Article

Intertextual Voices of Children, Parents, and Specialists in Individual Education Plans

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Abstract

Planning support and education services requires multifaceted information from professionals, parents, and children. Despite this, educators have emphasized professional opinions in individual education plans (IEPs), whereas the perspectives of children and parents have remained inconsequential. In this study, we examine the intertextual voices of children, parents, and specialists in IEPs (N = 287) drafted in Finnish early childhood education and care (ECEC). The findings show that educators use intertextual voices to serve the following functions: (1) Creating a more multidimensional image of a child, (2) presenting evidence for their argumentation, and (3) assigning the responsibility to others. Consequently, the children, parents, and specialists were positioned as either speakers without influence, legitimators of educator’s knowledge, or powerful decision-makers.

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... Families have often been left outside the decision-making process and decisions concerning goals might have been made before the meeting; see [17,27,28,[31][32][33]. In addition, pupils' participation has been reported as being notably sparse, especially among pupils with lower functional cognitive and social skills; see [23,29,[34][35][36][37]. ...
... In addition, Kurth and colleagues [27], who studied parents' input and power structures through 88 IEPs prepared for pupils with intellectual and developmental disabilities, revealed that parents' hopes and concerns recorded in the IEPs were formulated into goals or services only two-thirds of the time; see also [36]. The power structures could also be seen in their analysis of the wording of the IEPs, which implied that the IEP teams were composed of school personnel who gathered information about the families ("the IEP team has requested and considered the concerns of Parents(s)/Educational decision maker") [27] (p. ...
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... For example, parents may be expected to take part in the evaluation of their child's character, behaviour and development (Alasuutari and Karila 2010;Markström 2011). They may also be expected to participate in drafting a pedagogical plan for their child (Heiskanen et al. 2019). In the literature, a more equal parent-professional relationship is often denoted a 'partnership'. ...
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... For example, parents may be expected to take part in the evaluation of their child's character, behaviour and development (Alasuutari and Karila 2010;Markström 2011). They may also be expected to participate in drafting a pedagogical plan for their child (Heiskanen et al. 2019). In the literature, a more equal parent-professional relationship is often denoted a 'partnership'. ...
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Children's participation initiatives have been increasingly introduced within various institutional jurisdictions around the world, partly in response to Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Such initiatives have been critically evaluated from a number of different angles. This article engages with an avenue of critique which argues that children's participatory initiatives resonate with a neoliberal economic and political context that prioritises middle class, western individualism and ultimately fosters children's deeper subjugation through self-governance. Respecting these as legitimate concerns, this article draws on two counter-positions to argue that while children's participation can certainly be conceptualised and practised in ways that reflect neo-liberal, individualised self-governance, it does not necessarily do so. To make this argument I engage, on the one hand, with Foucault's work on the care of the self, and on the other, with more collective approaches to participation.
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Using rhetorical genre theory and research on reported speech, this study investigates the citation practices in 81 forensic letters written by paediatricians and nurse practitioners that provide their opinion for the courts as to whether a child has experienced maltreatment. These letters exist in a complex social situation where a lack of clarity exists as to which professional group (healthcare providers, police, social workers) is primarily responsible for gathering accounts of children’s injuries. Yet physicians need these accounts into order to compare them to actual injuries. The study documents the direct and indirect citations that occur in the letters, observes documentation strategies, notes the instances in which partial breakdowns in citation occur, and points to the linguistic factors contributing to these breakdowns.
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This paper uses a text-driven approach to explore epistemological positioning (the expression of assessments concerning knowledge) in English newspapers. The notion of epistemological positioning (EP) often overlaps with evidentiality-the linguistic marking of the basis of speaker/writer knowledge. This is a relatively modern concept in linguistics and, compared to the amount of research it has attracted concerning other languages, it has been somewhat neglected in research focusing on English. Newspaper texts are a particularly good source for looking into EP and evidentiality, because the news story is a genre that is preoccupied with knowledge. The analysis shows that EP in English can be very complex, and that the distinction between attribution and averral (Sinclair 1988) needs to be taken into account when discussing it in naturally occurring texts (particularly in news texts). The resulting elements of EP that are identified for the English language offer a first glance at the possibilities to express EP in English, and open up future research on EP in different registers and text types.
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The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act mandates that students with disabilities be provided the necessary special education and related services that will allow them the benefit of a free and appropriate public education. Individualized Education Programs (IEPs) are the product of a team planning process that facilitates the coordination of such services for all students with disabilities in public schools who receive special education services. The purpose of the current study was to examine the association of student IEP participation with academic achievement across time. Although research has indicated the potential value of student participation in IEP meetings in developing self-determination skills, the relationship between student participation in IEP meetings and academic achievement has yet to be empirically examined. This article provides evidence that supports a positive association between student IEP participation and academic outcomes for students with disabilities at the elementary school level.
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This paper reports the findings from a study of the participation of children with special educational needs (SEN) in decision‐making about their needs in a sample of mainstream schools which were self‐selected for having promising practices. The findings show promising practices in eliciting views, the importance of a school participation ethos and inconsistencies between policy and practices. The study also illustrates the complexity and challenge of consulting and sharing decision making with children and young people. The outcomes are discussed in terms of educational psychologists becoming involved in research and in supporting whole school developments of participation practices.
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Dans un numero thematique consacre au discours produit au-dela des frontieres professionnelles, c-a-d au discours impliquant des professionnels qui communiquent avec des individus issus d'autres professions ou avec des personnes non expertes, l'A. propose ici un article introductif dans lequel il presente quelques notions-cle liees a ce genre de communication : notamment, la recontextualisation, une strategie discursive consistant a recadrer le discours pour qu'il soit compris par des personnes issues d'un contexte different ; l'intertextualite, qui se refere a la reconstruction, la reformulation et la recontextualisation d'un meme sujet dans differentes situations de communication et entre differents locuteurs ; et la polyphonie, qui designe le melange de perspectives dans un meme texte a propos d'un meme sujet
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This October 2010 article is a reprint of the original May 1995 (V76N9) article and includes a new one-page introduction (on page 65 of this issue) by the author. The author highlights the importance of designing integrated, coordinated social contexts in which children can develop. She summarizes the results of many studies and the work of educators and families in elementary, middle, and high schools and describes how schools can develop more positive school/family/community connections. The introduction is included in the downloadable pdf.
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This article addresses the ambiguity of the child's ‘voice’ in social research. Drawing on a recent research project on young children's communication difficulties, the author argues that the currently popular discourse on ‘listening to children’ is beset with practical and ethical ambiguities that result from the ‘socialness’ of human interaction, discourses and practices. In particular, the author argues that the notion of the child's ‘voice’ is, despite being a powerful rhetorical device, socially constructed. This article illustrates and discusses ambiguities that arose from fieldwork in two ‘special needs’ settings, considering their epistemological implications for social research, and offers reflexivity as a strategy for ethical research conduct.
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The study assessed the views of 115 special education teachers. They reported demographic information, data related to who was attending and leading individualized education plan (IEP) meetings, and their views about the helpfulness/importance of school psychologists. Special education teachers considered the presence of school psychologists to be moderately important. School psychologists' participation and leadership at meetings was positively correlated with increased ratings of their helpfulness/importance by special education teachers. Thus the current study gives some insight into teachers' views related to school psychologists at IEP meetings. (Contains 3 tables.)
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Speech and language therapist and teacher practitioners need particular knowledge to work effectively together to support the needs of individual learners. Using the frame of modes of knowledge (Gibbon, Limoges, Nowotny, Schwartzmann, Scott, and Trow, The new production of knowledge, London, Sage Publications, 19947. Gibbon , M. , Limoges , C. , Nowotny , H. , Schwartzman , S. , Scott , P. and Trow , M. 1994. The new production of knowledge, London: Sage Publications. View all references), the necessary knowledge bases in the current Scottish policy context are analysed. It is argued that a fresh approach is needed which investigates the kinds of specific practitioner knowledge needed to support a pupil with specific language impairment. Empirical data from one collaborative support context are analysed to demonstrate how practitioners' knowledge bases are manifested. The analysis suggests that practitioners and their managers and leaders will be better placed to audit how and when different modes of knowledge are needed in the cycle of their co‐work, to identify any gaps or overlaps in the types of knowledge necessary and to ensure that these are addressed in future in practitioners' pre‐ and post‐qualifying professional education and learning.
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Operationalizes the concept of intertextuality by using it to analyze sample texts. Certain dimensions of intertextuality are described that have potential for building a framework for discourse analysis: interdiscursivity, textual transformations, and how texts constitute social identities. (Contains 35 references.) (JP)
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This book is designed to provide guidance on effective practices that are related to better outcomes for young children with disabilities, their families, and the personnel who serve them. Practices were identified through focus groups of stakeholders: practitioners, personnel trainers, researchers, administrators, and family members. These practices were integrated with those found from an extensive review of the literature. The resulting practices underwent a field validation. After an introductory chapter, chapters are provided that list recommended practices in the following areas: (1) assessment; (2) child-focused interventions; (3) family-based interventions; (4) interdisciplinary models; (5) technology applications; (6) polices, procedures, and systems change; and (7) personnel preparation. Each of these chapters begins with an introductory statement written by the research strand chair and includes the organizing principles or key features that serve as the foundation of each strand. Also included are definitions of terms that are specific to the strand. A listing of the recommended practices follows. Chapters 9 and 10 discuss methods and activities used to produce the recommended practices and provide applications to illustrate ways the practices can be used in the field. Appendices include information on applicable federal laws and resources and position papers. (Chapters include references.) (CR)
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In this paper, I argue that Foucault's work on power offers a distinctive and original perspective with the potential to afford insights into the nature of participation. I begin by providing a brief exegesis of Foucault's conceptualisation of power in his middle to late work. The notion of governmentality is drawn out as a potentially useful tool in understanding participation as a profoundly ambiguous phenomenon. I conclude by outlining some of the possible implications of Foucault's thinking about power for studying children's participation.
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Children's participation in decision-making is complex: it is undertaken for different purposes and is reflected in different levels of involvement, different contexts and different activities. This paper reviews the current state of participation and, drawing on practice and research literature, highlights several aspects of practice where further consideration is needed if participation is to develop positively. This suggests that, if participation is to be more meaningful to children and effective in influencing change, it is necessary to move beyond one-off or isolated participation and consider how participation becomes embedded as an integral part of our relationship with children. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Integrating young children with special needs into programs for typically developing children is a current trend. Yet, integration may threaten a teacher's ability to meet the needs of an individual child. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the teachers’ orientation in early intervention/early childhood special education. Data from thirteen early childhood generic educators/early childhood special educators were collected to provide a qualitative description of their assessment and planning practices. Findings indicated that generic early childhood/early childhood special educators’ assessment, planning, and programming for meeting the needs of individual children were not clearly established. There was incongruence between the teachers’ actual practice and the positively ‐valued guideline of child‐centeredness, social aspects of learning and naturalistic teaching strategies.