A study on the going-out activity of the elderly and the proximity of parent-child household Through face-to-face investigations into the elderly residing in Sakado city, Saitama prefecture 高齢者の外出行動と親世帯・子世帯の近接性に関する研究

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There is an increasing need for a residential style called "parent-child proximity residence". Also, going-out activity is desirably facilitated in maintaining the physical and mental health. However, the influence of the close-residential relationship gives to going-out activity of the elderly, it does not become fully apparent. Therefore, it is important to clarify the impact of the relationship to going-out activity. Through this research following has been identified: 1) There is a difference in going-out activity depending on distance relationship between parent and child's residence. 2) Among close-residential relationship, depending on the degree of dependence on child households, there is a difference in going-out activity. 3) Anxiety about old age depends on degree of dependence and autonomy to child household.

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In recent years, Living-Alone Senior has been in an increasing trend. An establishment of lifestyle where elderly people can live without feeling loneliness is required. This study revealed that "Interpersonal relations" and "Outing behavior" correlate with loneliness. In items related to "Interpersonal relations", existence of various types of intimate people, and physical distance between them were suggested as an important factor. In addition, by an analysis focusing on "Leisure time out behavior" of "Outing behavior", it was clarified that everyday leisure outings (mainly walking behavior) may be effective in alleviating loneliness.
Far suburban residential areas, located around 50 km from Central Tokyo, are facing problems such as a decreasing and aging population and an increase in the number of vacant houses. One solution to these problems is promotion of “kinkyo” (living near relatives). When a young household lives near their parents, they can receive childcare support from their parents and the parents, in turn, may be cared for by their children in the future. However, the current situation of kinkyo cannot be determined from existing statistics and its benefits have not been proven with evidence. We aimed to grasp the current situation of kinkyo and prove its benefits in Koma-Musashidai District in Hidaka City, Saitama, Japan. Approximately 5000 people from 2000 households live in the district. First, we conducted a questionnaire survey of residents with the cooperation of the residents' organization in November 2015, to which 611 householders or their spouses responded. Next, an interview survey with the only real estate agent in the district, which deals with approximately 80% of real estate transactions in the district, was conducted in January 2017 to ask about transactions between 2010 and 2016. Then, we conducted a word-of-mouth survey of residents to get information on positional relationships between parent-child kinkyo pairs on a housing map in September 2017. The results of the questionnaire survey showed the proportion of residents who lived near their parents or children was more than 10% and around one-third of young (<45 years old) households responded that their parents lived in the same district. Significantly high percentage of households who lived near their parents inhabited townhouses, which occupy around 20% of housing in the district and are smaller and less expensive than detached houses. The proportion of kinkyo in real estate transactions was around 20% and pregnancy or the birth of grandchildren was often a trigger of a child's household move into the district. Regarding positional relationships between parent-child pairs, they tended to live in the same neighborhood among seven neighborhoods in the district and parent-child pairs lived significantly nearer on average than randomly selected pairs from all houses in the district. Regarding the benefits of aged parents living near their child's household, the child or his/her spouse routinely went shopping on behalf of the parents; therefore, they tended to have significantly less inconvenience than other aged residents. Additionally, aged parents tended to have less anxiety regarding continuing to live in the district and their home as their final abode, as well as better self-rated health. The findings of this study on the current situation of kinkyo and its benefits provide evidence for the promotion of kinkyo. Residents' associations could serve as the voices of aged residents who live near their children and enjoy the benefits of kinkyo to other residents in the district and their children living outside of the area. Real estate agents should deliver information about newly vacant properties within a neighborhood to its residents first because parent-child pairs tend to live close to each other. The municipality should moderate the required conditions of subsidies for the promotion of kinkyo because households moving into the district previously did not meet its strict conditions.
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