Conference Paper

Applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in Industry 4.0 / IIoT

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Abstract

Today's industrial automation systems are undergoing a digital transformation that implies a shift towards the Internet of Things (IoT), leading to the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) paradigm. Existing Industrial Automated Control Systems (IACS), enriched with a potentially large number of IoT devices are expected to make systems more efficient, flexible, provide intelligence, and ultimately enable autonomous control. In general, the majority of such systems come with high level of criticality that calls for well-established methods and approaches when achieving cybersecurity, preferably prescribed by a standard. IEC 62443 is an industrial standard that provides procedures to manage risks related to cybersecurity threats in IACS. Given the new IIoT paradigm, it is likely that existing standards are not sufficiently aligned with the challenges related to developing and maintaining cybersecurity in such systems. In this paper we review the applicability of the IEC 62443 standard in IIoT contexts and discuss potential challenges the process owners might encounter. Our analysis underlines that some areas within the standard could prove difficult to reach compliance with. In particular, handling of cross zone communication and software updates require additional guidance.

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... Industry-standard ISA 62443 [9] defines an enterprise system as a collection of all information technology elements installed to support an organization's business processes. In the context of industry, the standard defines a control network as a time-critical network responsible for controlling the physical processes [9]. ...
... Industry-standard ISA 62443 [9] defines an enterprise system as a collection of all information technology elements installed to support an organization's business processes. In the context of industry, the standard defines a control network as a time-critical network responsible for controlling the physical processes [9]. The focus of the future industry is on the automation and control of the devices. ...
... This is especially the case when there are human interactions or when the enterprise/industry automation systems are being serviced. Most organizations have used industry-defined best practices like IEC 62443, which provided requirements for addressing security in industrial automation and control systems [9]. ...
Preprint
p>Private Networks (also known as Non-Public Networks) bring significant benefits to Industry 4.0. These networks are typically deployed on-premises of the enterprises, and their isolation from the public (consumer) networks improves the crucial aspects of security and reliability. Despite the isolation, insider attacks can be mounted on these networks. This paper analyses such attacks using attack patterns from Common Attack Pattern Enumerations and Classifications (CAPEC) database. The analysis uses attack graphs, to combine individual domains, in the context of human, device, and network vulnerabilities. The attack graphs help identify paths, the cumulative impact on the system, and possible defense techniques, including security controls to mitigate the impact. Using three sample attack graphs in the context of standalone private 5G networks, this paper analyses possible security mechanisms and captures the difference among legacy enterprise networks (including Wi-Fi for limited mobility), public networks, and private networks.</p
... Breaches happening in the industrial IoT domain would be critical due to specific exposures that are related to machine-to-machine (M2M) communication and environments [3]. M2M communication networks are an integral part of connected factories involving high dependency on next generation wireless communication systems (5G, time sensitive networking, etc.) [4,5] and involving self-automated, self-driven, and self-learning network characteristics. The future M2M devices are anticipated to work independently and make decisions based on artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms. ...
... The main source of threats for M2M communications comes from unanticipated breaches arising from the internet, software which are mostly identified post implementation, limited capabilities due to lowenergy, cost, remote locations, bandwidth, legacy systems, etc. There is a substantial gap between the existing information technology and operational technology (IT/OT) domains which makes the IIoT environment more vulnerable to existing security issues [5][6][7][8][9][10]. With billions of IoT/M2M devices connected in the industrial environment, it may potentially create multiple weak-entry points and lead to compromised assets/information/privacy issues. ...
... Without appropriate standards and security controls in place, it will be hard to classify the cyber threat impact and the information altered/manipulated. Identifying the breach before damage has incurred is critical to the whole environment [5]. ...
Research
Full-text available
Industrial IoT (IIoT) is a novel concept of a fully connected, transparent, automated, and intelligent factory setup improving manufacturing processes and efficiency. To achieve this, existing hierarchical models must transition to a fully connected vertical model. Since IIoT is a novel approach, the environment is susceptible to cyber threat vectors, standardization, and interoperability issues, bridging the gaps at the IT/OT ICS (industrial control systems) level. IIoT M2M communication relies on new communication models (5G, TSN ethernet, self-driving networks, etc.) and technologies which require challenging approaches to achieve the desired levels of data security. Currently there are no methods to assess the vulnerabilities/risk impact which may be exploited by malicious actors through system gaps left due to improper implementation of security standards. The authors are currently working on an Industry 4.0 cybersecurity project and the insights provided in this paper are derived from the project. This research enables an understanding of converged/hybrid cybersecurity standards, reviews the best practices, and provides a roadmap for identifying, aligning, mapping, converging, and implementing the right cybersecurity standards and strategies for securing M2M communications in the IIoT.
... IEC 62443 is an international series of standards in cybersecurity that is focused on the employment of cybersecurity requirements for operating technology in systems used for industrial automation and control purposes [35]. This series of standards that was initially established by the ISA99 committee addresses current and future cyber security concerns in industrial automation and control systems (IACSs). ...
... This series of standards that was initially established by the ISA99 committee addresses current and future cyber security concerns in industrial automation and control systems (IACSs). The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) has adopted this standard and asks security experts in industrial automation and control systems from all over the world to help develop the standard [35]. Since the standard has divided cybersecurity topics into different categories, it is not limited to the technology sector; however, it also considers mitigating cyber threats regarding processes, employees, and countermeasures. ...
Article
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Businesses are reliant on data to survive in the competitive market, and data is constantly in danger of loss or theft. Loss of valuable data leads to negative consequences for both individuals and organizations. Cybersecurity is the process of protecting sensitive data from damage or theft. To successfully achieve the objectives of implementing cybersecurity at different levels, a range of procedures and standards should be followed. Cybersecurity standards determine the requirements that an organization should follow to achieve cybersecurity objectives and facilitate against cybercrimes. Cybersecurity standards demonstrate whether an information system can meet security requirements through a range of best practices and procedures. A range of standards has been established by various organizations to be employed in information systems of different sizes and types. However, it is challenging for businesses to adopt the standard that is the most appropriate based on their cybersecurity demands. Reviewing the experiences of other businesses in the industry helps organizations to adopt the most relevant cybersecurity standards and frameworks. This study presents a narrative review of the most frequently used cybersecurity standards and frameworks based on existing papers in the cybersecurity field and applications of these cybersecurity standards and frameworks in various fields to help organizations select the cybersecurity standard or framework that best fits their cybersecurity requirements.
... During our survey, we noticed that, although there are differences in the detailed configuration of all the control systems, their basic configuration follows the reference model defined in ANSI/ISA95 [18] (Figure 1). the detailed configuration of all the control systems, their basic configuration follows the reference model defined in ANSI/ISA95 [18] (Figure 1). The international standards regarding industrial control systems, such as ISA99 and IEC62443, also refer to the hierarchical structure according to the ISA95 model [19,20]. In considering the security of the IIoT system, it is important to consider the system configuration that combined the IT and OT targeted by ISA99 and IEC62443 [21]. ...
... Based on this reference architecture, system modeling and asset configuration management are performed according to the asset configuration of the actual IIoT system. The international standards regarding industrial control systems, such as ISA99 and IEC62443, also refer to the hierarchical structure according to the ISA95 model [19,20]. In considering the security of the IIoT system, it is important to consider the system configuration that combined the IT and OT targeted by ISA99 and IEC62443 [21]. ...
Article
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Cyber-security countermeasures are important for IIoT (industrial Internet of things) systems in which IT (information technology) and OT (operational technology) are integrated. The appropriate asset management is the key to creating strong security systems to protect from various cyber threats. However, the timely and coherent asset management methods used for conventional IT systems are difficult to be implemented for IIoT systems. This is because these systems are composed of various network protocols, various devices, and open technologies. Besides, it is necessary to guarantee reliable and real-time control and save CPU and memory usage for legacy OT devices. In this study, therefore, (1) we model various asset configurations for IIoT systems and design a data structure based on SCAP (Security Content Automation Protocol). (2) We design the functions to automatically acquire the detailed information from edge devices by “asset configuration management agent”, which ensures a low processing load. (3) We implement the proposed asset management system to real edge devices and evaluate the functions. Our contribution is to automate the asset management method that is valid for the cyber security countermeasures in the IIoT systems.
... THE RELATIVE INTEREST LEVEL IS BASED ON THE PERCENTAGE OF WORKS ADDRESSING THE SPECIFIC SECURITY REQUIREMENT COMPARED TO THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PAPERS FOR THAT CATEGORY. ID Security requirement Related sources Relative interest % within category R-01 continuation of operation with compromised subsystems [15], [84], [118], [121], [126] High 31% R-02 operation with intermittent connectivity [84], [125] Medium 12% R-03 standards compliance [25], [112], [119], [120], [127] High 31% acceptable to simply deploy enough sensors to guarantee some redundancy, meaning that a small number of compromised sensors can be kept contained and their output discarded until the issue has been addressed. In a power plant however, it might be catastrophic to disable one generator entirely if one of its components has been compromised. ...
... In this work, reliability and redundancy are also identified as measurable indicators. Similarly, Leander et al. [127] investigate the applicability of the IEC 62443 cybersecurity standards [124] in Industry 4.0 applications. For a short survey on the security standards relevant to Industry 4.0, we refer to [122]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A key application of the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm lies within industrial contexts. Indeed, the emerging Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), commonly referred to as Industry 4.0, promises to revolutionize production and manufacturing through the use of large numbers of networked embedded sensing devices, and the combination of emerging computing technologies, such as Fog/Cloud Computing and Artificial Intelligence. The IIoT is characterized by an increased degree of inter-connectivity, which not only creates opportunities for the industries that adopt it, but also for cyber-criminals. Indeed, IoT security currently represents one of the major obstacles that prevent the widespread adoption of IIoT technology. Unsurprisingly, such concerns led to an exponential growth of published research over the last few years. To get an overview of the field, we deem it important to systematically survey the academic literature so far, and distill from it various security requirements as well as their popularity. This paper consists of two contributions: our primary contribution is a systematic review of the literature over the period 2011-2019 on IIoT Security, focusing in particular on the security requirements of the IIoT. Our secondary contribution is a reflection on how the relatively new paradigm of Fog computing can be leveraged to address these requirements, and thus improve the security of the IIoT.
... Apart from the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) Reference Architecture [14,15], IIoT systems have consumer-centric industry-specific standards and regulatory compliance requirements for information handling such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPPA) [15] or the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). Specific to the security in IACS, a catalogue of standards is published by the International Electro-technical Commission (IEC) such as the IEC 62443 covering electronic security of control systems across several industry sectors [15,16]. Specifically, IEC62443-3-3 which relates to the details of system security requirements and security levels has been accredited by the IEC System of Conformity Assessment Schemes for Electrotechnical Equipment and Components (IECEE). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The proliferation of sensor technologies in Industrial Control Systems (ICS) helped to transform the environment towards better automation, process control and monitoring. However, sensor technologies expose the smart cities of the future to complex security challenges. Luckily, the sensing capabilities also create opportunities to capture various data types, which apart from operational use can add substantial value to developing mechanisms to protect ICS and critical infrastructure. We discuss Blockchain (BC), a disruptive technology with applications ranging from cryptocurrency to smart contracts and the value of integrating BC technologies into the design of ICS to support modern digital forensic readiness.
... There are regulatory efforts to establish the implementation of security measures like IEC62443 in the EU as a standard [9,10]. These require an implementation of the security by design paradigm [11]. ...
Chapter
The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) enables the connection of industrial operational technology (OT) with information technology (IT). However, the convergence of IT and OT has the drawback that machines become increasingly vulnerable to cyber attacks. Therefore, security aspects for OT areas require special attention. The integration of Security Operations Centers (SOC) and OT offers a possible solution approach. A SOC is related to the people, processes and technologies that provide awareness through the detection, containment, and remediation of IT threats. The basis for integrating an IIoT-based SOC are well defined processes and their information needs. In this respect, the discipline of Business Process Management (BPM) offers numerous established methods, concepts and technologies for the systematic modeling and system-supported execution and analysis of processes. This paper aims to highlight the opportunities that the application of BPM concepts holds for IIoT security management. Based on the IIoT security management process, we show several exemplary ways how to leverage BPM methods for improving IIoT security.
... Two standards are investigated to find recommendations that can contribute to reference architecture development. IEC 62443 includes documents representing various characteristics of implementing and maintaining security to a well-defined level within an industrial system [15]. Similarly, in the safety domain, IEC 61508 is the relevant international standard on functional safety in numerous industrial sectors. ...
... Some standards tend to specialize in a specific domain in cyber security. IEC 62443 targets Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) by defining common standards in processes, techniques and security requirements [106]. There are four categories in IEC 62443 cyber security standard series, respectively General, Policies and Procedures, System and Component, covering foundational information, asset owner, system design guidance and requirements, and specific product development and technical requirements for IACS [107]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Advances in emerging Information and Communications Technology (ICT) technologies push the boundaries of what is possible and open up new markets for innovative ICT products and services. The adoption of ICT products and systems with security properties depends on consumers’ confidence and markets’ trust in the security functionalities and whether the assurance measures applied to these products meet the inherent security requirements. Such confidence and trust are primarily gained through the rigorous development of security requirements, validation criteria, evaluation, and certification. The Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (often referred to as Common Criteria or CC) is an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for cyber security. Motivated by encouraging the adoption of the CC that is used for ICT security evaluation and certification, in this paper, we conduct a systematic review of the CC standard and its adoptions. Adoption barriers of the CC are investigated based on the analysis of current trends in cyber security evaluation. In addition, we share the experiences and lessons gained through the recent Development of Australian Cyber Criteria Assessment (DACCA) project on the development of the Protection Profile that defines security requirements with the CC. Best practices, challenges, and future directions on defining security requirements for trusted cyber security advancement are presented.
... • IEC 62443: Some standards tend to specialize in a specific domain in cyber security. IEC 62443 targets Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) by defining common standards in processes, techniques and security requirements [79]. There are four categories, respectively General, Policies and Procedures, System and Component, covering foundational information, asset owner, system design guidance and requirements, and specific product development and technical requirements for IACS [58]. ...
Preprint
Advances of emerging Information and Communications Technology (ICT) technologies push the boundaries of what is possible and open up new markets for innovative ICT products and services. The adoption of ICT products and systems with security properties depends on consumers' confidence and markets' trust in the security functionalities and whether the assurance measures applied to these products meet the inherent security requirements. Such confidence and trust are primarily gained through the rigorous development of security requirements, validation criteria, evaluation, and certification. Common Criteria for Information Technology Security Evaluation (often referred to as Common Criteria or CC) is an international standard (ISO/IEC 15408) for cyber security certification. In this paper, we conduct a systematic review of the CC standards and its adoptions. Adoption barriers of the CC are also investigated based on the analysis of current trends in security evaluation. Specifically, we share the experiences and lessons gained through the recent Development of Australian Cyber Criteria Assessment (DACCA) project that promotes the CC among stakeholders in ICT security products related to specification, development, evaluation, certification and approval, procurement, and deployment. Best practices on developing Protection Profiles, recommendations, and future directions for trusted cybersecurity advancement are presented.
... A major source for guidance and certifications for cybersecurity used within Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS) is the IEC 62443 [1], [2] standard series. Sections 4-2 and 3-3 of the standard contain requirements and guidance related to system resp. ...
Conference Paper
Industrial systems have traditionally been kept isolated from external networks. However, business benefits are pushing for a convergence between the industrial systems and new information technology environments such as cloud computing, as well as higher level of connectivity between different systems. This makes cybersecurity a growing concern for industrial systems. In strengthening security, access control is a fundamental mechanisms for providing security in these systems. However, access control is relatively immature in traditional industrial systems, as compared to modern IT systems, and organizations' adherence to an established cybersecurity standard or guideline can be a deciding factor for choices of access control techniques used. This paper presents the results of a questionnaire study on the usage of access control within industrial system that are being developed, serviced or operated by Swedish organizations, contrasted to their usage of cybersecurity standards and guidelines. To be precise, the article focuses on two fundamental requirements of cybersecurity: identification and authentication control, and presents related findings based on a survey of the Swedish industry. The goal of the study is breaching the gap between the current state and the requirements of emerging systems with regards to access control.
... Industrial networks have specific security requirements that are described in the IEC 62443 series of specifications [33], [34]. This standard defines four levels of security for different threat models spanning from SL1-protecting from any Internet user, to SL4 -protecting from government organizations. ...
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... But how to attain the same risk level across the interconnected critical infrastructures; and how to achieve the same technical level of trust when the selection of countermeasures are subject to the talent of the practitioner? There are some generic best practices guiding critical infrastructures towards a cybersecurity posture on their IACS [10,11]. However, selecting the right countermeasures or defining the processes implementing a Cyber Security Management System (CSMS) is also problematic and requires qualitative risk-analysis. ...
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Inter-dependencies in critical industrial systems pose huge security challenges, which are tightly linked to the problems of interoperability and trustworthiness within and among those systems. In this paper, we try to establish the interconnection between these system properties in a way that allows the establishment of one property to positively affect and facilitate the establishment of the other. For that purpose, we design a methodology based on standardized and well-known models and frameworks, which are upgraded as needed and integrated into a single generic framework. Although this approach is meant to primarily help the security experts and the architects in their design practices, it also aims to facilitate the dialogue on important (cyber and physical) security issues among all relevant levels in an industrial IoT organization. The formal value and the practical applicability of the methodology are also demonstrated through a use case in the domain of road transportation and automotive industry.
... Applying theorem 2, I 12 is derived as in (24). ...
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In this paper, an uplink pairwise Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) scenario using a mobile access point (AP) or an unmanned aerial vehicle in the presence of a jamming attack is considered. To mitigate the influence of the jamming attack, a joint power allocation and AP placement design is proposed. Accordingly, closed-form expressions of the overall outage probability (OOP) and the individual outage probability (IOP) considering imperfect channel state information for each of the source nodes the AP serves, are derived over Nakagami-m fading channels using dynamic decoding order and fixed pairwise power allocation. We conduct an investigation of the effect of different parameters such as power allocation, source node placements, AP placement, target rates, and jammer location on the OOP and the IOP performance. By adapting the power allocation and the AP placement to the jamming attack, the communication reliability can be increased significantly compared to neglecting the presence of the jammer or treating the jammer as noise. Since the malicious jammer and the AP have conflicting interests in terms of communication reliability, we formulate a non-cooperative game for the two players considering their positions and the power allocation of the NOMA nodes as their strategies and the OOP as utility function. We propose using hybrid simulated annealing -greedy algorithms to address the joint power allocation and AP placement problem for the cases of both a fixed and a mobile jammer. Finally, the Nash equilibrium points are obtained and then the UAV goes directly to this position and keeps staying there to save power consumption.
... However, the integration of Internet of Thing (IoT) devices into IACS has accelerated the convergence of OT and IT and resulted in new cyber-security threats for IACS. Hence, Leander et al. [105] argued that at some points, the current IEC62443 standard is not sufficient to deal with the new security threat brought by IoT devices into IACS such as handling of cross-zone communication and software updates. ...
Thesis
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Chapter
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This document is the first version of the ‘Industrial Internet of Things, Volume G4: Security Framework’ (IISF). It initiates a process to create broad industry consensus on how to secure Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) systems. The IIoT is being shaped by many participants from the energy, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation and public sectors, each of which needs to consider security. To avoid security hazards, especially as systems from different sectors interoperate and exploitation attempts are made in the gaps between them, it is important and urgent to build early consensus among the participants on IIoT security. This work builds on ‘Industrial Internet of Things, Volume G1: Reference Architecture’ (IIRA, [IIC- IIRA2016]) that lays out the most important architecture components, how they fit together and how they influence each other. Each of these components must be made secure, as must the key system characteristics that bind them together into a trustworthy system. This document extends naturally from a chapter in the IIRA describing security concerns. It moves into security-specific territory to ensure security is a fundamental part of the architecture, not bolted onto it. This document has several parts that do not mirror the IIRA document structure exactly. Part I examines key system characteristics, how they should be assured together to create a trustworthy system, and what makes IIoT systems different from traditional IT systems. Part II reviews security assessment for organizations, architectures and technologies. It outlines how to evaluate attacks as part of a risk analysis and highlights the many factors that should be considered, ranging from the endpoints and communications to management systems and the supply chains of the elements comprising the system. Different roles are identified that should be considered in conjunction with the key characteristics, including, owner/operator, system integrator/builder and equipment vendor. Each role offers different risk management perspectives that affect the decisions regarding security and privacy. Part III covers the functional and implementation viewpoint of the IIRA (and subsumes its usage viewpoint). It describes good practices for achieving confidentiality, integrity and availability, and considerations for trusting data when it is communicated and stored, as well as establishing trust in the code and overall execution environment. It also includes patterns for protecting against and limiting risks, including firewalls, separation of networks, separation of privilege, unidirectional gateways, identity management, cryptography, public key infrastructure and trusted execution environment. The annexes cover topics that apply to more specific segments of the security domain. One covers numerous guidelines, standards and regulations relating to protection of industrial internet systems and discusses the role of standards and compliance in industrial internet Security. Another provides an example of a cybersecurity capability maturity model for evaluating the maturity of the security posture and associated processes within an organization. The last annex lists some security techniques and processes, their mapping to important security objectives, and their high-level requirements.
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NIST. 2019. Security Requirements for Cryptographic Modules. Technical Report. 1-11 pages. https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.FIPS.140-3
A Firmware Update Architecture for Internet of Things Devices
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Brendan Moran, Milosch Meriac, Hannes Tschofenig, and David Brown. 2019. A Firmware Update Architecture for Internet of Things Devices. Internet-Draft draftietf-suit-architecture-05. Internet Engineering Task Force. https://datatracker. ietf.org/doc/html/draft-ietf-suit-architecture-05 Work in Progress.
Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity
NIST. 2018. Framework for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity. Technical Report. 1-55 pages. https://doi.org/10.6028/NIST.CSWP.04162018
Glossary of key information security terms , Revision 2. U.S. Dept. of Commerce , National Institute of Standards and Technology . Richard Kissel. 2013. Glossary of key information security terms, Revision 2
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Richard Kissel. 2013. Glossary of key information security terms, Revision 2. U.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Institute of Standards and Technology.
Analysis of the Cyber Attack on the Ukrainian Power Grid
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Robert M Lee, Michael J Assante, and Tim Conway. 2016. Analysis of the Cyber Attack on the Ukrainian Power Grid. Technical Report. SANS.
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IEC. 2016. Smart Manufacturing -Reference Architecture Module Industry 4.0 (RAMI4.0). Technical Report. Internation Electrotechnical Commission. 1-35 pages.
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