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STUDY ON AWARENESS ABOUT ORGANIC TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA L.) PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AMONG TRIBAL FARMERS OF NORTH SIKKIM

Authors:
  • Spices Board (Ministry of Commerce & Industry Govt. of India)
  • Indian Cardamom Research Institute

Abstract

Turmeric is the important spice crop and grown organically in Sikkim, Northeast India. A large chunk of agrarian community depends on its cultivation. The present study was conducted at Dzongu areas of North Sikkim due to maximum tribal farmer's population lives. A list of the turmeric growing villages was prepared and five villages were selected randomly. After the selection of villages, a village wise list of the turmeric tribal farmers of the selected five villages were prepared and 25 farmers from each village were selected randomly. Thus, the total sampling consisted of 125 tribal farmers spread over five selected villages. For the purpose of present study, eleven organic recommended production technologies in the package of practices about turmeric production technologies viz., improved varieties, planting material, sucker treatment, field preparation, planting time, method of planting, recommended dose of manuring, irrigation management, method of weed control, plant protection (bioagents) and improve storage system were selected. Majority of the respondents were found in medium aware and medium adoption category.
VOL. IX, ISSUE XXX, JULY 2019 MULTILOGIC IN SCIENCE ISSN 2277-7601
An International Refereed, Peer Reviewed & Indexed Quarterly Journal in Science, Agriculture & Engineering
www.ycjournal.net NAAS Rating- 5.20 Impact factor-4.035 85
STUDY ON AWARENESS ABOUT ORGANIC TURMERIC (CURCUMA LONGA L.) PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY AMONG
TRIBAL FARMERS OF NORTH SIKKIM
B.A. Gudade1, Ashutosh Gautam1, S.S. Bora1, T.N. Deka1, R. Chhetri1, Subhash Babu2
K. Dhanapal3, A.B. Remashree3 and Raghavendra Singh4
1ICRI, Regional Research Station, Spices Board, Tadong, Gangtok-737 102, Sikkim, India
2ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region Umiam -793 103, Meghalaya, India
3ICRI, Spices Board, Myladumpara, Idukki- 685 553, Kerala, India
4ICAR, RC, NEH Region, Sikkim Centre, Tadong, Gangtok-737 102, Sikkim, India
(Received: 20.04.2019; Revised: 25.05.2019; Accepted: 27.05.2019)
(RESEARCH PAPER IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE)
Abstract
Turmeric is the important spice crop and grown organically in Sikkim, Northeast India. A large chunk of agrarian community depends on
its cultivation. The present study was conducted at Dzongu areas of North Sikkim due to maximum tribal farmer’s population lives. A list of
the turmeric growing villages was prepared and five villages were selected randomly. After the selection of villages, a village wise list of the
turmeric tribal farmers of the selected five villages were prepared and 25 farmers from each village were selected randomly. Thus, the total
sampling consisted of 125 tribal farmers spread over five selected villages. For the purpose of present study, eleven organic recommended
production technologies in the package of practices about turmeric production technologies viz., improved varieties, planting material, sucker
treatment, field preparation, planting time, method of planting, recommended dose of manuring, irrigation management, method of weed
control, plant protection (bioagents) and improve storage system were selected. Majority of the respondents were found in medium aware
and medium adoption category.
Keywords: Adoption, awareness, tribal farmers, turmeric, organic production technology
Introduction
India, better known as the home of spices, has consistently been the
major player in production, consumption and export of spices (Gudade
et al., 2015). Out of 109 spices listed under ISO, more than 60 spices
were grown in India. Spices are an important ingredient of our food.
These have medicinal and curative properties. Spices are produced all
over the world. Indian spices are popular for their flavour. However
each country produces only few items. Leading spice producing
countries in the world are India, Brazil (pepper), Indonesia (pepper,
cloves, nutmeg, mace, ginger, and cinnamon) Malaysia (pepper),
Vietnam (pepper, star anise, and cinnamon), China (pepper, ginger,
garlic, and cinnamon) and Sri Lanka (pepper, cinnamon) (Anandraj et
al., 2013). Turmeric is a very important spice in India, which is
obtained from rhizomes of plant Curcuma longa, a member of the
Zingiberaceae family. Turmeric forms a part of most Indian curry
powder. It is a natural antiseptic. The spice is sometimes also called
the ‘Indian saffron’ thanks to its brilliant colour (Lal, 2012). Turmeric
has also been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine, which
integrates the medicinal properties of herbs with food. This
extraordinary herb has found its way into the spotlight in the west and
rest of globe, because of its wide range of medicinal benefits. Use of
turmeric dates back nearly 4000 years to the Vedic culture in India. It
is extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha medicine as home
remedy for various diseases (Chattopadhyay, et al., 2004 and Abas, et
al., 2005). Turmeric is as a food colorant and dyes for cloth in both
cases a cheaper alternative to saffron. It was and is used in religious
ceremonies and offerings often representing life, purity, and
prosperity (Bhowmik et al., 2009). India is a leading producer and
exporter of turmeric in the world. In India, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil
Nadu, Orissa, Karnataka, West Bengal, Gujarat, Meghalaya,
Maharashtra and Assam are some of the important states cultivate
turmeric. The crop is also cultivated in some pockets of Sikkim.
Turmeric has been used in Indian systems of medicine for a long time.
Recently, the demand for organic turmeric is growing rapidly in the
global pharmaceutical market due to its anticancer properties (Gudade
et al., 2018). The turmeric of northeast of India is known for its high
curcumin content and other quality parameters. Sikkim is a tiny state
of North-Eastern India stretches between 270 04’ to 280 07’ 48” N
latitude and 880 00’ 58” to 880 55’ 25” E longitude on the southern
slope of the Eastern Himalayas with a total geographical area of 7096
km2. Sikkim is the first organic state in the world. The first state in
India to officially announce adoption of organic farming in the year
2003 to ensure long term sustenance of soil fertility, protection of
environment and ecology, healthy living and decreasing the risk of
health ailments. In 2003, Sikkim stopped imports of chemical
fertilizers in the State and since then the cultivatable land there is
practically organic and farmers of Sikkim are traditional users of
organic manure. Organic cultivation doesn't involve the use of
chemical pesticides and fertilizers and thus helps to maintain a
harmonious balance among the various complex ecosystems. Dzongu
area of North Sikkim, triangular-shaped landscape covers an area of
15,846 ha located between 270 28’ to 270 38’ N latitude and 880 23’ to
880 38’ E longitude with an altitude range of 700 to 6000 m amsl.
Dzongu area divided into upper Dzongu and lower Dzongu comprises
of 11 villages with an approximate population of nine thousand
(Kumar et al., 2013). The North Sikkim district was selected
purposively due to maximum tribal farmer’s population (85%) lives
(Chhetri, 2013). North district of Sikkim is one of the turmeric
growing areas. To achieve the higher level of production and
productivity the inadequate level of knowledge of the recommended
technology as well as non-adoption may be a big hindrance which also
hampers the production potential. The gap always appears between the
recommended technologies and there use in farmer’s field. Besides
these, agro-economic, socio-psychological characteristics of the
farmers pay a major role in their knowledge and adoption for
increasing production. It is necessary to priorities strategy to increase
the knowledge and adaption level of the tribes of North Sikkim.
Keeping this view the present investigation was planned to explore the
awareness of organic turmeric production technology among tribal
farmers of North Sikkim with the following objectives.
1. To study the level of awareness of tribal farmers about
improved turmeric technology.
2. To determine the extent of adoption of improved turmeric
technology by the tribal farmers.
Materials and Methods
The study was conducted purposively in Tingbong, Nung,
Passingdang, Lingdong and Lingkoo villages of Dzongu areas of
North Sikkim during 2013-15. The North Sikkim district was selected
purposively due to maximum tribal farmer’s population (85 per cent)
lives. A list of the turmeric growing villages was prepared and five
villages were selected randomly. After the selection of the village, a
village wise list of the turmeric growing tribal farmers of the selected
five villages was prepared and 25 farmers of each village were
randomly selected. Thus, the total sampling consisted of 125 tribal
farmers spread over five selected villages. The primary data were
collected with the help of interview schedule, which was prepared on
VOL. IX, ISSUE XXX, JULY 2019 MULTILOGIC IN SCIENCE ISSN 2277-7601
An International Refereed, Peer Reviewed & Indexed Quarterly Journal in Science, Agriculture & Engineering
www.ycjournal.net NAAS Rating- 5.20 Impact factor-4.035 86
the basis of objectives of the study. The secondary data were obtained
from published journals. The scale is considered for law, medium and
high category was 0-3 low, 4-7 medium and 8-11 high. That is the
respondent who called answered correctly only 3 questions or below
category as low. That respondent who could answer correctly 4-7
questions out of 11 questions was considered as medium. High
category respondent able to answer 8 or more than 8 questions out of
11 questions category as high.
Results and Discussion
Awareness of tribal farmers about organic turmeric production
technology:
It is revealed from (Table-1) that out of the total of 125 turmeric
growers, 18.40 per cent had low awareness about the field
preparations, while 36.80 per cent had medium awareness about field
preparation practices and 44.80 per cent had high awareness. About
planting time, 17.60 per cent low awareness, while 32.00 per cent
respondents had medium awareness about planting time and 50.40 per
cent had high awareness. Regarding the improved varieties, 29.60 per
cent low awareness, while 48.80 per cent respondents had medium
awareness about the improved varieties and 21.60 per cent had high
awareness. About planting material, 33.60 per cent had low
awareness, while 52.00 per cent respondents had medium awareness
about the planting material and 14.40 per cent had high awareness. In
case of rhizome treatment 30.40 per cent had low awareness; While
64.00 per cent respondents had medium awareness and 5.60 per cent
had high awareness. Regarding method of planting, 22.40 per cent had
low adoption, while 36.80 per cent respondent had medium awareness
and 40.80 per cent had high awareness. About manuring, 29.60 per
cent low awareness, while 59.20 per cent respondents had medium
awareness about manuring and 11.20 per cent had high awareness. In
case of irrigation management 28.80 per cent respondents had low
awareness, while 52.80 per cent respondents had medium awareness
and 18.40 per cent had high awareness. Regarding the method of weed
control, 19.20 per cent low awareness, while 57.60 per cent
respondents had medium awareness about the method of weed control
and 23.20 per cent had high awareness. In case of plant protection
(bioagents), 36.80 per cent respondents had low awareness, while
47.20 per cent had medium awareness and 16.00 per cent had high
awareness. Regarding the method of improved storage system, 32.80
per cent had low awareness, while 51.20 per cent respondents had
medium awareness and 16.00 per cent had high awareness.
Adoption of improved organic turmeric production technology by
the tribal farmers:
It is revealed from (Table-2) out of the total of 125 turmeric growers,
21.60 per cent had low adoption, while 35.20 per cent had medium
awareness about the field preparation practices and 43.20 per cent had
high adoption. About planting time, 19.20 per cent low adoption,
while 32.80 per cent respondents had medium adoption about the
planting time and 48.00 per cent had high adoption. Regarding the
improved varieties, 44.80 per cent had low adoption, while 40.80 per
cent respondents had medium adoption about the improved varieties
and 14.40 per cent had high adoption. About planting material, 36.80
per cent had low adoption, while 47.20 per cent respondent had
medium adoption about the planting material and 16.00 per cent had
high adoption. In case of rhizome treatment 64.00 per cent
respondents had low adoption, while 27.20 per cent had medium
adoption and 8.80 per cent had high adoption. Regarding the method
of planting 28.00 per cent had low adoption, while 36.80 per cent
respondents had medium adoption and 35.20 per cent had high
adoption. About manuring, 35.20 per cent had low adoption, while
52.00 per cent respondents had medium adoption about manuring and
12.80 per cent had high adoption. In case of irrigation management
32.00 per cent respondents had low adoption, while 53.60 per cent had
medium adoption and 14.40 per cent had high adoption. Regarding the
method of weed control 60.00 per cent had low adoption, while 17.60
per cent respondents had medium adoption about the method of weed
control and 22.40 per cent had high adoption. In case of plant
protection (bioagents), 44.80 per cent respondent had low adoption,
while 40.00 per cent respondents had medium adoption and 15.20 per
cent had high adoption. Regarding improved storage system, 32.00 per
cent respondents had low adoption, while 54.40 per cent had medium
adoption and 13.60 per cent had high adoption.
Conclusion
Regarding the level of awareness of the tribal farmers about
recommended organic turmeric production technology in Dzongu
areas of North Sikkim, majority of respondent who were found in
medium awareness category, like improved varieties (48.80), planting
materials (52.00), rhizome treatment (64.00), manuring (59.20),
irrigation management (52.80), method of weed control (57.60), plant
protection measures (47.20) improved storage system (51.20). Three
responded found in high awareness category, like field preparation
(44.80), planting time (50.40) and method of planting (40.80).
Regarding the adoption of tribal farmers about recommended organic
turmeric production technology in Dzongu areas of North Sikkim,
majority of respondent who were found in medium adoption category,
planting materials (47.20), method of planting (36.80), manuring
(52.00), irrigation management (53.60) and improve storage system
(54.40). Two respondents found in high adoption category, like field
preparation (43.20) and planting time (48.00). Three respondents
found in low adoption category, like improved varieties (44.80),
rhizome treatment (64.00) and using plant protection measures
(44.80).
References
Abas, F., Lajis, N.H., Shaari, K., Israf, D.A., Stanslas, J., Yusuf,
U.K., and Raof, S.M. (2005) A labdane diterpene glucoside from the
rhizomes of Curcuma longa, Journal of Natural Products, 68: 1090-
1093.
Anandraj, M., Dinesh, R. and Srinivasan (2013) Sustaining export
potential of spices, Indian Horticulture, 58 (2): 12-16.
Bhowmik,D., Chiranjib, K.P. Sampath, K., Chandira, M. and
Jayakar, B. (2009) Turmeric: A Herbal and Traditional Medicine,
Archives of Applied Science Research, 1 (2): 86-108.
Chattopadhyay, I., Biswas, K., Bandyopadhyay U. and Banerjee,
R.K. (2004) Turmeric and curcumin: Biological actions and medicinal
applications, Current Science, (87): 44-50.
Chhetri, D.P. (2013). Preserving cultural identity through tribal self
governance: The case study of lepcha and lachungpa tribes of Sikkim
Himalaya, India, American Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts
& Social Sciences: 22-28.
Gudade B.A., Chhetri P., Harsha K.N. and Gupta U. (2018)
Cultivation of Organic Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) in Sikkim,
Indian Horticulture, March-April: 46-47.
Gudade B.A., S.S. Bora, S.K. Bhat and T. Bhutia (2015) Rainfed
Turmeric Cultivation Brings Handsome Return in Sikkim Condition,
Popular Kheti, 3 (3): 48-52.
Kumar, A., Avasthe, R.K., Shukla, G. and Pradhan, Y. (2013)
Ethno botanical edible plants biodiversity of Lepcha tribes, Indian
Forester, 138 (9): 798-0803.
Lal, J. (2012) Turmeric, curcumin and our life: A Review, Bulletin of
Environment and Pharmacological Life Sciences, 1 (7): 11-17.
Table1: Level of awareness of the respondents about turmeric production technology at Dzongu, North Sikkim n=125
Practices
Tribal farmers level of awareness
Low
Medium
High
VOL. IX, ISSUE XXX, JULY 2019 MULTILOGIC IN SCIENCE ISSN 2277-7601
An International Refereed, Peer Reviewed & Indexed Quarterly Journal in Science, Agriculture & Engineering
www.ycjournal.net NAAS Rating- 5.20 Impact factor-4.035 87
Field preparation
23
(18.40)
46
(36.80)
56
(44.80)
Planting time
22
(17.60)
40
(32.00)
63
(50.40)
Improved varieties
37
(29.60)
61
(48.80)
27
(21.60)
Planting materials
42
(33.60)
65
(52.00)
18
(14.40)
Rhizome treatment
38
(30.40)
80
(64.00)
07
(5.60)
Method of panting
28
(22.40)
46
(36.80)
51
(40.80)
Manuring
37
(29.60)
74
(59.20)
14
(11.20)
Irrigation management
36
(28.80)
66
(52.80)
23
(18.40)
Method of weed control
24
(19.20)
72
(57.60)
29
(23.20)
Plant protections
( Bioagents)
46
(36.80)
59
(47.20)
20
(16.00)
Improve storage system
41
(32.80)
64
(51.20)
20
(16.00)
N.B. Figures in parentheses indicate percentage
Table 2: Extant of adoption of the respondents about turmeric production technology at Dzongu, North Sikkim n=125
Practices
Low
Medium
High
Field preparation
27
(21.60)
44
(35.20)
54
(43.20)
Planting time
24
(19.20)
41
(32.80)
60
(48.00)
Improved varieties
56
(44.80)
51
(40.80)
18
(14.40)
Planting materials
46
(36.80)
59
(47.20)
20
(16.00)
Rhizome treatment
80
(64.00)
34
(27.20)
11
(8.80)
Method of panting
35
(28.00)
46
(36.80)
44
(35.20)
Manuring
44
(35.20)
65
(52.00)
16
(12.80)
Irrigation management
40
(32.00)
67
(53.60)
18
(14.40)
Method of weed control
75
(60.00)
22
(17.60)
28
(22.4)
Plant protections
( Bioagents)
56
(44.80)
50
(40.00)
19
(15.20)
Improve storage system
40
(32.00)
68
(54.40)
17
(13.60)
N.B. Figures in parentheses indicate percentage
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