionary
guidance for the public to minimize potential health risks.
6. Emerging human evidence is confirming animal evidence
of developmental problems with RFR exposure during
pregnancy. RFR sources should be avoided and distanced
from expectant mothers, as recommended by physicians and
scientists (
7. Other countries should follow France, limiting RFR exposure
in children under 16 years of age.
8. Cell towers should be distanced from homes, daycare centers,
schools, and places frequented by pregnant women, men who
wish to father healthy children, and the young.
Specific examples of how the health policy recommendations
above, invoking the Precautionary Principle, might be practically
applied to protect public health, are provided in the Annex.
All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and intellectual
contribution to the work, and approved it for publication.
The authors acknowledge the contributions of Mr. Ali Siddiqui in
drafting the Policy Recommendations, and those from members
of the Board of the International Network for Epidemiology in
Policy (INEP) into previous iterations of this manuscript. We
are grateful to external reviewers for their thoughtful critiques
that have served to improve both accuracy and presentation.This
manuscript was initially developed by the authors as a draft of a
Position Statement of INEP. The opportunity was then provided
to INEP’s 23 member organizations to endorse what the INEP
Board had recommended, but 12 of those member organizations
elected not to vote. Of the 11 that did vote, three endorsed the
statement, two voted against it, and six abstained. Ultimately, the
Board voted to abandon its involvement with what it determined
to be a divisive topic. The authors then decided that, in the
public interest, the document should be published independent
of INEP.
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Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare that this manuscript was
drafted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be
construed as a potential conflict of interest, although subsequent to its preparation,
DD became a consultant to legal counsel representing persons with glioma
attributed to radiation from cell phones.
Copyright © 2019 Miller, Sears, Morgan, Davis, Hardell, Oremus and
Soskolne. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or
reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s)
and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in
this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use,
distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these
Frontiers in Public Health | 9August 2019 | Volume 7 | Article 223
Miller et al. Risks From Radiofrequency Radiation
1. Focus actions for reducing exposure to RFR on pregnant
women, infants, children and adolescents, as well as males who
might wish to become fathers.
2. Reduce, as much as possible, the extent to which infants
and young children are exposed to RFR from Wi-Fi-enabled
devices such as baby monitors, wearable devices, cell phones,
tablets, etc.
3. Avoid placing cell towers and small cell antennae close to
schools and homes pending further research and revision
of the existing exposure limits. In schools, homes and
the workplace, cable or optical fiber connections to the
Internet are preferred. Wi-Fi routers in schools and
daycares/kindergartens should be strongly discouraged
and programs instituted to provide Internet access via cable
or fiber.
4. Ensure that WTDs minimize radiation by transmitting
only when necessary, and as infrequently as is feasible.
Examples include transmitting only in response to a
signal (e.g., accessing a router or querying a device, a
cordless phone handset being turned on, or voice or
motion activation). Prominent, visible power switches are
needed to ensure that WTDs can be easily turned on
only when needed, and off when not required (e.g., Wi-Fi
when sleeping).
5. Lower permitted power densities in close proximity to fixed-
site antennae, from “occupational” limits to exposure limits
for the general public.
6. Update current exposure limits to be protective against the
non-thermal effects of RFR. Such action should be taken
by all heath ministries and public health agencies, as well
as industry regulatory bodies. Exposure limits should be
based on measurements of RFR levels related to biological
effects (2).
7. Ensure that advisories relating to cell phone use are placed in
such a way that purchasers can find them easily, similar to the
Berkeley Cell Phone “Right to Know” Ordinance (86).
8. Advise the public that texting and speaker mode are preferable
to holding cell phones to the ear. Alternatively, use hands-free
accessories for cell phones, including air tube headsets that
interrupt the transmission of RFR.
9. When possible, keep cell phones away from the body (e.g., on
a nearby desk, in a purse or bag, or on a mounted hands-free
accessory in motor vehicles).
10. Delay the widespread implementation of 5G (and any
other new technology) until studies can be conducted to
assess safety. This includes a wide range of household
and community-wide infrastructure WTDs and self-driving
vehicles, as well as the building of 5G minicells.
11. Fiber-optic connections for the Internet should be made
available to every home, office, school, warehouse and factory,
when and where possible.
ALARA As Low a level As Reasonably Achievable
CBTRUS Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States
CI Confidence Interval
EMR Electro Magnetic Radiation
IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer
ICNIRP International Commission on Non-Ionizing
Radiation Protection
INEP International Network for Epidemiology in Policy
LTE Long-Term Evolution modulation
NTP U.S. National Toxicology Program
OR Odds Ratio
RFR Radio-Frequency Radiation
SAR Specific Absorption Rate
WTD Wireless Transmitting Device
Frontiers in Public Health | 10 August 2019 | Volume 7 | Article 223
... Among the various factors that have been studied, consistent exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by mobile phones is 1 environmental factor that has been suggested to potentially influence their development [ 4 -6 ]. After the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified RFR from mobile phones as a "possible" human carcinogen (Group 2B) in 2011, several epidemiological studies have investigated the potential link between the risk of nonmalignant tumors, such as cranial vestibular schwannomas, and heavy mobile phone use, especially among individuals who consistently use their device on the same side of the head [7] . Although the findings remain controversial, there is also evidence indicating that men who regularly carry their mobile phones in their trouser pockets or on belts near the testes may experience a decline in sperm quality [ 8 ,9 ]. ...
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We report a case of a 40-year-old Italian man presenting with an intramuscular schwannoma in his left thigh, which coincided with the area where he habitually stored his smartphone (front left trouser pocket). An ultrasound examination revealed a well-defined, encapsulated, hypoechoic lesion (41 × 15 × 28 mm) within the muscle, showing multiple small foci of vascularity on color Doppler. Elastographic analysis indicated a deformability score of 2, with some areas of stiffness. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a spindle-shaped mass in the tensor fasciae latae muscle, with varying enhancement after contrast administration. Notably, the location of the intramuscular mass closely corresponded to the placement of the phone's SIM card. While we cannot establish a definitive causal relationship between the patient's smartphone storage habit and the development of the intramuscular schwannoma, we speculate that the habitual storage location may have potentially acted as a risk or predisposing factor. This case underscores the need for further research on the potential health risks associated with smartphone storage habits, considering their widespread prevalence in today's society.
... Nevertheless, the utilization of RF spectrum encounters some challenges, such as limited spectrum availability, electromagnetic interference (EMI), multipath reflections that can lead to fading and degrade signal transmission quality, stringent regulatory constraints governing its operation, and vulnerability to unauthorized intrusions [4][5][6]. Furthermore, the health sector has raised concerns regarding the potential health effects of prolonged exposure to RF radiation [7][8][9][10]. As a result, optical wireless communication (OWC) has garnered significant attention as a potential solution due to its advantages, including highspeed transmission, high levels of security, low energy consumption, and high resistance to electromagnetic interference [11][12][13]. ...
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Optical camera communication (OCC) is one of the most promising optical wireless technology communication systems. This technology has a number of benefits compared to radio frequency, including unlimited spectrum, no congestion due to high usage, and low operating costs. OCC operates in order to transmit an optical signal from a light-emitting diode (LED) and receive the signal with a camera. However, identifying, detecting, and extracting data in a complex area with very high mobility is the main challenge in operating the OCC. In this paper, we design and implement a real-time OCC system that can communicate in high mobility conditions, based on You Only Look Once version 8 (YOLOv8). We utilized an LED array that can be identified accurately and has an enhanced data transmission rate due to a greater number of source lights. Our system is validated in a highly mobile environment with camera movement speeds of up to 10 m/s at 2 m, achieving a bit error rate of 10−2. In addition, this system achieves high accuracy of the LED detection algorithm with mAP0.5 and mAP0.5:0.95 values of 0.995 and 0.8604, respectively. The proposed method has been tested in real time and achieves processing speeds up to 1.25 ms.
... Thus, a quantum radar would be extremely safe for biomedical sensing, even over long periods of time (e.g., continuous monitoring of hospital patients' vital parameters). This could supplement previous work on the use of radars for biomedical sensing [33]; see also [34], [35]. If greater transmit powers are necessary, one can move to systems containing multiple quantum transmitters [36]; there are also ways to amplify entangled signals without breaking the entanglement [37]. ...
Quantum radar is a fledgling new technology that promises gains in detection performance. However, there are challenges standing in the way of their implementation. In this article, three classes of quantum radars are discussed: quantum interferometric radar, quantum illumination radar, and quantum two-mode squeezing (QTMS) radar. Of these, the last-named is the closest to being implemented in real life, though it is by no means the last word on the subject. In conclusion, we find that quantum radars are at least worth studying further.
... Given all the evidence presented to the European Commission since 2017, the EU has been advised beyond any doubt that radiofrequency radiation not only causes tissue heating, as ICNIRP claims, but many other serious biological effects far below ICNIRP's tissue heating thresholds. Such harmful effects include oxidative stress, as demonstrated in a review of 93 of 100 available studies [28] and in a review of animal and cell studies [29], damage to DNA [30], heart and blood [31], sperm [32], brain cells [33] and cancer [34][35][36][37]. Note that these effects have been explained by mechanisms other than heating, e.g., disruption of voltage gated calcium (and other) channels in cells [38], reactive oxygen species, and changes in cell signaling. ...
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In 2017 an article was published on the unwillingness of the WHO to acknowledge the health effects associated with the use of wireless phones. It was thus stated that the WHO is 'A Hard Nut to Crack'. Since then, there has been no progress, and history seems to be repeating in that the European Union (EU) is following in the blind man's footsteps created by the WHO. Despite increasing evidence of serious negative effects from radiofrequency radiation on human health and the environment, the EU has not acknowledged that there are any risks. Since September 2017, seven appeals by scientists and medical doctors have been sent to the EU requesting a halt to the roll-out of the fifth generation of wireless communication (5G). The millimeter waves (MMW) and complex waveforms of 5G contribute massively harmful additions to existing planetary electromagnetic pollution. Fundamental rights and EU primary law make it mandatory for the EU to protect the population, especially children, from all kinds of harmful health effects of wireless technology. However, several experts associated with the WHO and the EU have conflicts of interest due to their ties to industry. The subsequent prioritizing of economic interests is resulting in human and planetary health being compromised. Experts must make an unbiased evaluation with no conflicts of interest. The seven appeals to the EU have included requests for immediate protective action, which have been ignored. On the issue of wireless radiation and the health of citizens, the EU seems to be another hard nut to crack.
... Figure 5a is a conceptual illustration of the human body affected by EM waves from surrounding electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptop computers, satellites, and base stations. Since long-term exposure to EM waves can cause skin cancer, cataracts, nervous system disorders, and heart disease, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) recommends that the SAR (the ratio of energy absorbed per unit mass of biological tissue) does not exceed 2 W kg −1 for the human body and head, and 4 W kg −1 for the limbs [105][106][107][108]. Figure 5b shows the experimental environment consisting of the probe antenna, phantom, and dipole antenna for SAR measurement. The SAR quantifies the impact of EM fields on human exposure, representing the permissible level of radiation absorption per kilogram of human body weight [109]. ...
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Porous 2D materials with high conductivity and large surface area have been proposed for potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials in future mobility and wearable applications to prevent signal noise, transmission inaccuracy, system malfunction, and health hazards. Here, we report on the synthesis of lightweight and flexible flash-induced porous graphene (FPG) with excellent EMI shielding performance. The broad spectrum of pulsed flashlight induces photo-chemical and photo-thermal reactions in polyimide films, forming 5 × 10 cm ² -size porous graphene with a hollow pillar structure in a few milliseconds. The resulting material demonstrated low density (0.0354 g cm ⁻³ ) and outstanding absolute EMI shielding effectiveness of 1.12 × 10 ⁵ dB cm ² g ⁻¹ . The FPG was characterized via thorough material analyses, and its mechanical durability and flexibility were confirmed by a bending cycle test. Finally, the FPG was utilized in drone and wearable applications, showing effective EMI shielding performance for internal/external EMI in a drone radar system and reducing the specific absorption rate in the human body.
... Technology is everywhere, usage of electronic devices such as (mobile, I pad, computer, laptop, TV…) turns into a wide part of the lives of young and growing children's daily routine nowadays (2), and children are more at risk of this suddenly developing of technology ( Tran et al., 2020, Miller et al., 2019 It is now widely acknowledged that prolonged use of electronic devices has an adverse influence on a user's well-being, going to pose health effects. (5). ...
Conference Paper
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Background and objective: Technology is everywhere, usage of electronics turns into a wide part of the lives of young and growing children's daily routine nowadays, and children are more at risk of this suddenly developing of technology. RFs are non-ionizing radiation including wavelengths varying from 3 kHz to 300 MHz and microwaves ranging from 300 MHz to 300 GHz. The main purpose of the research was to determine the impact of electronic device use and daily screen time on physical and physiological health. Methods: In this study, a Google form for the questionnaire was used for data collection in 2021, and it was distributed to some primary schools in Erbil. The parents were asked to respond to questionnaire questions about their children. Result: According to the responses of 68 percent of parents, the highest percentage of age in this study is between 3 and 5 years (31.4 percent). The majority of participants go to bed between 11 and 11:59 p.m., and the majority of them wake up between 10 and 10:59 a.m. (24.5 percent ). 27.5 percent of children spend more than 7 hours per day on electronic devices while only 22.5 % use 1-2 hours per day. Conclusion: As a result of the survey and mixed with most of the findings showing that the negative impact of using the electronic device in the development and growth and health effects however the effect of the electronic device on children depending on the time duration watching the electronic screen per a day.
... Since the IARC evaluation, a wide spectrum of adverse human health impacts linked to radiofrequency radiation have been reported. As well, exposure to RF radiation within the cellular frequency ranges may lead to multiple health effects such as a significantly increased rate of schwannomas and malignant gliomas, chromosomal DNA damage, lower sperm counts, and significantly impaired sperm motility and morphology (Miller et al., 2019). A comprehensive study conducted by the Ramazzini Institute (RI) investigated the effects of radiofrequency (RF) radiation in a far-field scenario, simulating the ambient exposure from 1.8 GHz GSM antennas of mobile phone radio base stations. ...
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In the twenty-first century, wireless communication tools have become indispensable in our daily lives, particularly during a pandemic, playing a crucial role. However, it is important to recognize that prolonged and excessive exposure to radiofrequency (RF) waves, which serve as carriers for these wireless communication systems, can have detrimental health effects. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial distribution and compare the levels of RF radiation emitted by the GSM900, GSM1800, UMTS, LTE2.6, and WLan2.4 frequency bands in the cities of Colombo and Kandy in Sri Lanka. The plane wave power density values for each frequency band were measured at designated survey locations using a SPECTRAN HF6065 spectrum analyzer with an HL7060 directional antenna. A total of 31 survey points were selected in Kandy City, while Colombo City had 67 survey points covering various public locations. The findings reveal that Colombo City exhibits a higher concentration of scattered hotspots in the LTE2.6 frequency band, whereas Kandy City demonstrates a higher concentration in the GSM900 frequency band. Furthermore, comparing the average results, the RF radiation pollution in Colombo City is more than 50% higher than that in Kandy City. The measured maximum RF level was detected in Colombo City in the frequency band GSM1800, and it is only 0.11% of the maximum permitted level as established by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP).
Introduction of the fifth-generation wireless networks (5G) will increase the number of 5G base stations and 5G-enabled devices. This review sought to find the answer to the key question: can such devices be harmful? The review covers scientific data published from 2009 to 2022 and available at eLibrary, PubMed, Google Scholar, Cyberleninka. We investigated the problems of definition, regulation, accumulation of data on 5G networks, and summarized the papers reporting how electromagnetic fields in 5G frequency bands affect adults and children. Despite the large amount of contradictory data, the available studies do not provide adequate information that could enable a meaningful assessment of the safety of 5G networks.
In this paper, we have presented a wireless communication channel management technique for the future generation wireless communication systems using reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS). It consists of numerous numbers of reflecting unit-cells which reflect the incident signal from the base stations with desired phase shift to superimpose with the non-reflected and reflected signals with a destructive way to prevent detrimental interference. The RIS matrix of phase-shift matrix could be optimized via reflected signal towards explicit directions and an effective optimization of phase-shift is a potential requirement to improve the wireless communication network’s performance substantially. Nearly in all the circumstances, wireless network covering from the base station to RIS and RIS to the users are cascaded channel state information (CSI) with dual hops. The wireless communication channel between the base station and user (i.e., direct channel) could be accomplished by adjusting RIS in absorption mode employing conventional channel estimation techniques. Further, its impact over spectral and energy efficiency are elaborated with its potential research challenges.KeywordsIntelligent reflecting surfaceWireless communicationWireless channelSpectral efficiencyEnergy efficiency
As biomolecules vibrate and rotate in the terahertz band, the biological effects of terahertz electromagnetic fields have drawn considerable attention from the physiological and medical communities. Ion channels are the basis of biological electrical signals, so studying the effect of terahertz electromagnetic fields on ion channels is significant. In this paper, the effect of a terahertz electromagnetic field with three different frequencies, 6, 15, and 25 THz, on the Kv1.2 potassium ion channel was investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that an electromagnetic field with a 15 THz frequency can significantly enhance the permeability of the Kv1.2 potassium ion channel, which is 1.7 times higher than without an applied electric field. By analyzing the behavior of water molecules, it is found that the electromagnetic field with the 15 THz frequency shortens the duration of frozen and relaxation processes when potassium ions pass through the channel, increases the proportion of the direct knock-on mode, and, thus, enhances the permeability of the Kv1.2 potassium ion channel.
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Background/Aim: The main objective of this study was to evaluate if there was an increased incidence of brain tumours between years 1980-2012, a time period when mobile phone usage has increased substantially. Materials and Methods: From the Swedish Cancer Registry, cases of meningiomas, low-grade gliomas (LGG) and high-grade gliomas (HGG) were identified in patients between 1980-2012. Direct age-standardised incidence rates were used to calculate incidence trends over time. Results: A total of 13,441 cases of meningiomas, 12,259 cases of high-grade gliomas and 4,555 cases of LGG were reported to the register during the study period. The results suggest that there may be a negative development in the trend for LGG of −0,016 cases per 100,000 and year, corresponding to a mean reduction of approximately 1% per year. Conclusion: The present study was not able to demonstrate an increased incidence of glioma during the past 30 years in Sweden. © International Institute of Anticancer Research. All rights reserved.
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During recent years, an increasing percentage of male infertility has to be attributed to an array of environmental, health and lifestyle factors. Male infertility is likely to be affected by the intense exposure to heat and extreme exposure to pesticides, radiations, radioactivity and other hazardous substances. We are surrounded by several types of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations and both have recognized causative effects on spermatogenesis. Since it is impossible to cover all types of radiation sources and their biological effects under a single title, this review is focusing on radiation deriving from cell phones, laptops, Wi-Fi and microwave ovens, as these are the most common sources of non-ionizing radiations, which may contribute to the cause of infertility by exploring the effect of exposure to radiofrequency radiations on the male fertility pattern. From currently available studies it is clear that radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) have deleterious effects on sperm parameters (like sperm count, morphology, motility), affects the role of kinases in cellular metabolism and the endocrine system, and produces genotoxicity, genomic instability and oxidative stress. This is followed with protective measures for these radiations and future recommendations. The study concludes that the RF-EMF may induce oxidative stress with an increased level of reactive oxygen species, which may lead to infertility. This has been concluded based on available evidences from in vitro and in vivo studies suggesting that RF-EMF exposure negatively affects sperm quality.
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Objective Some studies have reported increasing trends in certain brain tumours and a possible link with mobile phone use has been suggested. We examined the incidence time trends of brain tumour in Australia for three distinct time periods to ascertain the influence of improved diagnostic technologies and increase in mobile phone use on the incidence of brain tumours. Design In a population-based ecological study, we examined trends of brain tumour over the periods 1982–1992, 1993–2002 and 2003–2013. We further compared the observed incidence during the period of substantial mobile phone use (2003–2013) with predicted (modelled) incidence for the same period by applying various relative risks, latency periods and mobile phone use scenarios. Setting National Australian incidence registration data on primary cancers of the brain diagnosed between 1982 and 2013. Population 16 825 eligible brain cancer cases aged 20–59 from all of Australia (10 083 males and 6742 females). Main outcome measures Annual percentage change (APC) in brain tumour incidence based on Poisson regression analysis. Results The overall brain tumour rates remained stable during all three periods. There was an increase in glioblastoma during 1993–2002 (APC 2.3, 95% CI 0.8 to 3.7) which was likely due to advances in the use of MRI during that period. There were no increases in any brain tumour types, including glioma (−0.6, –1.4 to 0.2) and glioblastoma (0.8, –0.4 to 2.0), during the period of substantial mobile phone use from 2003 to 2013. During that period, there was also no increase in glioma of the temporal lobe (0.5, –1.3 to 2.3), which is the location most exposed when using a mobile phone. Predicted incidence rates were higher than the observed rates for latency periods up to 15 years. Conclusions In Australia, there has been no increase in any brain tumour histological type or glioma location that can be attributed to mobile phones.
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AbstractThe use of mobile phones has remarkably increased and become a basic need of daily life. Increasing subscriptions of mobile phones boost the installation of mobile phone base station towers (MPBSTs) in crowded commercial and residential areas including near school buildings. This study investigated the impact of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) radiation generated by MPBSTs on cognitive functions. Two hundred and seventeen volunteer male students aged between 13 and 16 registered from two different intermediate schools: 124 students were from School 1 and 93 students were from School 2. The MPBSTs were located within 200 m from the school buildings. In School 1, RF-EMF was 2.010 μW/cm2 with a frequency of 925 MHz and in School 2, RF-EMF was 10.021 μW/cm2 with a frequency of 925 MHz. Students were exposed to EMFR for 6 hr a day, 5 days a week for a total period of 2 years. The Narda Safety Test Solution device SRM-3006 was used to measure RF-EMF in both schools, and cognitive functions tasks were measured by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). Significant impairment in Motor Screening Task (MOT; p= .03) and Spatial Working Memory (SWM) task (p= .04) was identified among the group of students who were exposed to high RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs. High exposure to RF-EMF produced by MPBSTs was associated with delayed fine and gross motor skills, spatial working memory, and attention in school adolescents compared to students who were exposed to low RF-EMF
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We measured the radiofrequency (RF) radiation at central parts in Stockholm, Sweden in March and April 2017. The same measurement round tour was used each time. We used EME Spy 200 for the measurements as in our previous studies in Stockholm. The results were based on 11,482 entries, corresponding to more than 12 h measurements. The total mean level was 5,494 µW/m² (median 3,346; range 36.6-205,155). The major contributions were down links from LTE 800 (4G), GSM + UMTS 900 (3G), GSM 1800 (2G), UMTS 2100 (3G) and LTE 2600 (4G). Regarding different places, the highest RF radiation was measured at the Hay Market with a mean level of 10,728 µW/m² (median 8,578; range 335-68,815). This is a square used for shopping, and both retailers and visitors may spend considerable time at this place. Also, the Sergel Plaza had high radiation with a mean of 7,768 µW/m². All measurements exceeded the target level of 30-60 µW/m² based on non-thermal (no heating) effects, according to the BioInitiative Report. Based on short-term thermal effects, The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection established guideline 2 of 10 W/m² (2,000,000-10,000,000 µW/m²) depending on frequency in 1998, and has not changed it despite solid evidence of non-thermal biological effects at substantially lower exposure levels. These environmental RF radiation levels are expected to increase with the introduction of 5G for wireless communication.
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Purpose Gliomas are the most common cancer of the brain, with a poor prognosis in particular for glioblastoma. In 2014, a study suggested reduced survival in relation to latency of mobile phone use among glioblastoma patients. A joint epidemiological/experimental project to study effects of RF-EMF on tumor development and progression was established. The current analysis relates to the epidemiological part and addresses whether pre-diagnostic mobile phone use was associated with survival among glioma patients. Methods Glioma cases (n = 806) previously enrolled in a collaborative population-based case–control study in Denmark, Finland and Sweden were followed up for survival. Vital status, date of death, date of emigration, or date last known to be alive was obtained based on registry linkages with a unique personal ID in each country. Cox regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) stratified by country. Covariates investigated were sex, age, education, histology, treatment, anatomic location and marital status. Results No indication of reduced survival among glioblastoma patients was observed for various measures of mobile phone use (ever regular use, time since start of regular use, cumulative call time overall or in the last 12 months) relative to no or non-regular use. All significant associations suggested better survival for mobile phone users. Results were similar for high-grade and low-grade gliomas. Conclusions We found no evidence of reduced survival among glioma patients in relation to previous mobile phone use.
Epidemiological studies have suggested that human exposure to extremely low‐frequency electromagnetic fields (ELFEMF) from the electric power and to mobile phone radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RFEMF) induce an increased risk of developing malignant tumours. However, no adequate laboratory data, in particular long‐term carcinogenicity bioassays to support the epidemiological evidence, have yet been available. This motivated the Ramazzini Institute to embark on a first project of four large life‐span carcinogenic bioassays conducted on over 7,000 Sprague Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to S‐50Hz MF alone or combined with gamma radiation or formaldehyde or aflatoxinB1. Results now available from these studies, which started concurrently, have shown that exposure to Sinusoidal‐50Hz Magnetic Field (S‐50Hz MF) combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation or to chronic administration of formaldehyde in drinking water induces a significantly increased incidence of malignant tumours in males and females. A second project of two large life‐span carcinogenic bioassays was conducted on over 3,000 Sprague Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to 1.8 GHz GSM of mobile phone radio base station, alone or combined with acute exposure to gamma radiation. Early results from the experiment on 1.8 GHz GSM alone show a significant increase in the incidence of heart malignant schwannoma among males exposed at the highest dose. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Mobile phones can be found almost everywhere across the globe, upholding a direct point-to-point connection between the device and the broadcast tower. The emission of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) puts the surrounding environment inevitably into contact with this radiation. We have therefore exposed honey bee queen larvae to the radiation of a common mobile phone device (GSM band at 900 MHz) during all stages of their pre-adult development including pupation. After 14 days of exposure, hatching of adult queens was assessed and mating success after further 11 days, respectively. Moreover, full colonies were established of five of the untreated and four of the treated queens to contrast population dynamics. We found that mobile phone radiation had significantly reduced the hatching ratio but not the mating success. If treated queens had successfully mated, colony development was not adversely affected. We provide evidence that mobile phone radiation may alter pupal development, once succeeded this point, no further impairment has manifested in adulthood. Our results are discussed against the background of long-lasting consequences for colony performance and the possible implication on periodic colony losses.
Mobile phones (MPs) are the most relevant source of radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure to the brain and the salivary gland. Whether this exposure implies a cancer risk has been addressed in several case-control and few cohort studies. A meta-analysis of these studies does not show increased risks for meningioma, pituitary, and salivary gland tumors. For glioma and acoustic neuroma, the results are heterogeneous, with few case-control studies reporting substantially increased risks. However, these elevated risks are not coherent with observed incidence time trends, which are considered informative for this specific topic owing to the steep increase in MP use, the availability of virtually complete cancer registry data from many countries, and the limited number of known competing environmental risk factors. In conclusion, epidemiological studies do not suggest increased brain or salivary gland tumor risk with MP use, although some uncertainty remains regarding long latency periods (>15 years), rare brain tumor subtypes, and MP usage during childhood.
In recent years, there has been significant increase in mobile phone users. With this, health concerns associated with the exposure to electromagnetic radiation are also increasing. Continuous exposure to electromagnetic (EM) radiation generated from mobile phone is one of the probable reasons behind increasing male infertility. EM radiations induce oxidative stress that leads to numerous changes in reproductive parameters. With this hypothesis, we studied the effect of 3G mobile phone radiations on the reproductive system of male Wistar rats. Adult rats were divided into two groups: control and radio frequency‐exposed. The animals were exposed to 3G mobile phone radiation for 45 days (2 hr/day) in specially designed exposure setup under standard conditions. Various biochemical and physiological parameters such as sperm count, sperm morphology, mitochondrial activity, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species level and histopathological analysis were studied. Histopathological examination revealed a reduction in spermatogenic cells and alterations in sperm membrane. Significant increase in ROS and lipid peroxidation level with simultaneously decrease in sperm count, alterations in sperm tail morphology were observed in the exposed group. In conclusion, exposure to mobile phone radiations induces oxidative stress in male Wistar rats which may lead to alteration in sperm parameters and affects their fertility.