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Vestigial like family member 3 is a novel prognostic biomarker for gastric cancer

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Abstract

Background: Vestigial like family member 3 (VGLL3) is associated with the prognosis of epithelial ovarian cancer and soft tissue sarcoma, but its role in gastric cancer (GC) is unclear. Aim: To explore the expression pattern and clinical significance of VGLL3 in GC. Methods: Integrative analysis was performed on the GC transcriptome profiles and survival information deposited in the ONCOMINE, GEPIA, and ONCOLNC databases. The expression levels of VGLL3 mRNA and protein were analyzed in the freshly resected tumor and normal gastric tissues from GC patients by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. In addition, the in situ expression of VGLL3 in the GC tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry (IHC), and the patients were accordingly classified into the high and low expression groups. The correlation of VGLL3 expression status with patient prognosis was then determined by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results: Analysis of the ONCOMINE and GEPIA databases showed that VGLL3 was significantly up-regulated in GC tissues (P = 0.003), and associated with the tumor TNM stage (P = 0.0163). The high VGLL3 expression group had a significantly worse prognosis compared to the low expression group, as per both GEPIA (P = 0.0057) and ONCOLNC (P = 0.01). The bioinformatics results were validated by the significantly higher VGLL3 mRNA and protein levels in the GC tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues (P < 0.001) in a cohort of 30 GC patients. Furthermore, high in situ expression of VGLL3 protein was associated with more advanced N and TNM stages and HER2 mutation (P < 0.05) in a cohort of 172 patients. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the high VGLL3 expression group had a worse prognosis compared to the low expression group (P = 0.019). Multivariate analysis showed that VGLL3 expression status was an independent risk factor for prognosis. In addition, the prognostic risk model nomogram showed that VGLL3 was the most important indicator, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) of 0.613 for 3-year survival and 0.706 for 5-year survival. Finally, the protein interaction network analysis revealed that VGLL3 is likely involved in the Hippo signaling pathway. Conclusion: VGLL3 is overexpressed in GC tissues and associated with a poor prognosis, indicating its potential as a novel prognosis biomarker and therapeutic target for GC.

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Previous studies have implicated vestigial like 3 (VGLL3), a chromosome 3p12.3 gene that encodes a putative transcription co-factor, as a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in high-grade serous ovarian carcinomas (HGSC), the most common type of epithelial ovarian cancer. A complementation analysis based on microcell-mediated chromosome transfer (MMCT) using a centric fragment of chromosome 3 (der3p12-q12.1) into the OV-90 ovarian cancer cell line haploinsufficient for 3p and lacking VGLL3 expression was performed to assess the effect on tumorigenic potential and growth characteristics. Genetic characterization of the derived MMCT hybrids revealed that only the hybrid that contained an intact VGLL3 locus exhibited alterations of tumorigenic potential in a nude mouse xenograft model and various in vitro growth characteristics. Only stable OV-90 transfectant clones expressing low levels of VGLL3 were derived. These clones exhibited an altered cytoplasmic morphology characterized by numerous single membrane bound multivesicular-bodies (MVB) that were not attributed to autophagy. Overexpression of VGLL3 in OV-90 was achieved using a lentivirus-based tetracycline inducible gene expression system, which also resulted in MVB formation in the infected cell population. Though there was no significant differences in various in vitro and in vivo growth characteristics in a comparison of VGLL3-expressing clones with empty vector transfectant controls, loss of VGLL3 expression was observed in tumors derived from mouse xenograft models. VGLL3 gene and protein expression was significantly reduced in HGSC samples (>98%, p < 0.05) relative to either normal ovarian surface epithelial cells or epithelial cells of the fallopian tube, possible tissues of origin of HGSC. Also, there appeared to be to be more cases with higher staining levels in stromal tissue component from HGSC cases that had a prolonged disease-free survival. The results taken together suggest that VGLL3 is involved in tumor suppressor pathways, a feature that is characterized by the absence of VGLL3 expression in HGSC samples.
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Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells, with the mouse bone marrow containing only ~25,000 phenotypic long term repopulating HSCs. A Western blotting protocol was optimized and suitable for the analysis of small numbers of HSCs (500-15,000 cells). Phenotypic HSCs were purified, accurately counted, and directly lysed in Laemmli sample buffer. Lysates containing equal numbers of cells were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and the blot was prepared and processed following standard Western blotting protocols. Using this protocol, 2,000-5,000 HSCs can be routinely analyzed, and in some cases data can be obtained from as few as 500 cells, compared to the 20,000 to 40,000 cells reported in most publications. This protocol should be generally applicable to other hematopoietic cells, and enables the routine analysis of small numbers of cells using standard laboratory procedures.
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Background: B7H3 is an immuno-stimulatory glycoprotein that is overexpressed in cancer. However, its functional contributions to cancer development and progression are not well understood. In several reports, it was demonstrated that B7H3 reprograms lipid metabolism and regulates glucose metabolism. Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1), a metabolic enzyme in the TCA cycle, its reaction product is involved in lipid synthesis. Thus, we aimed to identify a novel marker to predict the prognosis of CRC patients and to investigate the relationship between IDH1 and B7H3. Methods: We analyzed IDH1 and B7H3 expression levels in 225 CRC specimens by immunochemistry. Moreover, in vitro studies were performed to demonstrate the correlation between IDH1 and B7H3. Results: Among 225 tissues, the positive rates of IDH1 and B7H3 were 37.8% (85/225) and 87.6% (197/225), respectively. In CRC samples, IDH1 significantly correlated with B7H3 expression (P = 0.044). Moreover, multivariate analyses revealed that high expression of both B7H3 and IDH1 and a high tumor grade were related to the prognosis of CRC patients. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with co-expression of IDH1 and B7H3 had a poor overall survival. In SW480B7H3-EGFP cells, which highly express B7H3, IDH1 was up-regulated. Similarly, knockdown of B7H3 expression in Caco-2-shB7-H3 contributed to reduced IDH1 levels. Conclusions: Although IDH1 and B7H3 cannot be used as independent prognostic factors, co-expression of IDH1 and B7H3 significantly correlated with the prognosis of CRC patients and may serve as a combined predictive marker. Thus, the correlation between IDH1 and B7H3 has been proven in vivo and in vitro.
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FBXO2 belongs to the F-box family of proteins, is a cytoplasmic protein and ubiquitin ligase F-box protein with specificity for high-mannose glycoproteins. Recently published studies indicate that other members of the F-box family, such as SKP2 and FBXW7, are involved in the development of gastric cancer. The role of FBXO2 in the process of tumorigenesis, including gastric cancer, is still unknown. In this study, we show that the level of FBXO2 is highly correlated with lymph node metastasis, and that overall survival (OS) of patients with high FBXO2 expression is significantly shorter than patients with low FBXO2 expression. FBXO2 promoted the proliferation and migration of human gastric cancer cells, whereas knockdown of FBXO2 by siRNA led to a decrease in those activities. Down-regulating FBXO2 reduced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer cells, with increased expression of E-cadherin and decreased expression of N-cadherin and vimentin. In summary, our findings suggest that FBXO2-regulated EMT led to carcinogenicity in gastric cancer and may be a novel target in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric cancer.
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Background: S100 is a superfamily of calcium-binding proteins that regulate multiple biological processes and are involved in many diseases. S100A16 has recently been identified to be involved in several cancers such as bladder cancer, lung cancer, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. However, the role of S100A16 expression in the colorectal cancer (CRC) has not been investigated. Methods: S100A16 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 296 cases of CRC. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic significance of S100A16. Result: The results showed that the overall survival (OS) of patients with low membrane S100A16 expression was significantly shorter than patients with high expression (P < 0.05). Chi-square analysis showed that S100A16 expression had a positive correlation with tumor grade (P = 0.02). Multivariate analysis identified membrane S100A16 expression as an independent prognostic marker for OS in CRC patients. (P < 0.05). Univariate analysis showed no significant association between cytoplasmic/nuclear S100A16 expression and OS. Conclusion: Membrane S100A16 is associated with the prognosis of CRC patients, indicating that S100A16 may be a potential prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for CRC.
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It has been observed that immunoreactivity in paraffin sections decreased during storage. In this study, stored paraffin sections from both biopsy material and cultured cells were assessed for changes in immunoreactivity, using color-based image analysis to quantitate extent and intensity of the stainings. For seven of the 11 antibodies studied, storage at 20°C for 16 weeks reduced the extent of immunostaining compared with that of freshly cut sections. Furthermore, increased storage temperatures resulted in a progressive loss of immunoreactivity. After 2 weeks of storage, at both 4°C and 20°C, p53 protein-and MIB1-antigen expression was significantly reduced regarding extent and intensity. The extent of the immunoreactivity reduced more for p53 protein than for MIB1 antigen, but the intensity did not. Boric acid was used for antigen retrieval on sections stored for 12 weeks at 20°C. For both p53 protein and MIB1 antigen, this resulted in an extent and intensity of immunostaining equal to or higher than (MIB1) that obtained in freshly cut sections, using citrate buffer. Staining of cultured cells confirmed the results from biopsy material on the influence of storage temperature. Fixation time only marginally influenced the storage-related decrease in immunoreactivity. In conclusion, storage of paraffin sections leads to a varying degree of decreased immunoreactivity for several antibodies. The degree is at least partly dependent on storage time and temperature but not fixation time. However, this may be compensated for by optimizing the antigen retrieval protocol.
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In a series of 404 adult soft tissue sarcomas, analyzed by array-CGH, we have observed in approximately 10% of them a genomic amplification of either chromosome bands 11q22 or 3p12. These two amplicons likely target the YAP1 and VGLL3 genes, respectively. Both genes encode proteins that are cofactors of the TEAD family of transcription factors. Very good correlations between amplification and expression levels were observed. Welch test analyses of transcriptome data demonstrate that tumors with amplicons share a large set of upregulated and downregulated genes. Inhibition of YAP1 and VGLL3 in cell lines with these amplifications/overexpressions leads to similar phenotypes: decrease of proliferation rate, and to a lesser extent decrease of migration properties. These data, and the fact that these amplicons are observed either in de-differentiated liposarcomas or in undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas, suggest that these genetics events could be involved in oncogenesis and progression of soft tissue sarcomas.
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The genetic analysis of nontumorigenic radiation hybrids generated by transfer of chromosome 3 fragments into the tumorigenic OV-90 ovarian cancer cell line identified the 3p12.3-pcen region as a candidate tumor suppressor gene (TSG) locus. In the present study, polymorphic microsatellite repeat analysis of the hybrids further defined the 3p12.3-pcen interval to a 16.1 Mb common region containing 12 known or hypothetical genes: 3ptel-ROBO2-ROBO1-GBE1-CADM2-VGLL3-CHMP2B-POU1F1-HTR1F-CGGBP1-ZNF654-C3orf38-EPHA3-3pcen. Seven of these genes, ROBO1, GBE1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, CGGBP1, ZNF654, and C3orf38, exhibited gene expression in the hybrids, placing them as top TSG candidates for further analysis. The expression of all but one (VGLL3) of these genes was also detected in the parental OV-90 cell line. Mutations were not identified in a comparative sequence analysis of the predicted protein coding regions of these candidates in OV-90 and donor normal chromosome 3 contig. However, the nondeleterious sequence variants identified in the transcribed regions distinguished parent of origin alleles for ROBO1, VGLL3, CHMP2B, and CGGBP1 and cDNA sequencing of the hybrids revealed biallelic expression of these genes. Interestingly, underexpression of VGLL3 and ZNF654 were observed in malignant ovarian tumor samples as compared with primary cultures of normal ovarian surface epithelial cells or benign ovarian tumors, and this occurred regardless of allelic content of 3p12.3-pcen. The results taken together suggest that dysregulation of VGLL3 and/or ZNF654 expression may have affected pathways important in ovarian tumorigenesis which was offset by the transfer of chromosome 3 fragments in OV-90, a cell line hemizygous for 3p.
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It has been observed that immunoreactivity in paraffin sections decreased during storage. In this study, stored paraffin sections from both biopsy material and cultured cells were assessed for changes in immunoreactivity, using color-based image analysis to quantitate extent and intensity of the stainings. For seven of the 11 antibodies studied, storage at 20 degrees C for 16 weeks reduced the extent of immunostaining compared with that of freshly cut sections. Furthermore, increased storage temperatures resulted in a progressive loss of immunoreactivity. After 2 weeks of storage, at both 4 degrees C and 20 degrees C, p53 protein- and MIB1-antigen expression was significantly reduced regarding extent and intensity. The extent of the immunoreactivity reduced more for p53 protein than for MIB1 antigen, but the intensity did not. Boric acid was used for antigen retrieval on sections stored for 12 weeks at 20 degrees C. For both p53 protein and MIB1 antigen, this resulted in an extent and intensity of immunostaining equal to or higher than (MIB1) that obtained in freshly cut sections, using citrate buffer. Staining of cultured cells confirmed the results from biopsy material on the influence of storage temperature. Fixation time only marginally influenced the storage-related decrease in immunoreactivity. In conclusion, storage of paraffin sections leads to a varying degree of decreased immunoreactivity for several antibodies. The degree is at least partly dependent on storage time and temperature but not fixation time. However, this may be compensated for by optimizing the antigen retrieval protocol.
counting the toll of cancer
The Lancet. GLOBOCAN 2018: counting the toll of cancer. Lancet 2018; 392: 985 [PMID: 30264708 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32252-9]
Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries
  • F Bray
  • J Ferlay
  • I Soerjomataram
  • R L Siegel
  • L A Torre
  • A Jemal
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin 2018; 68: 394-424 [PMID: 30207593 DOI: 10.3322/caac.21492]
Down-regulated GATA-1 up-regulates interferon regulatory factor 3 in lung adenocarcinoma
  • L L Wang
  • Z S Chen
  • W D Zhou
  • J Shu
  • X H Wang
  • Jin R Zhuang
  • L L Hoda
  • M A Zhang
  • H Zhou
Wang LL, Chen ZS, Zhou WD, Shu J, Wang XH, Jin R, Zhuang LL, Hoda MA, Zhang H, Zhou GP. Down-regulated GATA-1 up-regulates interferon regulatory factor 3 in lung adenocarcinoma. Sci Rep 2017; 7: 2551 [PMID: 28566697 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-02700-5]