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Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) account for about 97–99 per cent of total enterprises and 60–80 per cent of total employment in ASEAN countries. The participation of SMEs is thus crucial for achieving greater regional economic integration amongst ASEAN countries. SMEs are, however, often constrained by many disadvantages that limit their abilities to become importers and exporters. This is well documented in the research literature on trade and firm size. This volume contains selected ASEAN country studies on the participation of SMEs in regional economic integration based on primary microdata. This is supplemented by empirical studies on the role played by East Asian multinational enterprises in the region.
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... As observed, SMEs are often constrained by many disadvantages that limit their capabilities to become importers and exporters (Lee, 2017). The most common barriers to SME growth are access to finance and technology, low quality of human resources, and relatively unfriendly infrastructure and regulatory environment. ...
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This paper focused on the principle and effects of ASEAN Way upon foreign policy of each ASEAN member states towards external economic powers.
... Literature reveals that SMEs' sectors are primarily influenced by governmental policies and lack of innovation implementation [73,74]. This implies that the government should take several corrective and preventive measures to solve numerous problems, such as establishing an R&D department to compete in the international market and making technological advancements to improve products and services. ...
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The study investigates the mediating role of e-commerce through organizational and environmental factors with small and medium enterprises (SMEs) performance. The study follows a cross-sectional survey method approach. The study's theoretical foundation is based on the resource-based view (RBV) and diffusion of innovation (DOI) theory. The current research identifies four manufacturing SMEs' strata based on participation in the country's exports using a stratified proportional random sampling technique. The research questionnaires were distributed among 700 top and middle-level managers of manufacturing SMEs. The data were analyzed by applying partial least square structural equational modeling (PLS-SEM) to examine the relationship between the exogenous, mediator, and endogenous variables. The finding reveals that top management support and competitive pressure have a significant positive impact on the use of e-commerce direct and mediation. At the same time, the adoption cost and government support have an insignificant impact on e-commerce usage. This study results can be used to enhance the use of e-commerce in Pakistan's manufacturing SMEs to improve the country's overall exports.
Value-added Share of GDP in Malaysia
  • Smes
SMEs' Value-added Share of GDP in Malaysia, 2005-13 (%) 145