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Kumari et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 1291-1299 (2018) ISSN: 2320 7051
Copyright © March-April, 2018; IJPAB 1291
A Review on Sub Clinical Mastitis in Dairy Cattle
Tripti Kumari1*, Champak Bhakat1 and Rajeev Kumar Choudhary2
1Department of Livestock Production Management, Eastern Regional Station,
National Dairy Research Institute, Kalyani- 741235 (West Bengal)
2Department of Pathology, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata- (West Bengal)
*Corresponding Author E-mail:
Received: 17.01.2018 | Revised: 21.02.2018 | Accepted: 1.03.2018
Sub clinical mastitis in dairy cattle is a major
and silent problem causes higher economic
losses to the farmers. It is one major reason for
low yield and poor quality milk and ranks first
among the diseases that causes substantial loss
to owners. Mastitis is defined as inflammation
of parenchyma of mammary glands and is
characterized by physical, chemical and
usually bacteriological changes in milk and
pathological changes in glandular tissues1. It is
a global problem as it adversely affects on
animal health, quality of milk and economics
of milk production and every country
including developed ones suffers huge
financial losses related to culling, decreased
production, decreased fecundity, and treatment
costs2. Besides causing huge losses to milk
production, the sub clinically affected animals
remain a continuous source of infection to
other herd mates3.
Available online at
ISSN: 2320 7051
Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 1291-1299 (2018)
Subclinical mastitis is the most prevalent and economically destructive disease in dairy cattle
throughout the country. It is 340 times more common than clinical mastitis and causes the
greatest overall losses in most dairy herds. It is a multi etiological complex disease which
consists infectious and noninfectious agents as potential risk factors. The prevalence of
subclinical mastitis in cows increases with increased milk production, unhygienic management
practices and with increasing number of lactation. There are no visible changes in the udder or
milk but it reduces milk production and adversely affects milk quality. Early detection of sub
clinical mastitis can be done by various indirect and direct tests.
Key words: Sub clinical mastitis, Dairy cattle, Milk production
Review Article
Cite this article: Kumari, T., Bhakat, C. and Choudhary, R.K., A Review on Sub Clinical Mastitis in Dairy
Cattle, Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6(2): 1291-1299 (2018). doi:
Kumari et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 1291-1299 (2018) ISSN: 2320 7051
Copyright © March-April, 2018; IJPAB 1292
Some studies have been reported that the
incidence of sub clinical mastitis ranged from
19.20 to 83% in cows. In India, about 70-80%
economic loss has been attributed due to sub
clinical mastitis alone4.
It is also a complex disease, with
various causal pathogens, and given its
complexity. However complete eradication at
present is not feasible5. So, it is essential to
understand the important risk factors
associated with management practices for
incidence of sub clinical mastitis in dairy
cattle. It does not create visible changes in the
milk or of the udder6. Although the milk
appears normal, cows with subclinical
intramammary infections (IMI) produce less
milk and with compromised quality7.
Subclinical mastitis can lead to a 10% 20%
decrease in milk production. In addition, it has
an undesirable effect on the constituents and
nutritional value of the milk, rendering it of
low quality and less fit for processing8. As
there are no visible abnormalities in the milk,
subclinical mastitis requires special diagnostic
tests for detection9. The importance of early
detection of mastitis, and in particular
subclinical mastitis, is critical10 because
changes in the udder tissue take place earlier
than they become apparent11. It cannot be
identified without a laboratory or field test,
mostly remains unnoticed by the farmer,
therefore considered as a hidden form of
Sub clinical mastitis is 15 to 40 times more
prevalent than clinical mastitis12. According to
Cynthia13 the cases of SCM varied from 15 to
75 %, whereas the involvement of quarters
having SCM varied between 5 and 40 %. Five
states, namely Punjab, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh,
Madhya Pradesh, and Maharashtra had
estimates of 53.52%, 51.18%, 39.58 %, 62.49
% and 35.11 % respectively. Meta-analysis of
state-wise prevalence data showed that Punjab
and Haryana had harmonized prevalence of
subclinical mastitis on cow-basis14. According
to Busato et al.15 the prevalence of sub clinical
mastitis at the quarter level were 21.2% for
lactation period of 7 to 100 days and 34.5% for
101 to 305 days post partum in organic
certified dairy farms. According to Varshney
and Narsh16, prevalence of subclinical form of
mastitis was found to be more common in
India (varying from 10-50% in cows and 5-
20% in buffaloes) when compared to clinical
mastitis (1-10%). Various researchers have
reported about the prevalence of subclinical
mastitis in dairy cows (Table 1).
Risk factors such as Host ((breed, high yielder,
age, parity, stage of lactation, udder defense,
udder confirmation, Milking interval, Milk
somatic cell count, Dry period, teat injuries,
genetic resistance), Pathogen (virulence factor,
number of organisms, blind treatment),
management practices (shed and udder
hygiene, poor teat condition, poor
environmental hygiene, sanitation, large herd
size, use of hand wash cloth, improper teat
dipping, milking technique, milking machine)
and diet (Cu, Co, Zn, Selenium and vitamin E
deficiency) amongst others have been reported
to be important in the prevalence of sub-
clinical mastitis17.
Kumari et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 1291-1299 (2018) ISSN: 2320 7051
Copyright © March-April, 2018; IJPAB 1293
In a report of Kumar et al.18 Streptococcus
dysgalactiae was major (50.00%) organism
isolated from the cases of sub clinical mastitis
in cows followed by Staphylococcus
aureus and others. It may also be associated
with many other organisms
including Actinomyces pyogenes,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Nocardia
asteroides, Clostridium perfringens and others
like Mycobacterium, Mycoplasma,
Pastuerella and Prototheca species and
yeasts17. The majority of the cases are caused
by only a few common bacterial pathogens,
namely, Staphylococcus species,
Streptococcus species, Coliforms
and Actinomyces pyogenes19.
According to the International Dairy
Federation (IDF) recommendations,
microbiological status of the quarter and the
somatic cell count (SCC) are the most
common tests to detect changes in the milk
because of an inflammatory process20. Over a
period of years many tests have been
developed for the diagnosis of SCM.
According to Langer et al.6, there are several
direct and indirect tests that can detect SCM.
Indirect tests are useful in determining the
quality of milk, and in the absence of
laboratory facilities those which are suitable
for use in the field may be helpful in
detecting21. They include cow side tests viz.,
Modified California Mastitis Test (MCMT),
Modified White Side Test (MWST), Surf Field
Mastitis Test (SFMT), screening tests viz.,
Electrical conductivity (EC), pH test and
laboratory test viz., Methylene Blue Reduction
Test (MBRT). Inflammation of mammary
gland is directly accompanied by an increase
of SCC in milk22. Therefore, many reports
have considered SCC as a significant marker
for SCM23 and signifies a direct test for
detection of SCM. Various researchers have
reported the prevalence of SCM on the basis of
different tests (Table2).
In India, economic loss due to mastitis was
reported INR 6,053.21 crore, where majority
of loss was found due to sub-clinical mastitis
(70 to 80%) which accounted around INR
4,365.32 crore4. Economic loss due to sub-
clinical mastitis in crossbred cows was INR
592.87 per lactation and loss due to decrease
in milk production was INR 700.1824. Annual
losses in the dairy industry due to mastitis was
almost 2.37 thousand crore rupees in India.
Out of this, sub-clinical mastitis accounted for
approximately 70% of the loss25.
Kumari et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 1291-1299 (2018) ISSN: 2320 7051
Copyright © March-April, 2018; IJPAB 1294
Table 1: Prevalence of Subclinical mastitis in various parts of India
Place of study
SCM cases (%)
West Bengal
Roy et al.26
Misra et al.27
Madhya Pradesh
Devi et al.29
Patel et al.30
Madhya Pradesh
Ghosh and Sharda31
Ghosh et al. 32
Sharma 33
Chahar et al. 34
Das and Joseph 35
Samanta et al. 36
Yathiraj et al. 37
Ahire et al. 38
Viswakarma 39
Dutta 40
Kumar et al.18
Sahoo et al.41
Sharma and Maiti42
Sharma et al.17
Uttar Pradesh
De & Mukherjee 43
Krithiga et al. 44
Ranjan et al. 45
Sinha et al. 25
Gupta et al.46
Kumari et al Int. J. Pure App. Biosci. 6 (2): 1291-1299 (2018) ISSN: 2320 7051
Copyright © March-April, 2018; IJPAB 1295
Table 2: Detection of Subclinical mastitis by different diagnostic tests
The subclinical mastitis (SCM) is a more
serious and responsible for much greater loss
to the dairy industry. More than three times
losses due to SCM, as compared to clinical
mastitis occurs. In this form of mastitis as milk
appears normal and visible abnormalities such
as udder swelling, hardness of the affected
quarter, pain, and watery milk remains absent,
but physical and chemical changes occurs in
the milk, which helps in the detection of SCM
by various diagnostic tests.
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... The salient research finding of various strategies related to heifer's mastitis ( [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19], and lactating cow's mastitis management strategies (Table-3) [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. ...
... : Lactating cow's mastitis management strategies[20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30]. 2006 Emphasized that the prognosis for treatment of Streptococcus agalactiae was partial because of location of infection in milk duct system. ...
Full-text available
Mastitis in dairy cattle is the most common management disorder that causes higher economic losses by lowering production and quality of milk leads to substantial economical loss. The aim of this article was to review worldwide important advances in strategies to control mastitis for production augmentation in dairy cattle. Many scientists worked to identify effective strategies to control mastitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and others. It is necessary to identify mechanisms of infection, define clinical and subclinical states of disease, determine exposure time, and identify pathogen-specific characteristics. Evolvement of management strategies that incorporated hygienic procedures (animal, floor, and milkman), post milking standing period of animal and strategic use of antibiotic or herbal therapy at dry-off, nutritional supplementation, fly control, body condition score optimization, etc., resulted in widespread control of mastitis. The udder, teat of animal, scientific management of milking, automatic milking procedure, genetic selection are considered as important factors to control mastitis. As farm management changed, scientists were directed to redefine control of mastitis caused by opportunistic pathogens of environmental sources and have sought to explore management strategies which will maintain animal well-being in a judicial way. Although significant advances in mastitis management have been made changing herd structure, changing climatic scenario and more rigorous milk processing standards ensure that mastitis will remain important issue for future research.
... Mastitis is the most prevalent and important disease of dairy cows and responsible for the major economic losses to the dairy farms globally [1]. It is a multicausal disease, and various pathogens are involved in subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis [2,3]. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is characterized by high somatic cell count (SCC) in milk without any visible abnormalities of the milk and udder and obvious systemic signs [3]. ...
... It is a multicausal disease, and various pathogens are involved in subclinical and clinical forms of mastitis [2,3]. Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is characterized by high somatic cell count (SCC) in milk without any visible abnormalities of the milk and udder and obvious systemic signs [3]. The occurrence of SCM is very common in dairy herds compared to clinical mastitis, which results in huge economic losses. ...
Full-text available
Background and Aim: Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is one of the most prevalent diseases of dairy cows, and somatic cell count (SCC) is widely used to determine SCM and milk quality. However, setting the threshold of SCC is very important. This study aimed to determine the cow-level threshold of SCC to differentiate milk of SCM affected cows from normal milk in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: Sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) along with other characteristics of different thresholds of SCC were determined considering the bacterial culture as the gold standard test. Three definitions of intramammary infection (IMI) were set based on the group of pathogens involved. Five categories of SCC thresholds were considered for analysis. Results: Se and Sp of thresholds of SCC greatly varied as definitions of IMI changed. Irrespective of SCC thresholds, Se increased when isolation of major pathogens included in IMI definitions. Se decreased when SCC thresholds increased (from 100 to 300 × 103 cells/mL) for all IMI definitions and ranged from 60.6% to 20.3%. The highest Se was found at low SCC threshold (100 × 103 cells/mL), which resulted in less false-negative outcome. On the other hand, Sp increased with the increment of SCC thresholds giving rise to a less false-positive outcome. Conclusion: The cow-level SCC threshold of 100 × 103 cells/mL was found appropriate to identify subclinical IMI of dairy cows.
... Direct and indirect tests can be used for early detection of sub-clinical mastitis such as the California Mastitis Test (CMT), the Mastrip Test (MAST), Methylene Blue Reduction Test (MBRT), and Electrical Conductivity test (EC) (Kumari et al., 2018). Clinical mastitis, which is the most commonly diagnosed form in early lactation, also results in considerable economic losses and can be detected by visible changes in the milk and mammary gland Clinical mastitis can be of the acute type with a sudden start and accompanied by systemic effects, sub-acute type with no symptoms, few udder disorders and some milk alterations, and chronic type with firm, thickened, and nodular udder and no milk production (Fagiolo and Lai, 2007). ...
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Bovine mastitis is an inflammatory condition of the mammary gland of lactating bovines (cattle and buffaloes), which is one of the most significant and encountered diseases in the dairy industry. Every year dairy industries face huge economic losses due to the impact of bovine mastitis. Besides producing various physical and biochemical changes in the milk, mastitis also causes fluctuation in various blood parameters of the dairy buffaloes. The levels of total leukocyte count (TLC), and neutrophils in the blood serum of a mastitis suffering buffalo are significantly higher than a healthy buffalo. Similarly, the serum levels of various enzymes like alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) increase significantly. The lipid peroxidation substances viz. malondialdehyde and nitric oxide increase significantly while there is a significant loss in the level of macro-minerals like calcium, phosphorus, and zinc. The findings of various studies have shown the damaging effects of mastitis in the blood profile of diseased buffaloes.
... It occurs in two forms, clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) [1]. SCM is the foremost production disease of dairy cows, which can directly or indirectly affect the economy of the farmers globally, including in developing countries [2][3][4]. Earlier reports indicate that the cost of SCM is often greater than that of clinical mastitis [5,6]. SCM is the inflammation of the mammary gland that does not create any visible changes in the milk or of the udder but the quality and quantity of the milk is highly altered [1]. ...
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Background and aim: Subclinical mastitis (SCM) is an economically important disease for dairy cattle worldwide; therefore, regular screening is imperative to detect SCM at an early stage so as to control it. The study was conducted to compare the test characteristics of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as a test reagent to detect SCM in dairy cows. Materials and methods: First, 106 milk samples of dairy cows were subjected to available indirect screening tests (white side test [WST], surf field mastitis test, Leucocytest, and Immucell) considering somatic cell count (SCC) as gold standard test. Then 273 milk samples were allowed to react with different concentrations of SLS with or without sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and indicators (bromothymol blue [BTB] and bromocresol purple [BCP]). Results: SLS with or without NaOH yielded best reaction with the milk samples similar to Leucocytest. It was observed that the reaction of milk samples with SLS added with indicators (BTB and BCP) was easier to visualize than without indicators. SLS 3%+NaOH 1.5% with BTB and SLS 2% with BCP had high sensitivity, specificity, and substantial agreement with SCC. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of SLS 2% with BCP and SLS 3%+NaOH 1.5% with BTB was 0.917 and 0.875, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that SLS 3%+NaOH 1.5% with BTB and SLS 2% with BCP may be the potential reagents for the development of an effective cow-side test to detect SCM, as the main ingredient SLS is considerably cheap and readily available in developing countries.
... Proper BCS cows showed significantly lower SCC. Kumari et al. (2018) reported that milk SCC, MCMT, and SFMT were suitable diagnostic tests for SCM diagnosis in dairy cows. Paul and Bhakat (2018a) found that under BCS and over BCS at calving significantly (P < 0.05) increased SCC in milk. ...
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To find out the effect of reducing energy intake during dry period on milk production, udder health, and body condition, the experiment was conducted on 14 Jersey crossbred cows during whole dry period and continued up to 120 days of lactation. Reduction in energy intake was done during far-off period for each dry cow of treatment group as compared to control group. Statistically analyzed data revealed that overall significantly (P < 0.01) lower DMI and WI were recorded in control than treatment group. Overall significantly (P < 0.01) higher total milk production was found in treatment than control group. Overall significantly (P < 0.01) lower milk SCC, MCMT, pH, and EC were found in treatment than control group. Nonsignificant difference in milk fat, SNF, total solid, total protein, and fat:protein ratio was found. Overall significantly (P < 0.01) better quality milk (MBRT) was found in treatment than control groups. BCS during dry period and at calving was significantly (P < 0.01) different between groups. Significantly (P < 0.01) higher plasma NEFA concentration was estimated in control than treatment groups in all stages. No significant difference was found for plasma concentrations of glucose, urea, and total protein. The coefficients of correlation indicated significant (P < 0.01) correlation among BCS, milk production, milk SCC, MCMT, pH, and EC. It can be concluded that reducing energy intake during far-off dry period can lead to achieve optimum BCS at calving. Suitable BCS at calving was beneficial to get higher milk production with improved quality, better maintenance of udder health and body condition of Jersey crossbred cows at tropical lower Gangetic region.
Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indirect measurement to estimate mammary gland health status. This trait provides information regarding the severity of the mammary tissue inflammation in each quarter. Milk samples coming from the farm milk storage vat containing 100,000 to 200,000 cell/mL are considered suspicious, while SCC over 200,000 cell/mL is an indication of subclinical mastitis. Chilean dairy processors penalise farmers monetarily when their bulk tank samples reach levels of 300,000 cell/ mL SCC. The objective of this study was to quantify the additive genetic component of the liability of cows to reach the 300,000 cell/mL threshold. A data set containing the highest SCC test-day record of 10,528 first lactation cows from 15 commercial dairy farms of Los Ríos Region in southern Chile was analysed. The unknown continuous underlying susceptibility of each cow to reach the 300,000 SCC threshold was modelled as a function of a contemporary group formed by the herd, year, and calving season, the regression coefficient of the unknown underlying susceptibility value of a cow on her daily milk yield (MY) and the additive animal genetic effect. Bayesian inference and Gibbs sampling were used to estimate additive and residual variances. The average daily MY and SCC were 17.84±5.25 kg and 125,327±236,297 cell/mL, respectively. The estimated heritability varied from 0.03 to 0.22 and the average was 0.10±0.03. It is concluded that the genetic variability for the susceptibility to reach the 300,000 SCC threshold could be exploited to improve resistance to subclinical mastitis.
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Study was planned to determine the prevalence of sub clinical mastitis in crossbred and indigenous cows and to characterize etiological agent/s involved along with their antimicrobial sensitivity testing. Milk samples from 364 quarters of 95 lactating cows at an organized farm were screened. The overall quarter wise and animal wise prevalence on the basis of cultural examination was 64.21 and 39.83%, respectively. According to International Dairy Federation criteria, 15.38 % quarters of cows were suffering from sub clinical mastitis on account of having somatic cell count (SCC) more than 5,00,000 per ml of milk and culturally positive. The prevalence of latent mastitis (SCC < 5 x 105/ml and culturally positive) and non-specific mastitis (SCC > 5 x 105/ml of milk and culturally negative) was observed as 24.45 and 4.67 %, respectively. A total of 150 organisms were recovered out of 145 culturally positive quarters. These were 38.66 % coagulase positive staphylococci and 29.33 % were coagulase negative staphylococci followed by Streptococcus dysgalactiae (22.66%), Streptococcus agalactiae (6.66 %) and Streptococcus uberis (2.66%), and (3.33%) quarters revealed mixed infections of Staphylococcus spp. and Streptococcus spp. The antibiogram of isolates revealed 100 % sensitivity to Cloxacillin, Ceftriaxone and Cefoperazone and high (90.90-100 %) sensitivity towards Enrofloxacin, Cephalexin, Gentamicin and Lincomycin.
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The present study was under taken to find out the comparative efficacy of commonly used diagnostic tests for detection of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle of Andhra Pradesh. Present communication aims to find out the specificity, sensitivity and predictive value of different indirect tests California mastitis test (CMT), electrical conductivity (EC) and somatic cell count (SCC) taking cultural test as standard in sub clinical mastitis affected cattle. Out of 135 quarter milk samples subjected to CMT, EC and SCC taking cultural examination as standard, the per cent accuracies were found to be 73.33, 70.37 and 71.00 respectively. The false positive reactions were more in CMT (24.60%) followed by SCC (23.70%) and EC (20.40%) where as the false negative reactions were highest in EC (34.90%) followed by SCC (31.60%) and CMT (28.60%). The sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of different tests were studied and it was found that EC had the highest specificity (84.84%) and predictive value (79.59%) with lowest sensitivity (56.62%) than compare with the other diagnostic methods for diagnosis of sub clinical mastitis in cattle. Electrical conductivity can be used as the decision criteria to treat or to cull the animals in herds with high prevalence of subclinical mastitis.
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Subclinical mastitis (SCM) represents a major proportion of the burden of mastitis. Determining somatic cell count (SCC) and electrical conductivity (EC) of milk are useful approaches to detect SCM. In order to correlate grades of SCM with the load of five major mastitis pathogens, 246 milk samples from a handful of organized and unorganized sectors were screened. SCC (>5 × 105/mL) and EC (>6.5 mS/cm) identified 110 (45 %) and 153 (62 %) samples, respectively, to be from SCM cases. Randomly selected SCM-negative samples as well as 186 samples positive by either SCC or EC were then evaluated for isolation of five major mastitis-associated bacteria. Of the 323 isolates obtained, 95 each were S. aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 48 were E. coli and 85 were streptococci. There was no association between the distribution of organisms and (a) the different groups of SCC, or (b) organised farms and unorganised sectors. By contrast, there was a significant difference in the distribution of CoNS, and not other species, between organized farms and unorganized sectors. In summary, bacteria were isolated irrespective of the density of somatic cells or the type of farm setting, and the frequency of isolation of CoNS was higher with organized farms. These results suggest the requirement for fine tuning SCC and EC limits and the higher probability for CoNS to be associated with SCM in organized diary sectors, and have implications for the identification, management and control of mastitis in India.
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Among 190 milk samples confirmed positive for bovine mastitis by California mastitis test, Somatic cell count and White side test. Among 190 samples, 138 (72.63 %) samples. Staphylococcus aureus (27.37%) was found to be the most prevalent organism followed by coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (12.63%), E. coli. (08.95%), Pseudomonas spp. (07.89%), Streptococcus spp. (05.79%), mixed bacterial infection (04.74%), yeast (03.15%), Klebsiella spp. (01.57%) and Bacillus spp. (00.52%). Further, the incidence of bovine mastitis was recorded under different climatic conditions, which was found to be highest in winter followed by summer and least in rainy season. Additionally, it was observed that Gram positive organisms were more common cause of bovine mastitis than Gram negative and Staphylococcus aureus was most common isolate in all the seasons. Incidence of bovine mastitis has been also recorded under different climatic conditions. However, Streptococcus spp. showed a significant rise in incidence during summer. Our results revealed that there was a definite impact of seasonal variation on incidence of bovine mastitis and the microbe associated with it. [Vet. World 2011; 4(5.000): 205-208]
Detection of cases of subclinical mastitis presents difficulties because in early stages of the disease clear cut clinical changes are not. manifested. A total of 200 milk samples from apparently healthy quarters of 50 healthy crossbred dairy cows in different stages of lactation, were taken and subjected to estimation of various constituents like lactose, Na+, K+ and cr alongwith Indirect diagnostic tests like electrical conductivity, sodium lauryl sulphate and bromothymol blue card test. Each reading of different tests was compared with bacteriological finding and overall percentage of agreement was calculated for each .te·st. The percentage of agreement of electrical conductivity, lactose, BTB, SLST, sodium, chloride and potassium was 69.
Pattern of bacterial isolates from mastitis cases in cows
  • S Yathiraj
  • M N Bhat
  • B R Deepti
  • H U Upendra
  • A Murlidhara
Yathiraj, S., Bhat, M.N., Deepti, B.R., Upendra, H.U. and Murlidhara, A. Pattern of bacterial isolates from mastitis cases in cows. ISVM, Uttarakhand, India, pp. 26 (2007).