ArticlePDF Available

Another from Sri Lanka, after 126 years; Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei Sp. nov. (Araneae:Theraphosidae) from a fragmented forest patch in the wet zone of Sri Lanka.

Authors:
  • Biodiversity Education And Research (BEAR) and University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
British Tarantula
Society Journal
2019 Volume 34 No. 2
INSIDE THIS ISSUE
Some Notes and Observations on the Captive Breeding of a Locality Variant of
Pterinochilus murinus
Pocock, 1897 with comments on other colour variants
(Araneae: Theraphosidae)
American Mountain Endemics Revisited: Field notes on
Aphonopelma catalina
with an update on
A. chiricahua, A. marxi
&
A. peloncillo
Survey: Envenomations by Pet Arachnids
Another from Sri Lanka, after 126 years;
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. (Araneae:
Theraphosidae) from a fragmented forest patch in the wet zone of Sri Lanka
Conserving Tarantulas through the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefits
Sharing
Obituary: Paul David Hillyard (1947-2019)
34th Annual BTS Exhibition - Competition Winners 2019
25
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
Introduction
The mygalomorph spider family Theraphosidae
is represented by 980 species in 144 genera
globally (World Spider Catalogue 2018). Within
the family Theraphosidae sites the genus
Chilobrachys. The genus Chilobrachys is found in
South and East Asia, with 27 described species
to date (World Spider Catalogue 2018). They
are ground dwelling spiders, living in burrows
lined with silk and other debris (Nanayakkara,
2013, Nanayakkara 2014b). In Sri Lanka the
genus is represented by only one species, namely
Chilobrachys nitelinus Karsch, 1892 (Pocock 1900a,
Nanayakkara 2014b), which also happens to be
the type species (species typica) for the genus.
The new species of Chilobrachys was collected
from a fragmented rainforest patch, 347
hectares in extent, located in the Kalutara
District, Western Province of Sri Lanka. The
specimens were collected from burrows on a
soil embankment covered with bryophytes,
along the road, with a clear tubular extension
made up of soil and other debris. Interestingly,
the majority of the known members of the
genus Chilobrachys are shades of brown, black or
grey, and lack vibrant colours or iridescent
sheens on their dorsal surface. The collected
specimen on the other hand has a metallic
turquoise-blue sheen on all four legs and also
an iridescent sheen on the carapace and
abdomen. As such, the collected specimen,
differs greatly from the other members of the
genus, including C. nitelinus, thereby warranting
its taxonomy description as a new species. The
discovery was part of an ongoing, island-wide
study on the mygalomorph spiders in Sri Lanka.
Here we describe the second species of
Chilobrachys from Sri Lanka after 126 years.
Material and method
The new type material discussed in this paper is
deposited at the National Wildlife Research and
Training Centre (NWRTC), Girithale, Sri
Lanka. The new species was compared with all
material from Sri Lanka, deposited at the
National Museum of Sri Lanka. Specimens were
photographed live and were fixed in 70%
ethanol. All measurements were taken using a
digital calliper, the measurements are given in
millimetres and with an error of ± 0.01. The
spermathecae were dissected and cleaned in
clove oil using needles. Specimens were
examined using an AmScope SM-1TS-144S-5M
Digital Stereo Microscope. The total length
Another from Sri Lanka, after 126 years;
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov.
(Araneae: Theraphosidae) from a fragmented forest patch in the wet zone of Sri Lanka
Ranil P. Nanayakkara1,2, Amila P. Sumanapala3 & Peter Kirk
1 Department of Zoology, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka
2 Biodiversity Education And Research (BEAR), Sri Lanka.
3 Department of Zoology and Environment Science, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka
Fig. 1a -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp.
nov.
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
26
excluded the chelicerae. Photographs of the
specimens were taken with a Canon 550D mounted
with a Sigma 105mm F2.8 EX Macro Lens.
Abbreviations: ALE - anterior lateral eye, AME -
anterior median eye, MOQ median ocular
quadrate, PLE posterior lateral eye, PME -
posterior median eye; PLS - posterior lateral
spinnerets; PMS - posterior median spinnerets, STC
= superior or paired tarsal claws, RN Ranil
Nanayakkara. Abbreviations used for setae and
spines count are d dorsal, fe femur, mt
metatarsus, p prolateral, pa patella, r
retrolateral, ta tarsus, ti tibia, v - ventral.
List of Comparative material examined:
Chilobrachys nitelinus Karsch, 1892 male (BMNH
90.10.25), Punduloya, Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Chilobrachys nitelinus Karsch, 1892 Holotype female
(ZMB 308801a), Coll. Dr. Sarasin, Sri Lanka.
Sahydroaraneus raja (Gravely 1915) female type (NHM
16.5.2.17), Kavalai, Cochin state, Kerala, India.
Results
Systematics:
Family: Theraphosidae, Thorell, 1870
Genus: Chilobrachys Karsch, 1892
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov.
Type material
Hol o t y p e: Fe ma l e NWRT C SP 004,
Dombagaskanda, Kalutara District, Western
Province, Sri Lanka, (6o 43’36’’N, 80o 09’ 42’’ E
elevation 91m) Collected by RN on 29th September
2015.
Para t yp e : Fem a le NW R TC S P 00 5 ,
Dombagaskanda, Kalutara District, Western
Province, Sri Lanka, (6o 43’ 36’’N, 80o 09’ 44’’E
elevation 91m). Collected by RN on 15th August
2015.
Paratype: Male NWRTC SP 006, Dombagaskanda,
Kalutara District, Western Province, Sri Lanka, (6o
43’ 35’’N, 80o 09’ 41’’E elevation 90m). Collected by
RN on 17th August 2015.
Table 1: Leg morphometry of
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. holotype NWRTC SP 004 and Paratypes NWRTC SP
005 and 006. All measurements in mm.
LEG I LEG II LEG III LEG IV PALP
NWRTC
SP 004
NWRTC
SP 005
NWRTC
SP 006
NWRTC
SP 004
NWRTC
SP 005
NWRTC
SP 006
NWRTC
SP 004
NWRTC
SP 005
NWRTC
SP 006
NWRTC
SP 004
NWRTC
SP 005
NWRTC
SP 006
NWRTC
SP 004
NWRTC
SP 005
NWRTC
SP 006
Femur 19.26 19.22 17.00 17.37 17.33 15.00 14.76 14.71 13.00 19.80 19.77 16.00 14.85 14.82 14.00
Patella 11.88 11.84 8.00 10.62 10.59 7.50 8.55 8.52 6.00 10.35 10.32 6. 00 9.00 8.93 7.00
Tibia 13.59 13.56 14. 00 12.15 12.12 12.00 9.72 9.69 11.00 13.95 13.91 14. 50 9. 81 9.77 11.50
Metatarsus 12.42 12.39 12.50 11.70 11.67 10.50 11.16 11.13 11.50 17.82 17.79 15.50 - - -
Tarsus 7.20 7.16 10.00 7.20 7.17 8.50 6.75 6.71 8.50 7.38 7.35 8.50 7.65 7.61 3.80
Total 64.71 64.17 61.50 59.04 58.88 53.50 50.94 50.76 50.00 69.40 69.14 60.50 41.39 41.13 36.30
27
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
Fig. 1b -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♀
Fig. 1c -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov.♀
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
28
18
Etymology
The specific name refers to co-founder of Idea
Wild Joni Triantis Van Sickle, who was kind
enough to donate research equipment to the
first author and Idea Wild’s continuous support
to further research in fauna and flora around
the globe.
Diagnosis
Adults in a shade of dark brown to black with a
metallic greyish-turquoise-blue sheen on the carapace,
abdomen brownish-grey with a few turquoise-blue
hairs. The margins of the carapace and the area around
the ocular tubercle having a metallic turquoise sheen
(Figs. 1a - c). Thoracic fovea same as the ocular width.
Maxillary lyra with bacilliform and enlarged paddle
setae (Fig. 2). Femur of the eight legs and pedipalps
metallic turquoise-blue, prolateral face of the front legs
has the same metallic turquoise-blue colour up to the
tibia. Spermathecae in the shape of two small mounds.
Comparison
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov. differs
from putative species of the genus by the
colouring of all four legs (see Fig. 16;
Chilobrachys nitelinus ♀), chelicerae, (Fig 17; C.
nitelinus chelicera), the carapace and the
abdomen. The spermathecal structure is
superficially similar to C.
nitelinus (see Fig. 18),
however differs by the more
rounded shape of C.
jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov.
The maxillary lyra are also
similar to C. nitelinus (see
Fig. 19; C. nitelinus ♀) and
c a nn ot b e u se d t o
differentiate the two species.
However, the legs and
chelicerae have a highly
distinct metallic turquoise
sheen; the margins of
carapace and lateral sides of
abdomen metallic grey/
brown sheen, ventral surface
coffee-brown in colour.
Male of the new species
differs by the embolus of the
palp (see Figs. 20a & b; C.
nitelinus palpal bulb).
Details of Holotype female NWRTC SP 004
Carapace 17.21 long, 13.14 wide; chelicerae 9.74
long; sternum 6.20 long, 6.61 wide; Abdomen
18.34 long, 13.14 wide; spinnerets: PMS, 1.61
long, 0.96 wide, 0.61 apart; PLS, 1.91 basal, 1.52
middle, 2.14 distal; mid-widths 1.55, 1.39, 1.11
respectively. Morphometry of leg and palp are
given in Table 1.
Colouration (Fig. 3): overall in a shade of grey,
light brown to dark brown, with the femurs of
all four legs being metallic turquoise-blue in
colour. The metallic turquoise-blue extends
along the prolateral face of the front legs up to
the metatarsus. The chelicera has a metallic
turquoise-blue hue. Carapace has a greyish-
turquoise hue, with the outer fringes of the
ocular tubercle and fovea being metallic
turquoise-blue and the contour of the carapace
having long light brown hairs. Abdomen dark
brownish to light brown with scattered long
pallid hairs and a few hairs having the same
metallic turquoise hue. Colouration in
preservative is more faded and is in shades of
brown to reddish-brown. The metallic blue
lustre is reduced.
Fig. 2 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♀ maxillary lyra
29
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
Carapace: covered with short silvery metallic
grey hairs and metallic turquoise hairs, dense on
caput and carapace edges. Fovea procurved,
slightly shorter than ocular width. A few long
bristles present on the ocular
tubercle. A band of spinules
present posterior to the fovea
scattered in a fairly longitudinal
manner.
Eyes (Fig. 4): eye group 1.93
long, 3.42 wide. Anterior eye row
slightly procurved; posterior eye
row recurved. MOQ 1.37 long,
front width 0.79, back width 1.11.
eye size and interdistances: ALE
0.83, AME 0.72, PLE 0.72, PME
0.46; ALE-AME 0.30, AME-
AME 0.35, PLE-PME 0.78, PME
-PME 1.39.
Maxilla: Maxillae with many
setae arranged like combs prolaterally; lowest
row long paddle-shaped, bacilliform-shaped, or
lance-shaped; with ca 416 cuspules ventrally.
Posterior ventral edge gently rounded and long;
Fig. 3 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♀
Fig. 4 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♀ eye
arrangement
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
30
retrolateral face yellowish-red, glabrous.
Cuspules: over 130 in anterior corner in roughly
triangular region. Posterior edge almost straight,
concave near heel.
Maxillary lyra (Fig. 2): thick spike setae in 2-3
rows present above the maxillary suture aligned
along the suture; below the suture with thick
long spike setae scattered in distal half of the
prolateral face, not in a defined ‘c’ pattern.
Labium: wider than long,
cuspules present on anterior
third portion of labium, nearly
120 cuspules in band for a
quarter of anterior length.
Chelicera (Fig. 5): light brown
with metallic turquoise-blue
hue, 10.2 long, an area of peg-
like setae near lower surface,
inner margin with 12 strong
and some small teeth, many
small granule s at b asal
cheliceral groove (Fig. 6).
Sternum (Fig. 7): longer than
wide, covered with a mat of
short coffee-brown/black and
long, black setae. With 3 pairs
of sigilla. Pedicel not clearly
seen.
Leg: Leg formula 4,1,2,3, legs
are numerously covered with coffee-brown,
metallic greyish and metallic turquoise-blue
hairs. Tarsi and metatarsi of all legs scopulate
along their entire length, scopulae of metatarsi
and tarsi of leg IV divided by two rows of setae,
tarsi of all legs have two serrated claws with 3
prominent median teeth except the tarsi IV on
which 3 claws are present, claws are surrounded
by dense iridescent claw tufts. The third claw is
small, hooked, non-serrated and ventrally
placed between the bases of claw tufts 12-15
Fig. 5 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. retrolateral chelicera
Fig. 6 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov.
prolateral chelicera
Fig. 7 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♀ sternum
31
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
clavate trichobothria present on tarsi I and IV
are in the range of 12-15 and on tarsi II and III,
filiform trichobothria are also present on the
tarsi and metatarsi in between, distal end of
metatarsi III and IV have two ventral and two
lateral, thick, strong spines, metatarsi II have 2
ventral spines which are absent on the metatarsi
I. Palp and legs measurements are given in
Table 1.
Abdomen pilosity: cuticle not exposed
dorsally and ventrally; dorsally covered with
fine layer of brown long hair and bristles, many
pallid with a few metallic turquoise-blue hairs
scattered; ventrally black with fine layer of
many long black hair bristles.
Spinnerets: 2 pairs, blackish brown, covered
with black hair.
Spermathecae (Fig. 8): hillock-shaped pair of
lobes, broader at base and gradually narrowing
towards apex.
Details of Para type female NWRTC SP 005
Carapace: 17.28 long, 13.16 wide; chelicerae
9.81 long; sternum 6.26 long, 6.64 wide;
Abdomen 18.39 long, 13.17 wide; spinnerets:
PMS, 1.63 long, 0.98 wide, 0.63 apart; PLS, 1.94
basal, 1.56 middle, 2.18 distal; mid-widths 1.58,
1.42, 1.14 respectively.
Eye group: 1.95 long, 3.45 wide. Anterior eye
row slightly procurved; posterior eye row
recurved. MOQ 1.39 long, front width 0.82,
back width 1.14. eye size and interdistances:
ALE 0.85, AME 0.74, PLE 0.74, PME 0.48;
ALE-AME 0.33, AME-AME 0.37, PLE-PME
0.81, PME-PME 1.44.
Labium: wider than long, cuspules present on
anterior 3rd portion of labium, nearly 120
cuspules in band for one-fourths of anterior
length.
Sternum: longer than wide, covered with a mat
of short coffee-brown/black and long, black
setae. With 3 pairs of sigilla. Pedicel not clearly
seen.
Chelicera: light brown with metallic turquoise-
blue hue, 10.05 long, an area of peg-like setae
near lower surface, inner margin with 12 strong
and some small teeth, many small granules at
basal cheliceral groove.
Legs: Leg formula 4,1,2,3, legs are numerously
covered with coffee-brown, metallic greyish and
metallic turquoise-blue hairs. Tarsi and
metatarsi of all legs scopulate along their entire
length, scapulae of metatarsi and tarsi of leg IV
divided by two rows of setae, tarsi of all legs
have two serrated claws with 3 prominent
median teeth except the tarsi IV on which 3
claws are present, claws are
surrounded by dense
iridescent claw tufts. The
third claw is small, hooked,
non-serrated and ventrally
placed between the bases
of claw tufts 12-15 clavate
trichobothria present on
tarsi I and IV are in the
range of 12-15 and on tarsi
II and III, filiform
trichobothria are also
present on the tarsi and
metatarsi in between, distal
end of metatarsi III and IV
have two ventral and two
lateral, thick, strong spines, metatarsi II have 2
ventral spines which are absent on the metatarsi
I. Palp and legs measurements are given in
Table 1.
Colouration: as in holotype.
Fig. 8 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♀ spermatheca
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
32
Details of Paratype male NWRTC SP 006
Carapace: 15.01 long, 13.50 wide; chelicerae
6.02 long; sternum 4.88 long, 4.74 wide;
Abdomen 18.50 long, 12.17 wide; spinnerets:
PMS, 2.11 long, 0.63 wide, 0.41 apart; PLS, 3.48
basal, 2.11 middle, 4.22 distal; mid widths 1.48,
1.32, 1.04 respectively.
Colouration (Fig. 9): overall in a shade light
brown to dark brown, with the femur of all
four legs being the same colour. Outer fringes
of the carapace have a slight purplish hue.
Colouration in preservative is more faded and is
in shades of brown to reddish brown.
Carapace : Carapace low, dark red brown, with
a few grey hairs, dense on caput and carapace
edges. Fovea procurved, slightly shorter than
ocular width. A few long bristles present on the
ocular tubercle.
Eyes (Fig. 10): eye group 1.61 long, 3.21 wide.
Anterior eye row slightly procurved; posterior
eye row recurved. MOQ 1.13 long, front width
1.34, back width 1.71. Eye size and
interdistances: ALE 0.70, AME 0.54, PLE 0.59,
PME 0.48; ALE-AME 0.16, AME-AME 0.27,
PLE-PME 0.11, PME-PME 1.02.
Maxilla (Fig. 11) : Maxillae with many setae
arranged like combs prolaterally; the lowest row
long paddle-shaped, bacilliform shaped, or
lance-shaped; with ca 366 cuspules ventrally.
Maxillary lyra (Fig. 12): thick spike setae in 2-
3 rows present above the maxillary suture
aligned along the suture; below the suture with
thick long spike setae scattered in distal half of
the prolateral face, not in a defined ‘c’ pattern.
Labium: wider than long, cuspules present on
anterior third portion of labium, nearly 90
cuspules in band for one-fourths of anterior
length.
Chelicera: light brown with metallic turquoise
Fig. 9 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♂
33
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
blue hue, 6.02 long, an area of peg-like setae
near lower surface, inner margin with 9 strong
and some small teeth, many small granules at
basal cheliceral groove (Figs. 13a & b).
Sternum: longer than wide, Sternum red-
brown with 3 pairs of sigilla.
Palpal tibia (Fig. 14): with long brown, thin
hairs. Palpal bulb (Fig. 15): pear-like, embolus
straight, thin, long, with short groove at the top,
the palpal bulb and embolus 4.33 long.
Legs: Leg formula 1423 with long short hairs.
Tarsi I, II, III and metatarsi I, II with scopula
full, undivided, metatarsus III with scopula in
distal half, undivided, tarsus IV scopula full and
divided by rows of bristles, scopula of
metatarsus IV sparse and only reaches to one
sixth. Metatarsi III and IV with ventral spines
distally. Tarsi I-III with 2 claws without
denticles, tarsus IV with 3 claws, paired
claws without denticles. Palp and legs
measurements are given in Table 1.
Na t u ra l H i s t or y : C h il o br a ch y s
jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov. is found in
earth embankments, covered with species
of bryophytes. It prefers to build the
entrance to its tubular subterranean
system of soil and leaves. All specimens
documented throughout the survey were
found in the same habitat. The holotype
and the paratype females were teased out
of burrows, using a fine strand of coir
fibre, and the male paratype was found
dead in close proximity to a female’s
burrow. The type locality is a heavily
fragmented forest patch, with tea and
rubber plantations found around the environs.
It is prudent to carry out further studies to get a
consensus of C. jonitriantisvansicklei’s sp. nov.
distribution and population dynamics.
Discussion
Mygalomorph taxonomy in Sri Lanka has
received little attention from Sri Lankan
researchers in the past, with exceptions of
Nanayakkara et al., 2013. Chilobrachys
jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov. is another
contribution towards the documentation of
Fig. 10 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp.
nov. eye arrangement
Fig. 11 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♂
maxilla on pedipalp
Fig. 12 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp.
nov.maxilla of palp
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
34
mygalomorph spiders of Sri
Lanka and C. jonitriantisvansicklei is
the only known species of
mygalomorph from Sri Lanka
with a strong metallic lustre (some
species of Poecilotheria, for example
Poecilotheria ornata Pocock, 1899,
also display a metallic lustre,
especially when freshly moulted).
The new species is presently
known only from the type
locality; however, anecdotal
evidence suggest that the species
might be narrowly distributed in
the remaining forest patches in close proximity
to the type locality.
Unabated habitat destruction and the wanton
killing of tarantulas by local villagers has had
severe effects on local populations of tarantulas
found in Sri Lanka. The inclusion of
mygalomorph spiders in the Fauna and Flora
Protection Ordinance of Sri Lanka, and the
subsequent listing in CITES (the Convention
on International Trade in Endangered Species
of Wild Fauna and Flora) will help ensure
protection to the new species and other
mygalomorph spiders in Sri Lanka. Special
attention should be paid to the search for
unknown males and females with the goal of
learning more of the biogeography and
phylogeny through the study of their
morphology. More investigation on this
family will provide new perspectives for
further research.
Acknowledgements
We would like to thank Mr. H.D. Rathnayake,
Mr. Dharmathilake, Mr. Sooriyabandara, Dr.
Lakshman Pieris and the staff of the
Department of Wildlife Conservation for all
the support in and out of the field. We would
like to thank Ms. Padma Abeykoon, Ms.
Hasula Wickramasinghe, Ms. Chanuka
Maheshi and Ms. Menik from the
Biodiversity Secretariat of the ministry of
Fig. 13a -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp.
nov.retrolateral chelicera
Fig. 13b -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov.
prolateral chelicera
Fig. 14 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♂ palpal tibia
35
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
Fig. 15 -
Chilobrachys jonitriantisvansicklei
sp. nov. ♂ palpal
embolus
Fig. 16 -
Chilobrachys nitelinus
,
Fig. 17 -
Chilobrachys nitelinus
, ♀ retrolateral chelicera
Fig. 18 -
Chilobrachys nitelinus
, spermatheca
Note: scale bar in Figs. 16 - 21 = 1mm
Journal of the Brish Tarantula Society 34(2), July 2019
36
Mahaweli Development and Environment for
all the support throughout the years. The first
author would like to thank Nagao Environment
Foundation, Japan and Oscar and Jan Francke
Student Research Award from the International
Society of Arachnology for funding/supporting
his research work, and IdeaWild for providing
him with the necessary equipment to carry out
his research and taxonomy work. We extend
our thanks to Ms. Amy Salinas
and the Tarantula Keepers
Coalition for their help and
support. We would also like to
extend our thanks to Daniella
She r wo o d f or p ro vid i ng
photogr aphs of Chilo br achys
nitelinus from the collection of the
Natu ral History Museu m ,
London. Last but not least we
would like to thank Andrew
Smith for all of his help in respect
of theraphosid taxonomy.
References
World Spider Catalog (2018).
World Spider Catalog. Version
19.5. Natural History Museum
Be r n , o nl i n e at ht t p :/ /
wsc.nmbe.ch, accessed on {29
May 2018}. doi: 10.24436/2.
Karsch, F. (1892). Arachniden
von Ceylon und von Minikoy
gesammelt von den Herren
Doctoren P. und F. Sarasin.
Berliner Entomologische Zeitschrift 36:
267-310.
Nanayakkara R. P., Vishvanath
N, 2013. Some notes on the
ground dwelling mygalomorph
(Araneae) spider of Sri Lanka.
Proceedings of the National
Symposium on Soil Biodiversity
“Conservation and Sustainable
Use of Soil Biodiversity in Sri
Lanka;2013;46-52p.
Nanayakkara, R. P. 2014b. Tiger
Spiders Poecilotheria of Sri
Lanka. Colombo, Sri Lanka;
Biodiversity Secretariat, Ministry
of Environment & Renewable
Energy.
Pocock, R. I. (1900a). The fauna of British India,
including Ceylon and Burma. Arachnida. London,
pp. 1-279.
Fig. 19 -
Chilobrachys nitelinus
, prolateral maxilla
Fig. 20a -
Chilobrachys nitelinus
, prolateral palp
Fig. 20b -
Chilobrachys nitelinus
, ♂ retrolateral palp
The Editor and the authors would like to extend
their sincere gratitude to Richard Gallon for his
peer-review of this paper.
Journal of the British Tarantula Society
July 2019 • Vol. 34 No. 2 • ISSN 0962-449X
ARTICLE SUBMISSION - The Journal of the British Tarantula Society publishes articles on all aspects of
arachnoculture (the keeping and breeding of arachnids), with a particular emphasis on tarantula spiders
(Theraphosidae). Articles concerning field observations are also encouraged, as are some scientific papers
covering theraphosid taxonomy and behaviour. Taxonomic papers are peer-group reviewed prior to
publication, and the Editor reserves the right to decline weak manuscripts of any kind. Although the BTS is an
international organisation, we are an English language publication. We welcome worldwide submissions, but
all articles must be written in comprehensible English and foreign contributors should s eek their own
translator. Google Translate or other online translation services are not satisfactory. Although all articles may
be edited and rewritten for clarity and to correct grammar and structure, poorly translated drafts are too
cumbersome and labour-intensive and the content is too easily misunderstood.
Authors are encouraged to submit their articles using WeTransfer (or similar) to editor@thebts.co.uk and any
accompanying images should be of as high a resolution as possible and must not have been reduced in size for
the purpose of submission. Please note that articles will not be returned to the authors unless prior
arrangements are made.
JOURNAL ADVERTISING - Adverts should be produced on paper or electronically to the size they will
appear in the Journal. The completed advert should be sent to the Editor and payment made to the Head Office.
Per issue, advertising rates are as follows: ¼ page £20, ½ page £30 and full page £50. If you are interested in
advertising in our digital-only Newsletter, please contact the Editor.
Disclaimer - The views and opinions expressed in this Journal do not necessarily reflect that of the Editor or
other members of the BTS Committee. The BTS is not responsible for the accuracy and content of any
advertisements that appear in the Journal.
CONTENTS
Peter Kirk From The Editors Chair 2
Daniella Sherwood & Ray
Gabriel
Some Notes and Observaons on the Capve Breeding of a
Locality Variant of Pterinochilus murinus Pocock, 1897 with
comments on other colour variants (Araneae:
Theraphosidae)
3 - 11
Michael Jacobi American Mountain Endemics Revisited:
Field notes on Aphonopelma catalina
with an update on A. chiricahua, A. marxi & A. peloncillo
12 - 22
Tobias J. Hauke & Volker
Herzig
Survey: Envenomaons by Pet Arachnids 23 - 24
Ranil P. Nanayakkara,
Amila P. Sumanapala &
Peter Kirk
Another from Sri Lanka, after 126 years; Chilobrachys
jonitriantisvansicklei sp. nov. (Aranae: Theraposidae) from a
fragmented forest patch in the wet zone of Sri Lanka
25 - 36
Robert Yarle Conserving Tarantulas through the Nagoya Protocol on
Access and Benets Sharing
37 - 38
Andrew M. Smith Obituary: Paul David Hillyard (1947-2019) 39 - 40
Peter Kirk & Mark Pennell 34th Annual BTS Exhibion - Compeon Winners 2019 41 - 46
... First, whilst the majority of theraphosid species have two tarsal claws, some taxa do possess three, although the third claw is weakly developed (e.g. Chomphuphuang et al., 2017;Nanayakkara et al., 2019) and its presence/absence can vary between species (Nunn ...
The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma
  • R I Pocock
Pocock, R. I. (1900a). The fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Arachnida. London, pp. 1-279.