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FEEDBACK ENVIRONMENT IN THE WORKPLACE: IMPLICATIONS FOR INTRINSIC MOTIVATION

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  • Politeknik Kuching Sarawak, Malaysia

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Most of the leaders see the importance of motivation in the workplace, but when it comes to providing the feedback that fuel it, they often fall short. This study intended to determine the significant relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic motivation in the Malaysia construction industry. Specifically, the objective of the study was to identify the significant influence of feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation within the construction industry. The study targeted on 50 employees from the construction industry in Kuching using random sampling technique. Data was collected using the questionnaire method. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis techniques were used to analyze the data collected. The results showed that there was a strong significant and positive relationship between feedback source credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, constructive feedback, and feedback seeking with intrinsic motivation dimension. The study further identified that the significant influence between feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation within the organization and the results have proven that several of feedback environment dimensions has a significant influence towards the intrinsic motivation such as feedback quality, feedback delivery and constructive feedback. Thus, the study concluded that there is a significant relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic motivation and on the other the hand feedback environment has significant influence towards intrinsic motivation.
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Asian Journal of Social Science Research
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2019
FEEDBACK ENVIRONMENT IN THE WORKPLACE: IMPLICATIONS
FOR INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Ying-Leh Ling1*, Gary Law Hieng Soon2
1Politeknik Kuching Sarawak and 2Wawasan Open University, Malaysia
*Corresponding author, drylling@poliku.edu.my
ABSTRACT
Most of the leaders see the importance of motivation in the workplace, but when it comes to
providing the feedback that fuel it, they often fall short. This study intended to determine the
significant relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic motivation in the Malaysia
construction industry. Specifically, the objective of the study was to identify the significant
influence of feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation within the construction industry.
The study targeted on 50 employees from the construction industry in Kuching using random
sampling technique. Data was collected using the questionnaire method. Pearson’s correlation
and linear regression analysis techniques were used to analyze the data collected. The results
showed that there was a strong significant and positive relationship between feedback source
credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, constructive feedback, and feedback seeking
with intrinsic motivation dimension. The study further identified that the significant influence
between feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation within the organization and the
results have proven that several of feedback environment dimensions has a significant influence
towards the intrinsic motivation such as feedback quality, feedback delivery and constructive
feedback. Thus, the study concluded that there is a significant relationship between feedback
environment and intrinsic motivation and on the other the hand feedback environment has
significant influence towards intrinsic motivation.
Keywords: feedback, intrinsic motivation, construction industry
INTRODUCTION
The construction industry in Malaysia has grown rapidly. This growth has led to a more challenging
work environment and in turn leads to high work pressure on workers (Justin, 2013; Henk &
Hoonakker, 2000). In line with the heavy working pressure faced by workers, the construction
industry relies heavily on wages as a means of motivating their employees. However, many
employers have overlooked the intrinsic motivation among employees (Rebecca & Simon, 2017).
Due to the favorable working environment will enhance individual self-efficacy (Ling, 2016), the
construction industry must work towards creating a less stressful work environment by providing
feedback quality and profitable employees. In this regard, feedback is seen as one of the ways
employers can use to motivate the workplace and to create a more positive and high working
spirit within the organization (The Employer Edge, 2018).
The environment and nature of the construction industry has long been plighted with negativity
such as long working hours, high amount of stress, and non-recognition of performance,
aggressive forms of communication and uncertainties that arises during the line of work (Smithers
& Walker, 2010). According to Iskandar, Ismail and Khanand Yong (2014), the work stress within the
Asian Journal of Social Science Research
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construction industry has always existed due to the ambiguity of the work responsibilities within the
workforce, excessive workload, aggressive work nature and environment, excessive work demand
and expectations. The construction industry is in need of a new working environment that is more
attractive to work within and that intrinsic motivation plays an important key role in creating such
an environment. It is believed that intrinsic motivation will bring about a positive vibe towards the
working environment of the construction industry and thus generate better performances to
counter for all the negativity of work environment surrounding the construction industry. For the
creation of such environment with intrinsic motivation, the construction management needs to
take into consideration the creation of a feedback environment that is effective to create clear
role distributions and a good management of task mitigation (Smithers & Walker, 2010). This is in
line with the support by Paul, Peter, and Rajen (2014) that the construction management should
look seriously into the need of employee’s intrinsic motivation and empowerment through the
creation of a conducive work feedback environment for the construction workforce. Feedback
environment has been shown to be able to have a positive impact towards the performance level
of employees within an organization and on that the improvement of the performance happens
due to the intrinsic values achieved from feedback environment (Steelman, Levy, & Snell, 2004).
Thus, this research has to be conducted in order to determine the significance relationship of
feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation within the organization. Specifically, the
hypothesis of the study is listed as follows:
Ho1: There is no positive and significant relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic
motivation.
Ho2: There is no significant influence of feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
This study aims to identify significant and positive relationship between feedback environment and
intrinsic motivation. At the same time, this study also aims to examine the significant influence of
the feedback environment on intrinsic motivation. The independent variables in this study
comprise the six dimensions of the feedback environment proposed by Ling (2016) in the context
of Malaysia. The six dimensions are the credibility of feedback sources, feedback quality,
feedback delivery, availability of feedback source, constructive feedback and encouragement
for feedback seeking.
Figure 1. Conceptual framework
Feedback source credibility
Feedback quality
Feedback delivery
Availability of feedback source
Constructive feedback
Encouragement for feedback seeking
Intrinsic motivation
Note: This conceptual framework shows the relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic
motivation. There are six dimensions of feedback environment which are feedback source credibility,
feedback quality, feedback delivery, availability of feedback source, constructive feedback, and
encouragement for feedback seeking. The dependent variable would be the intrinsic motivation.
Note: This conceptual framework shows the relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic
motivation. There are six dimensions of feedback environment which are feedback source credibility,
feedback quality, feedback delivery, availability of feedback source, constructive feedback,
Asian Journal of Social Science Research
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Feedback has been listed as one of the job characteristics that enhances intrinsic motivation
(Hackman & Oldham, 1976). Feedback environment plays a crucial role in the feedback and
motivation relationship and that a supportive feedback environment would meet the desire and
need of the employee to feel recognized and this promotes intrinsic motivation within the
employees. It is a multidimensional structure with the capability to fully reflect contents of a
feedback and the feedback receiver’s construction of feedback thus enabling feedback
environment to have a consistent relationship with intrinsic motivation (Steelman et al., 2004). It is
known to show a positive effect towards increased work productivity and this was due to the
intrinsic motivation that was cultivated through the feedback environment (Spector, 1986; George
& Zhou, 2007). It suggested that there the design of a job influences the motivations of the
employees and feedback environment was among the characteristics mentioned within the
design of a job. Humphrey, Nahrgang, and Morgeson (2007) concluding in his research that active
participation in a feedback environment is categorized as one of the intrinsic aspects within job
quality that has an influence towards intrinsic motivation.
LITERATURE REVIEW
The role of feedback within organizations has been seen as a key tool for organizations as more
and more studies have shown that organizations that have a good practice of feedback
environment would exhibit much better results within their organizations in terms of employee
performance (Steelman et al., 2004). Feedback builds up the intrinsic motivation of the employee
within the organization especially through constructive feedback and the presence of a proper
hierarchy of feedback system (Louis, 2017; The Employers Edge, 2018).
In the Malaysia context, feedback environment is constituted from six dimensions which are
feedback source credibility, feedback quality, and feedback delivery, constructive feedback,
feedback source availability, and support for feedback seeking (Ling, 2016; Ling & Abdul Ghani,
2016). Source credibility is regarded as a concept of the trustworthiness and expertise of the
feedback source which targets the level to which the feedback would be accepted as
undisputed (Steelman et al., 2004) and the recipient trusts the feedback source (Ilgen, Fisher &
Taylor, 1979). It means the feedback from a person who has been observing the behavior of an
individual, the power to assess and have a motive to provide a reliable feedback response which
is more likely to influence the behavior of followers compared to the incompetent source of
feedback in assessing the job behavior (Makiney & Levy, 1998).
The second dimension of the feedback environment is feedback quality. For the feedback to be
reliable and useful, it is strongly relying on consistency and usefulness and needs to be not varying
and be specific in order to have quality. As closely relevant to the content of feedback quality is
feedback delivery. Feedback delivery can be defined as the level t o which the recipient of the
feedback is able to interpret and perceive of the intentions of the source when giving feedback.
The emphasis of feedback delivery is put on the tone and intention of the feedback giver
(Steelman et al., 2004) irrespective of the type of media being used. In particular, some leaders
are reluctant to deliver negative or unconstructive feedback (Westerman, Heuett, Reno, & Curry,
2014) and may “sugarcoat” their feedback, thus making feedback less accurate. In this study,
constructive feedback is when the receiver does indeed recognize that their actions and
performance would warrant a feedback (Ling & Abdul Ghani, 2015) either in the positive or
negative for.
Next, another influential factor of feedback environment is feedback source availability that refers
to the degree of easiness and the amount of feedback communication that the workforce is able
Asian Journal of Social Science Research
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to communicate with the supervisory level at work (Ling & Abdul, 2015). Access to feedback allows
individuals to have better understanding of their competency and performance. Last, support for
feedback seeking from the 21st century managers concern the extent of supportive or
unsupportive environment towards feedback seeking (Ling & Abdul, 2015) and is the degree to
which the employees want to seek for more feedback (Steelman et al., 2014). Thus, as suggested
by Steelman et al. (2014), it is strongly believed that encouragement of feedback-seeking
behavior has an impact on the frequency of workers seeking feedback from their leaders.
Intrinsic motivation is defined as the enjoyment of performing an action for personal satisfaction
where the performing of the action results in inspiration and satisfaction. It is an important
component in the development of cognitive, social and physical abilities and capabilities (Ryan
& Deci, 2000). Ryan and Deci (2001) further explained intrinsic motivation as the innate human
desire to apply and advance one’s skills or abilities through practice or challenge. Intrinsically
motivated individuals tend to be more curious, more cognitively flexible, more open to and willing
to search for new knowledge and more willing to search for new knowledge, and more willing to
use non-traditional approaches to reach decisions, which in turn may incline these individuals to
be creative (Amabile, 1996).
In this study, hypotheses are formed based on the Leader-Follower Exchange Theory. Leader-
Follower Exchange Theory is a relationship-based approach towards leadership that concentrates
on the dyadic relationship between leader and followers. Bauer, Ergoden and Berrin (2015)
indicated that leaders develop an exchange with each of the subordinates and followers and
that the exchange of information that takes place between leaders and followers will
subsequently influences a work environment. Such environment that will be influenced includes
the subordinates’ responsibility towards work, decision making in relation towards work matters,
access towards work information and crucial resources and the level of work performance.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is defined as detailed and specific techniques used to process, identify
and analyze information concerning an issue or a topic. Cooper and Schindler (2001) explained
in detail that research methodology is a plan consisting of components such as a schedule,
framework of research, research questions, sources selection to analyze and determine the
relationship between the research variables and the procedures of the research.
POPULATION AND SAMPLING
Holton and Burnett (1997) mentioned that the population usually is the generally targeted group
of people within the research topic and that it usually has to be named in a general term but also
can be more specific to reduce the population to fit into a research. A sample is a smaller size
taken out from the population that would be used to represent the overall population (Holton &
Burnett, 1997). Random sampling is described as a method in which samples are chosen without
specific strong profiling in the selection of participants from a population and provides for a wide
variety of covered variables such as difference in age, difference in gender, difference in
profession, difference in thoughts and opinions and difference in financial status. Thus, the
population for this study would be the professionals within the construction industry ranging from
the junior executive level towards the top management. Based on Krejcie and Morgan (1970), a
sample of 50 was chosen randomly on the professionals within the construction industry under the
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construction project in a chosen area. As if is impossible to include the whole population into this
study, the samples chosen without specific strong profiling in the selection of participants is an
unbiased representation of the population.
RESEARCH INSTRUMENTATIONS
Rajasekar, Philominathan and Chinnathambi (2013) defined measurement instrument as the term
used to describe devices used to collect data such as questionnaire, survey and test.
Measurements usually needs to be tested for their usability which would be the scale of reliability
and the validity. The reliability of the instrument as the consistency and the degree to which the
items within the instrument are related towards the research and that validity is the extent by which
the instrument is able to measure what it is intended to measure (Denscombe, 2014). This study
was using a set of questionnaire as the instrument and the questionnaire was adopted from
existing instruments used previously by other researchers. The questionnaire was divided into three
parts. Part A (3 items) was to obtain the demographic of data of the sample while Part B (25 items)
used to measure the feedback environment within the organizations and Part C (6 items) aimed
to measure the intrinsic motivation of the samples. Part B and Part C are the adapted
questionnaires of Ling (2016). The researcher has requested permission from the project owner
before the questionnaire is distributed. All filled questionnaires were collected the same day.
PILOT STUDY
Pilot study as a minimal scale of the original research that is conducted using the measurement
instrument intended for the research to identify the problems that would exists within the research
before going into a maximum scale for the research (Zailinawati, Peter, & Danielle, 2006). Browne
(1995) suggested that the sample size to perform the pilot study can be ranging from 30 samples
per instrument onwards. It is suggested that the sample size required for the pilot study does not
need to be too large as the objective of the pilot study is not to perform testing on hypothesis and
thus sample sizing is not considered a major issue within the pilot study. Thus, the pilot study was
conducted on the professionals within the construction industry ranging from the junior executive
level towards the top management and a sample of 30 was involved in this pilot study. The
reliability of the instrument used was identified through a pilot study with the alpha Cronbach’s
value of .947.
RESEARCH DESIGN
This study was a cross-sectional type of quantitative research and the data was collected through
the questionnaire instrument. Cross-sectional study is a type of descriptive research that happens
during a single time with no manipulated variable and is suitable to be used for identifying the
characteristics that are prevailing within a population (Maninder, 2016). Cross-sectional studies
collect all data at a set point in time. Cherry (2018) mentioned that there are three advantages
in using a cross-sectional type of research. The first advantage is the difference in variables. This is
due to the fact that researchers are able to collect data on multiple variables such as age, sex,
financial status, educational status, family status and so forth which might relate towards the
research variables differently. Next, cross sectional research is costs savvy and efficient. This is due
to the fact that cross sectional research provides various data and information through self-report
surveys and from a large group of population. Cross sectional research would be able to provide
Asian Journal of Social Science Research
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the equal data representation of the studied subject of the overall population for all different
groups of variables.
RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
Descriptive statistics is the description of the data collected throughout the study and provides a
scoring distribution and summaries regarding the variables to measure the relationship that exists
between the scores (Field, 2009). For the descriptive findings regarding the independent variable
of feedback environment, 25 items are used to represent the dimensions of feedback
environment while for dependent variable of intrinsic motivation, 6 items are used to represent the
level of intrinsic motivation. The findings revealed that feedback environment has positive
influence and significant relationship with intrinsic motivation. Manikandan (2011) described two
types of statistics which are descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics tries to explain
the relationship between the variables of a certain population or sample through a summarization
of data in terms of mean, mode and median (Winters, Winters, & Amedee, 2010). According to
Zulfiqar and Bala (2016), inferential statistics as the inferences made for a whole population
through the selection of a random sample of data retrieved from the population and is useful
when the population is large or in the event when it is impossible to obtain data from the overall
population of the research.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FEEDBACK ENVIRONMENT AND INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
According to the results shown in Table 1, it was found that five out of six dimensions of feedback
environment showed a significant relationship with intrinsic motivation. The results showed a strong
correlation and positive relationship between feedback source credibility and intrinsic motivation
(r=.569, p<0.01), between feedback quality and intrinsic motivation (r=.705, p<0.01), between
feedback delivery and intrinsic motivation (r=.497, p<0.01), between constructive feedback and
intrinsic motivation (r=.668, p<0.01) and between support for feedback seeking and intrinsic
motivation (r=.642, p<0.01). However, the results showed poor correlation between source
availability of feedback and intrinsic motivation (r=.195, p<0.05). This finding showed that there is
a need for the construction management to look into improvements towards source availability
of feedback environment. The results showed that dimensions of the feedback environment such
as feedback source credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, constructive feedback and
support for feedback seeking are proven to be consistent with researches concerning the positive
relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic motivation. The intrinsic motivation of
employees is related towards the existence of a feedback environment (Steelman et al., 2014).
The weak correlation between one of the dimension of feedback environment which is the source
availability of feedback with intrinsic motivation showed that there is still lacking of the availability
of feedback sources within the construction management.
Table 1. Correlations of the dimensions of Feedback Environment and Intrinsic Motivation
FSC
FDY
SAF
SFS
ITM
Pearson Correlation
.569**
.497**
.195
.642**
Note:
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level
FSC = Feedback source credibility; FQY = Feedback quality; FDY = Feedback delivery; SAF =
Source Availability of feedback; CTF= Constructive feedback; SFS = Support for feedback seeking,
ITM=Intrinsic motivation.
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INFLUENCE OF FEEDBACK ENVIRONMENT TOWARDS INTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Multiple linear regression has been used to analyze the second hypothesis. For that reason, the
assumptions for using this analysis have been met: (1) There is a linear relationship between the
intrinsic motivation and feedback environment; (2) The residuals are normally distributed; (3) The
dimensions of feedback environment are not highly correlated with each other. Results of the
analysis shown in Table 2 indicated that several of feedback environment dimensions has a
significant influence towards the intrinsic motivation such as feedback quality (β= .61, p<.05),
feedback delivery (β= -.41, p<.05) and constructive feedback (β= .40, p<.05). Table 2 shown the
coefficient value and the multiple regressions for the influence of the feedback environment
towards intrinsic motivation within the construction industry. The regression analysis has shown that
the dimensions of the feedback environment has significantly contributed 59.1 percent of the
changes in the intrinsic motivation level of the employees. This has shown that the dimensions of
the feedback environment have significant influence towards the intrinsic motivation of
employees. The finding has shown that employees exhibit intrinsic motivation when exposed
towards feedback environment. George and Zhou (2007) mentioned that the intrinsic motivation
of the employees would be triggered through the feedback environment that exists within an
organization. The significant F-value shows that the model fits the data and the model is valid. This
implies that the dimension of feedback environment does play a very significant influence in the
intrinsic motivation of the employees. The results have clearly demonstrated the positive influence
of feedback environment significantly towards intrinsic motivation.
Table 2. Coefficients beta for the influence of feedback environment on intrinsic motivation.
Independent Variable: Feedback Environment
Dependent Variable: Intrinsic Motivation
Coefficients Beta, β
FSC
-.09
FQY
.61*
FDY
-.41*
SAF
-.07
CTF
.40*
SFS
.25
R
.769
R2
.591
Adjusted R2
.534
F Value
10.34**
Durbin Watson
1.43
Note:
**Significant at the .01 level
*Significant at the .05 level
FSC = Feedback Source Credibility; FQY = Feedback Quality; FDY = Feedback Delivery; SAF =
Source Availability of Feedback; CTF= Constructive Feedback; SFS = Support for Feedback
Seeking
DISCUSSION
Feedback environment is important towards the construction industry as it enables the
enhancement of employee’s intrinsic motivation (Paul et al., 2014). The relationship of feedback
Asian Journal of Social Science Research
Volume 2, Issue 1, 2019
environment and intrinsic motivation and the significant influence of feedback environment
towards intrinsic motivation have been studied. This study has proven that there is a significant
relationship between feedback environment and intrinsic motivation and that the dimensions of
feedback environment has significant influence towards intrinsic motivation. Pearson Correlation
was used to test this hypothesis and the results showed that there is a strong correlation and
positive relationship between feedback source credibility and intrinsic motivation (r=.569, p<0.01),
between feedback quality and intrinsic motivation (r=.705, p<0.01), between feedback delivery
and intrinsic motivation (r=.497, p<0.01), between constructive feedback and intrinsic motivation
(r=.668, p<0.01) and between support for feedback seeking and intrinsic motivation (r=.642,
p<0.01). This has shown that feedback environment does have a significant and positive
relationship with intrinsic motivation. Thus, the null hypothesis is rejected due to the fact that this
the study has found that there is significant and positive relationship between feedback
environment and intrinsic motivation within the organization. A regression analysis was used to test
this hypothesis and the results has shown that several of feedback environment dimensions has a
significant influence towards the intrinsic motivation such as feedback quality (β= .61, p<.05),
feedback delivery (β= -.41, p<.05) and constructive feedback (β= .40, p<.05). The regression
analysis also shows that feedback environment has significantly contributed 59.1 percent of the
variance changes in the intrinsic motivation level of the employees. This has shown that feedback
environment does have a significant influence towards intrinsic motivation. Thus, the null
hypothesis is rejected due to the fact that this the study has found that there is significant influence
between feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation within the organization.
RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS
The study was met with a few limitations such as some randomly selected participants might give
false information in the questionnaire due to the confidentiality of their working background and
this could lead to inaccurate data that will influence the result of this study. Recommendations for
overcoming this limitation would be that to expand the population sampling to pacify inaccurate
data and also the provision of confidentiality whereby the questionnaires will be kept strictly
confidential between the researcher and the participants of the questionnaire. The emotions of
the selected participants at the time of the study might affect the answers given at the time of
answering the questionnaire depending on their events that recently happen within the work
environment and might not represent the real overall working environment within the organization,
thus affecting the result of this study. Recommendation to overcome this limitation would be to
set a limit towards the years of working experience in the organization such as minimum 2 years
and above working experience to ensure that the answers are given by a stable employee that
has already had a long experience with the organization. The findings of this research is also limited
towards the variables of the research which would be the significant relationship and significant
influence in between feedback environment and intrinsic motivation. Recommendation to
overcome this limitation would be the exploration of further options of variables to further explore
the topic of feedback environment and intrinsic motivation.
CONCLUSION
The results of this research are used to investigate the research objectives of this study. The findings
of this study have highlighted that dimensions of the feedback environment such as feedback
Asian Journal of Social Science Research
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source credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, constructive feedback and support for
feedback seeking are proven to have a significant and positive relationship between feedback
environment and intrinsic motivation. This study has also shown that there is significant influence
between dimensions of feedback environment towards intrinsic motivation such as feedback
quality, feedback delivery and constructive feedback.
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... Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 2000) seems to be a suitable conceptual framework to answer this question since social relationships and feedback are both substantial antecedents of employees' need satisfaction, autonomous motivation and, indirectly, levels of psychological well-being Forest et al., 2022;Ling & Soon, 2019). Moreover, strength interventions would require more rigorous research into Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Strength interventions at work have been shown to influence workers’ optimal functioning and well-being. To increase the accessibility of these interventions in the workplace, relying on digital platforms would be a realistic idea. Akin to the Character Strengths 360-degree feedback activity, a smartphone (and computer) application allows users to send or receive anonymous strength-oriented descriptive feedback to/from colleagues, hence disseminating the identification and use of each other’s signature strengths associated with their enacted behaviors. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, an intervention was developed to investigate if the use of the online platform may impact psychological well-being, by increasing psychological need satisfaction and autonomous motivation and decreasing need frustration and controlled motivation. A sample of full-time workers (n = 112) experienced the application, while participants who did not use the platform were assigned to the a posteriori control condition (n = 54). Data were collected before and after the 4-weeks intervention. Results showed (1) that participants from the experimental group reported significantly higher levels of strength use, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation, and psychological well-being compared to the a posteriori control group, and (2) that increases in the levels of need satisfaction reported by participants from the experimental group were related to increases in autonomous motivation, which in turn resulted in higher levels of well-being. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Based on the interview with several learners, they admitted that they needed writing exercises with feedback and interesting guidelines (01/2021). Studies showed that feedback, especially for online learning, was important to engage learners in learning, motivate them, make them aware, and allow them to consciously construct knowledge (Alfehaid, Qotineh, Alsuhebany, Alharbi, & Almodaimegh, 2018;Chaou et al., 2019;Dose, 2017;Ducasse & Hill, 2019;Duhlicher, 2019;Espasa, Mayordomo, Guasch, & Martinez-Melo, 2019;Ketonen, Nieminen, & Hähkiöniemi, 2020;Ling & Law, 2019;Tyrer, 2021). Some learners wanted the tutorial video to learn drama scriptwriting (01/2021). ...
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This research aims to describe the results of the learners’ needs toward the drama script writing material development using a scientific approach. This research applied a qualitative approach. The data were collected with observation, questionnaire, and interview techniques. The applied instruments were observation, questionnaire, and interview. The sample consisted of learners. The findings showed that the learners needed communication and technology-based teaching materials to support their needs of drama script writing skill training. Based on the learners’ characteristics identification, they needed learning application to make the learning activities and to freely enrich the sources. They also needed interesting teaching materials that had many examples, provided writing exercises, the opportunity to interact, time to work the exercise, and space to perform. Therefore, this research proposed Moodle application as a learning material in the form of a Student Worksheet. This initial stage of research is expected to be the beginning of drama script writing material development with a scientific approach and based on Moodle. The results of the learners’ need analysis could be also used by other researchers to obtain the 21st-century learners’ characteristics.
... In Malaysian context, Ling, Abdul Ghani, and Fairuz (2016) defined a feedback environment as the process of giving, receiving, and responding to the daily feedback between leaders and followers instead of formal feedback sessions about performance. This study would use the six dimensions from Ling Feedback credibility is concerned with the expertise and trustworthiness of the feedback recipients which decide the level of acceptable information (Steelman et al., 2004;Ling & Law, 2019). Expertise relates to the knowledge level of the sender about the subject of the message and trustworthiness refers to the degree of reliance on the ability, competency, and character of someone (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2000). ...
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This quantitative study aimed to determine the relationship of the feedback environment practices towards school climate. A total of 129 secondary schools’ teachers randomly from Kanowit district in Malaysia participated in the study. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the level of the feedback environment practices based on the teachers’ perception is below-average. In terms of school climate, both collaboration and student relation dimensions have gained the above-average level while school resources dimension, decision-making dimension, and instructional innovation dimension have obtained the below-average level. Specifically, the study also found that the dimensions of feedback credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, and encourage feedback-seeking behaviour significantly influence on school climate. Therefore, organizational leaders must emphasize the existence of the feedback environment in the workplace as an injection into the school climate to ensure high performance among employees.
... In Malaysian context, Ling, Abdul Ghani, and Fairuz (2016) defined a feedback environment as the process of giving, receiving, and responding to the daily feedback between leaders and followers instead of formal feedback sessions about performance. This study would use the six dimensions from Ling Feedback credibility is concerned with the expertise and trustworthiness of the feedback recipients which decide the level of acceptable information (Steelman et al., 2004;Ling & Law, 2019). Expertise relates to the knowledge level of the sender about the subject of the message and trustworthiness refers to the degree of reliance on the ability, competency, and character of someone (Tschannen-Moran & Hoy, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This quantitative study aimed to determine the relationship of the feedback environment practices towards school climate. A total of 129 secondary schools’ teachers randomly from Kanowit district in Malaysia participated in the study. The results of the descriptive analysis showed that the level of the feedback environment practices based on the teachers’ perception is below-average. In terms of school climate, both collaboration and student relation dimensions have gained the above-average level while the school resources dimension, decision-making dimension, and instructional innovation dimension have obtained the below-average level. Specifically, the study also found that the dimensions of feedback credibility, feedback quality, feedback delivery, and encourage feedback-seeking behaviour significantly influence on school climate. Therefore, organizational leaders must emphasize the existence of the feedback environment in the workplace as an injection into the school climate to ensure high performance among employees.
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Prolonged stress can cause teachers to have a bad impact on students and their teaching. This will make teachers lose their ability to teach. These problems will indirectly affect the teacher's career adaptability. This study intended to determine the significant relationship between feedback environment and career adaptability among Primary School teachers in Kuching. There were 76 respondents randomly selected to participate in this study. Data were collected using the questionnaire. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis techniques were used to analyze the data collected. The results show that feedback credibility, quality feedback, favorable feedback, and feedback seeking behavior have a positive and significant relationship with the dimension of career adaptability which includes career concern, career control, career curiosity and career confidence. The findings have shown feedback delivery and feedback availability do not have a significant relationship with all the dimensions of career adaptability. The study further identified that the significant effect of career adaptability. The results found that there is a significant relationship between the two significant predictor variables (feedback credibility and feedback quality) with career adaptability. The analysis results have shown that the combination model of feedback credibility and feedback quality appears to be significant toward career adaptability among the teachers. Thus, the study concludes that there is a significant relationship between feedback environment and career adaptability and on the other hand feedback credibility and feedback quality has a significant influence on career adaptability. The findings of this study indicate that there is a need for top management to create a feedback environment in career adaptability by emphasizing the credibility and quality of individuals in delivering the feedback in their work organization.
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Cross-sectional study design is a type of observational study design. In a cross-sectional study, the investigator measures the outcome and the exposures in the study participants at the same time. Unlike in case–control studies (participants selected based on the outcome status) or cohort studies (participants selected based on the exposure status), the participants in a cross-sectional study are just selected based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria set for the study. Once the participants have been selected for the study, the investigator follows the study to assess the exposure and the outcomes. Cross-sectional designs are used for population-based surveys and to assess the prevalence of diseases in clinic-based samples. These studies can usually be conducted relatively faster and are inexpensive. They may be conducted either before planning a cohort study or a baseline in a cohort study. These types of designs will give us information about the prevalence of outcomes or exposures; this information will be useful for designing the cohort study. However, since this is a 1-time measurement of exposure and outcome, it is difficult to derive causal relationships from cross-sectional analysis. We can estimate the prevalence of disease in cross-sectional studies. Furthermore, we will also be able to estimate the odds ratios to study the association between exposure and the outcomes in this design.
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Statistical methods involved in carrying out a study include planning, designing, collecting data, analysing, drawing meaningful interpretation and reporting of the research findings. The statistical analysis gives meaning to the meaningless numbers, thereby breathing life into a lifeless data. The results and inferences are precise only if proper statistical tests are used. This article will try to acquaint the reader with the basic research tools that are utilised while conducting various studies. The article covers a brief outline of the variables, an understanding of quantitative and qualitative variables and the measures of central tendency. An idea of the sample size estimation, power analysis and the statistical errors is given. Finally, there is a summary of parametric and non-parametric tests used for data analysis.
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Maklum balas perlu disalurkan bukan sahaja secara formal, malah secara tidak formal dan berterusan dalam setiap organisasi pendidikan. Hal ini bertujuan untuk membantu pengikut agar jelas dengan jangkaan prestasi pemimpin dan standard piawaian yang telah ditetapkan oleh organisasi. Kewujudan budaya persekitaran maklum balas yang positif perlu ditekankan dalam setiap organisasi bagi memupuk potensi pengikut dan meningkatkan prestasi kerja demi kepentingan individu dan organisasi. Justeru, kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti faktor peramal yang terbaik daripada persekitaran maklum balas terhadap efikasi kendiri pengajaran. Sebanyak 247 orang responden kajian terdiri daripada pensyarah-pensyarah politeknik dalam Kategori 1 telah dipilih secara rawak dari negeri Pulau Pinang, Terengganu, dan Sarawak. Data kajian pula diperoleh dengan menggunakan satu set soal selidik yang terdiri daripada tiga bahagian termasuk bahagian profil responden dan soal selidik yang telah diadaptasikan daripada soal seldik Feedback Environment Scale (FES) (2004) dan Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSE) (2001) yang terdiri daripada tujuh skala Likert. Kedua-dua soal selidik telah dialih bahasa ke Bahasa Melayu dan mempunyai pekali kebolehpercayaan Cronbach’s Alpha setinggi .920 bagi FES dan .931 bagi TSE. Data yang diperoleh telah dianalisis dengan menggunakan kaedah regresi berganda. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa semua dimensi persekitaran maklum balas dan efikasi kendiri pengajaran mempunyai hubungan korelasi yang positif dan signifikan antara satu sama lain. Hasil kajian turut mendapati terdapat enam pemboleh ubah, iaitu kebolehpercayaan sumber maklum balas, kualiti maklum balas, penyampaian maklum balas, maklum balas tidak membina, ketersediaan sumber maklum balas, dan menggalakkan maklum balas muncul sebagai peramal yang signifikan terhadap efikasi kendiri pengajaran. Dapatan juga menunjukkan bahawa dimensi maklum balas tidak membina sebagai faktor peramal terbaik terhadap peningkatan efikasi kendiri pengajaran dalam organisasi pendidikan. Hasil kajian ini dapat digunakan oleh pemimpin untuk menekankan pembangunan persekitaran maklum balas di tempat kerja bagi meningkatkan efikasi kendiri pengajaran dalam kalangan tenaga pengajar demi melahirkan modal insan berkualiti dan berketerampilan sesuai dengan kehendak pasaran.
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Stress is one of the most pervasive phenomena of the modern lifestyle, especially in a workplace. The occupational stress terminology is used interchangeably with work stress and/or job stress, but its meaning refers to the same thing. From the perspective of the workplace, the work stress can be defined as the adverse reaction people have to excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them at work. The objectives of the study are: (i) to examine the level of occupational stress among civil engineers; (ii) to identify the main sources of occupational stress among civil engineers, and (iii) to identify the main coping strategy adopted by civil engineers. The study found that quantitatively, 24.6% of the respondents' experience high level of occupational stress, whereas 37.2% experience moderate level of occupational stress and 38.2% experience low level of occupational stress. Besides, the findings of this study also show that the role ambiguity is the main source of stress (mean value of 3.88), followed by role overload (3.72), role responsibility (3.63), role insufficiency (3.49), role boundary (3.13) and the physical environment (2.89). This study has been fruitful identifying the prevalence of occupational stress among civil engineers, their main source of occupational stress and main coping strategy in a Malaysian context.
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Managers are increasingly being held accountable for providing resources that support employee development, particularly in the form of feedback and coaching. To support managers as trainers and coaches, organizations must provide managers with the tools they need to succeed in this area. This article presents a new tool to assist in the diagnosis and training of managers in the area of feedback and coaching: the Feedback Environment Scale. This article also discusses the theoretically based definition of this new construct and the development and validation evidence for the scale that measures this construct. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the a priori measurement model, and assessment of relationships proposed in a preliminary nomological network provide initial support for the construct validity of the scale. Results also show evidence for the internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and discriminant validity of the facet scores of the Feedback Environment Scale.
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To date, the research designed to test a leading theory of intrinsic motivation. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci, 1975), has made little attempt to explore variables related to the communication process when individuals receive positive verbal feedback. Also, because the theory fails to specify when the reward aspects of either control or information will be more salient, the phenomenological nature of positive verbal feedback remains unclear. This paper explores certain variables relevant to the communication process and the administration of feedback messages when utilized as independent variables and offers a propositional extension to the theory. The feedback process involves at least four essential elements: (1) relational/message characteristics, (2) a feedback channel, (3) a feedback source, and (4) the recipient of the feedback. The 16 propositions and 5 related constructs derived suggest that positive verbal feedback can be salient on the control dimension and therefore negatively affect intrinsic motivation. In addition, numerous constructs not previously considered that influence the way positive verbal feedback is communicated may either enhance or diminish intrinsic motivation by influencing a receiver's feelings of competence and self-determination. This analysis provides a set of research priorities for studying the role of feedback in the intrinsic motivation process.
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Because organizations may increasingly utilize a variety of different methods to communicate with employees both on- and off-site, performance feedback may not continue to be bound to traditional face-to-face interaction. Knowing how channel and synchronicity may affect perceptions of feedback may be very useful to organizations and supervisors as the use of alternative work arrangements increases. This study was conducted to learn more about the delivery of performance feedback to employees and what would cause them to feel justly versus unjustly treated by their supervisors. Synchronicity, channel, and valence effects on perceptions of justice in feedback delivery were examined through a fully crossed 2 × 2 × 2 design of 447 participants. Findings suggest that positive feedback and delivery via phone call rather than text message were associated with higher perceptions of organizational justice. Practical implications for organizations are also addressed.