ArticlePDF Available

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Pectin from Malus domestica ‘Fălticeni’ Apple Pomace

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The use of an ultrasonic treatment for the extraction of pectin from Malus domestica ‘Fălticeni’ apple pomace, its effects on extraction yield and galacturonic acid content, and degree of esterification of the extracted pectin were investigated. The optimization of the extraction process showed that the highest yield of 9.183% pectin, with a 98.127 g/100 g galacturonic acid content and 83.202% degree of esterification, was obtained at 100% amplitude, pH of 1.8, SLR of 1:10 g/mL, and 30 min. The pectin obtained in optimal extraction conditions was compared to commercial citrus and apple pectin in terms of chemical composition (determined by FT-IR), thermal behaviour (analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry), rheological properties, and morphological structure (analyzed by scanning electron microscopy). By comparison to commercial citrus and apple pectin samples, the FT-IR analysis of pectin extracted by ultrasound treatment confirmed the high degree of esterification and showed similarity to that of apple pectin (88.526%). It was found that the thermal behaviour of the pectin obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction was influenced by the narrower distribution of molecular weights and the orderly molecular arrangement, while the rheological properties (high viscosity, G0, and G1) of this sample were influenced by the morphological structure and the galacturonic acid content. The correlation coefficient showed a strong positive relationship between viscosity and galacturonic acid content (r = 0.992**).
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... However, several flaws such as the pollution of waste acidic liquid, undesirable degradation of pectin and equipment erosion are found during extraction process. A series of high-effective and eco-friendly techniques are developed, which are divided into three types: 1) Replacement of extraction solvents: the acidic solvents with low toxicity and erosion are used, such as acetic acid and other organic acids (Luo et al., 2019); 2) Biological extraction: some enzymes and fungi could be used for the pectin extraction (Hye et al., 2014); 3) Green techniques, such as ultrasound (Dranca and Oroian, 2019), microwave (Dranca et al., 2020) and subcritical water . As an important thicken or gel additive in food industry, the consumption of pectin increased every year, which led to the great demand to pectin preparation. ...
Article
Apple pomace (AP), the by-products generated from apple processing industries, is a favorable resource possessed the characteristics of high nutritional component, which are of great interest in its utilization. It is urgent to dispose AP efficiently and eco-friendly in case of unnecessary waste and environmental pollution of producing fetor or harmful substance with landfill. This review provides valorization strategies for recycle AP, discusses the current utilization modes and analyzes the development tendency of different AP utilization methods through summarizing literatures related with the current situation of apple, apple processed products and the utilization of AP roundly. In line with literatures, the application of AP could be divided into two categories: being applied in conventional ways and being applied in acquiring high-value products. The former included directly as an additive in animal feed or elementary fermentation conversion to compost or produce nutrition enhancement, and the latter included functional ingredients (carbohydrates, phenolic compounds and pentacyclic triterpenes) extraction or fermentation conversion to produce high-value products (enzymes, organic acid, pigment, biofuels), some flaws limited the AP utilization were described as well. However, the techno-economic assessment and life cycle assessment are necessary for commercial application of AP at the optimal technologies, which is best promising for reducing economic cost and environment pollution. The discussion about the limitation and future tendency of every utilization mode is concluded at the last paragraph of every section owing to the lack of in-depth and comprehensive research of AP valorization. More than that, the concept of full-component utilization to enhance economic efficiency and utilization ratio of AP as much as possible is proposed at the end, effectively establish the foundation of acquiring sustainable food products and improve the value-added of wastes.
... 2.2 Production of essential oils, reducing sugar-rich hydrolyzate and pectin from OPW 6 The simultaneous production of EO, RS and pectin was performed through UADAH using lab-and pilot-scale facilities (as presented in Fig. 1). ...
Article
An orange peel waste biorefinery was developed employing a design of experiments approach to optimize the ultrasound-assisted dilute acid hydrolysis process applied for production of useful commodities. Central composite design-based response surface methodology was used to approximate the combined effects of process parameters in simultaneous production of essential oils, pectin and a sugar-rich hydrolyzate. Application of a desirability function determined the optimal conditions required for maximal production efficiency of essential oils, pectin and sugars as 5.75% solid loading, 1.21% acid concentration and 34.2 min duration. Maximum production yields of 0.12% w/w essential oils, 45% w/w pectin and 40% w/w sugars were achieved under optimized conditions in lab- and pilot-scale facilities. The hydrolyzate formed was applied in bacterial cellulose fermentations producing 5.82 g biopolymer per 100 g waste. Design of experiments was efficient for process analysis and optimization providing a systems platform for the study of biomass-based biorefineries.
... Table 1 shows the effect of increasing SLR upon yield of pectin. In 6 of the 10 pairs compared, yield was significantly influenced by increase in SLR, as was already reported by other workers using different raw materials (Dranca & Oroian, 2019). This was due to the increased penetration of extractant liquid in to the deeper layers of the cell wall material, so as to release more pectin. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pectin was extracted from underground stem of banana (Musa species). Optimum conditions of extraction required for maximum yield, were examined. Structural features were analysed. Pineapple jam, prepared using this pectin, was analysed for rheological and textural features. Banana pectin was made in to a viscous solution using sucrose and the viscosity of this solution was measured. Grade of the banana pectin was estimated. Significant yield was observed under the experimental conditions used for investigation. Banana pectin was found to have a degree of methylation of about 60% and percentage of anhydrouronic acid was above 70, with a monomeric composition similar to pectin from other sources. Viscosity of banana pectin was comparable with that of citrus pectin, while yield stress and shear modulus were less. Banana pectin could influence the textural properties of pineapple jams. Banana pectin was found suitable to be used as a gelling agent in fruit jams.
Article
Fruit waste valorisation to generate value-added pectin products is an active research area. In this study, pectin products from unfermented apple/grape pomace (AP/GP) and from fermented apple/grape pomace (FAP/FGP) were prepared via extraction with aqueous citric acid at 60 °C. Fermented apple/grape pomace was produced via yeast fermentation. Compared with GP, AP had a higher pectin yield, GalA and protein contents, amounts of HG and RG-I, Mw, branching degree and size of neutral side chains, but lower degree of methoxylation (DM), linearity of pectin and phenolic/anthocyanin content. AP, FAP and GP had a DM higher than 50%, whilst FGP had a DM lower than 50%. Fermentation decreased pectin's yield, DM and contents of phenolics and anthocyanins, while altering significantly the monosaccharide profiles of the pectins. Fermentation yielded pectins with smoother surfaces and more amorphous structures. Fermentation of apple pomace decreased HG by 58% and caused a 2.39-fold increase in RG-I, whereas, fermentation of grape pomace decreased HG and increased RG-I to a lesser extent. All these fermentation-induced changes caused differences in shear-thinning behavior, thermal stability, viscoelasticity and antioxidant activities between AP/GP and FAP/FGP. FAP and FGP aqueous dispersions (2.0–5.0%) had lower viscosities than AP and GP dispersions. All pectin samples can be used as emulsifiers, gelling agents and rheology modifiers. FAP and FGP were the most and least effective emulsifiers, respectively, at concentrations of 1.0–2.0% w/v. All pectin samples possessed significant antioxidant activities. GP had the highest antioxidant capacity (at 20 or 30 mg/mL exhibiting comparable activity to vitamin C).
Article
Full-text available
The objective of this study was to optimize the pectin extraction from industrial quince biowaste using citric acid as a hydrolytic agent and assisting the process with ultrasound technology. For this, the process was modeled using the Box− Behnken design (BBD) to find the factors' optimum values and their interactions. The quince pectin extraction was carried out by adding to the biowaste a citric acid solution at different pH values (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0) in mass volume ratios of 1/25, 1/20, and 1/15 g/mL and immersing it in an ultrasound bath for 30, 45, and 60 min at controlled temperatures of 70, 80, and 90°C. Pectin yield, process cost, and CO 2 emission were calculated under different conditions according to the BBD model, and a polynomial function was adjusted for each dependent variable. A multi-objective optimization technique known as "Genetic algorithms" was used to find the proper extraction conditions that would maximize the pectin yield and minimize the process cost. The optimal extraction conditions obtained were as follows: pH = 2.12, mvr = 0.04 g/mL, time = 48.98 min, and temperature = 85.20°C, with response variables of pectin yield = 12.78%, cost = 1.501 USD/kg of pectin, and calculated CO 2 emission = 0.565 kg of CO 2 /kg of pectin.
Article
Pectins obtained from citrus peel of different cultivars and growth regions were compared based on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity in vitro. The physicochemical features were elucidated using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), molecular weight distribution, monosaccharide composition, thermal behaviors and flow behaviors. Results showed that the different cultivars and growing areas have significant effects on the properties of citrus peel pectins (CPPs). Citrus peel pectins extracted by acetic acid were highly heterogeneous polysaccharides with broad molecular weight distributions and had high proportions of the RG-I domain. Among the 10 CPPs, CPP-6 and CPP-7 own superior antioxidant biological activity and CPP-3 and CPP-9 had excellent functional properties (thermal stability and viscosity). According to the correlation analysis, molecular weight, galacturonic acid content and degree of esterification were beneficial to increase the thermal stability and viscosity of CPPs, while the rhamnose content, rhamnogalacturonan I region and lower molecular weight can improve citrus peel pectins antioxidant activity. Our findings suggest that CPP-6 and CPP-7 may be useful as a potential natural antioxidant in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Meanwhile, CPP-3 has great application potential in high temperature food and CPP-9 can be used as a thickener or stabilizer in the food industry.
Article
Full-text available
Every year, huge amounts of fruit and vegetable by-products in the food processing factories are produced. These by-products have great potential to be used for different targets especially the extraction of value-added ingredients. The target of this study is to review the challenges of extraction of value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products on the industrial scale and to describe current trends in solving these problems. In addition, some strategies such as multi-component extraction as well as application of fermentation before or after the extraction process, and production of biofuel, organic fertilizers, animal feeds, etc. on final residues after extraction of value-added ingredients are discussed in this review paper. In fact, simultaneous extraction of different value-added ingredients from fruit and vegetable by-products can increase the extraction efficiency and reduce the cost of value-added ingredients as well as the final volume of these by-products. After extraction of value-added ingredients, the residues can be used to produce biofuels, or they can be used to produce organic fertilizers, animal feeds, etc. Therefore, the application of several appropriate strategies to treat the fruit and vegetable by-products can increase their application, protect the environment, and improve the food economy.
Article
Citrus is one of the main fruits processed worldwide, producing a lot of industrial by-products. As the main part of citrus “residue”, citrus peels have a wide application prospect. They could not only be directly used to produce various food products, but also be used as promising biofuels to produce ethanol and methane. Additionally, functional components (flavonoids, limonoids, alkaloids, essential oils and pectin) extracted from citrus peels have been related to the improvement of human health against active oxygen, inflammatory, cancer and metabolic disorders. Therefore, it is clear that the citrus peels have great potential to be developed into useful functional foods, medicines and biofuels. This review systematically summarizes the recent advances in current uses, processing, bioactive components and biological properties of citrus peels. A better understanding of citrus peels may provide reference for making full use of it.
Article
Conventional extraction (CE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were compared in terms of efficiency and quality of pectin in two separate processes aimed to extract pectin from Malus domestica ‘Fălticeni’ apple pomace. A similar extraction yield in a shorter extraction time was observed for the microwave-assisted procedure as compared to CE, while the galacturonic acid content and the degree of esterification of pectin were similar for both methods. Apple pectin extracted from this plant source by both methods had high galacturonic acid content, degree of esterification and molecular weight. Considering the high efficiency of microwave-assisted extraction and the composition of the obtained pectin, microwave-assisted apple pectin extracted under optimal conditions was used to produce edible films in combination with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Films formulated with pectin from microwave extraction had significant lower oxygen permeability as compared to plasticized pure HPMC films, which makes microwave extracted pectin suitable for film-forming applications in which a good barrier to oxygen is required.
Article
Full-text available
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is transition phase between cognitive decline and dementia. The current study aims to investigate altered metabolic pattern in plasma of MCI for potential biomarkers. MCI (N = 50) and healthy controls (HC, N = 50) age group 55–75 years were screened based on Mini Mental State Examination Test (MMSE) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI imaging). The MMSE score of MCI was significantly lower (25.74 ± 1.83) compared to healthy control subjects (29 ± 1). The MCI patients exhibit significant changes in white matter integrity in the right frontal lobe, right temporal lobe, left frontal lobe, forcep major, fornix, corpus callosum. Further, the plasma samples of twenty seven MCI patients (N = 27) and twenty HC subjects (N = 20; having no significant differences in any demographics) were analyzed using ¹H NMR based metabolomics approach. Consistent with many previous reports, the levels of several plasma metabolites were found to be elevated in MCI patients compared to healthy controls. Further univariate and multivariate ROC curve analyses provided three plasma metabolites as a diagnostic panel of biomarker for MCI; which are lysine, glycine, and glutamine. Overall, the results of this study will help to improve the diagnostic and prognostic strategies of MCI in addition to improving our understanding about disease pathogenesis. We believe that the over-nutritional metabolic phenotype of MCI needs to be targeted for developing future dietary interventions so that the progression of MCI can be limited. Graphical abstract Metabolic derangements associated with Mild Cognitive Impairment
Article
The pulp of gabiroba fruits was submitted to a hot water extraction, giving rise to a crude pectin named GW. GW was shown to be composed mainly of arabinose (54.5%), galacturonic acid (33.5%), galactose (7.6%), and rhamnose (1.6%). GW was characterized by chromatographic and spectroscopic methods indicating the presence of homogalacturonans (HG) with a degree of methyl-esterification (DM) of 60% and rhamnogalacturonans I (RG-I). HG domain represents 31.9% and RG-I domain 65.3%. Furthermore, GW was submitted to sequential fractionation methods, giving rise to GWP-TEP fraction, structurally characterized by the predominance of HG regions, and confirmed by NMR analysis. The rheological behavior of GW was analyzed at 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v) concentration with 0.1 mol L⁻¹ NaCl. All samples showed shear thinning behavior. In the oscillatory measurements, the 1% GW showed a liquid-like behavior, while the 3% presented a concentrated solution behavior and the 5% GW a gel behavior.
Article
The present work evaluated the use of ultrasound to extract sequentially phenolics and pectin from mango peel. Initially, the influence of ethanol and ultrasound on the phenolics extraction was investigated. The results showed that the ultrasound did not affect the extraction yield of these compounds. The best total phenolics yield (67%) was obtained with an extraction solution consisting of 50% of ethanol in water (v/v) and without ultrasound application, according to the experimental design. As an innovative extraction methodology, the residue of this extraction was then used to extract pectin assisted by ultrasound. The use of ultrasound increased over than 50% of the pectin extraction yield and did not affect its quality, measured by the galacturonic acid content and the degree of esterification. The sequential extraction of phenolics and pectin shows to be an alternative to use the whole residue from mango peel.
Article
In this work, a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three variables (ultrasound power, irradiation time and pH) in three levels was applied for pectin extraction optimization. The optimization process showed that the maximum extraction yield was 28.07 ± 0.67% in ultrasound power of 150 W, irradiation time of 10 min and pH of 1.5 (as optimum conditions). In these conditions, ash, moisture and protein contents of SOPP were 1.89 ± 0.51, 8.81 ± 0.68 and 1.45 ± 0.23%, respectively. HPLC analysis indicated that 65.3% of the extracted pectin was galacturonic acid and approximately 72% of total neutral sugars was galactose. The optimized pectin had a total phenolic content of 39.95 ± 3.13 mg gallic acid equivalents/g pectin, the surface tension of 46.56 ± 0.23 and 42.14 ± 0.61 mN/m in concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5%w/v, water holding capacity and oil holding capacity of 3.10 ± 0.12 and 1.32 ± 0.21 g water or oil/g pectin with a suitable emulsifying and antioxidant properties. In addition, SOPP with degree of esterification of 6.77 ± 0.43% was classified as low methoxyl pectin, which confirmed by FTIR and 1H NMR analysis.
Article
Microwave and conventional heating methods were used to extract pectin from lime peel waste using different acid extractants (hydrochloric or citric acid) and peel-to-extractant ratios (1:20 or 1:40). Hydrochloric acid as the extractant resulted in a higher yield of pectin with both methods. The methoxyl content and galacturonic acid content of lime peel pectin were in the range 8.74–10.51% and 79.29–95.93%, respectively. The intense band around 1730 cm⁻¹ corresponded to methyl esterified uronic carboxyl groups and confirmed the higher equivalent weight and degree of esterification for the microwave-extracted pectin than that from conventional extraction. Lime peel pectin could be classified as high methoxyl pectin having a rapid-set gel formation. The viscosity and viscoelastic properties of the pectin solution from both heating methods enhanced with increasing solid concentration. Hence, microwave heating can be a short processing time for pectin extraction from lime peel waste with suitable pectin properties.
Article
In this work, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Artificial Neural Network coupled with genetic algorithm (ANN-GA) have been used to develop a model and optimise the conditions for the extraction of pectin from sunflower heads. Input parameters were extraction time (10–20 min), temperature (40–60 °C), frequency (30–60 Hz), solid/liquid ratio (S/L) (1:20–1:40 g/mL) while pectin yield (PY%) was the output. Results showed that ANN-GA had a higher prediction efficiency than RSM. Using ANN as the fitness function, a maximum pectin yield of 29.1 ± 0.07% was searched by genetic algorithm at the time of 10 min, temperature of 59.9 °C, frequency of 30 Hz, and solid liquid ratio of 1:29.9 g/mL while the experimental value was found to be 29.5 ± 0.7%. Extracted pectin was characterised by FTIR and ¹³C NMR. Thus, ANN coupled GA has proved to be the effective method for the optimization of process parameters for pectin extraction from sunflower heads.
Article
Pectins are defined as a group of widely distributed plant cell wall polysaccharides that contain galacturonic acid linked at both the 1 and 4 positions. The wide use of pectin as an ingredient which imparts rheological and textural properties to various food products and the development of applications beyond the food industry have brought about its increase in production and influenced research towards alternative sources and improving the overall isolation process of pectic polysaccharides. In this context, this paper aims to give a complete perspective on the current state of pectin research by mainly focusing on recent research on the extraction of pectin from other feasible sources, on the post-extraction stages of pectin recovery from plant materials (purification and fractionation), and, finally, on the advancements in the study of the physical, chemical, rheological, and functional properties of pectin.
Article
The primary plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. Potential interactions between these polysaccharides were studied for carrot, tomato and strawberry, with a focus on the role of pectin. The Chelating agent Unextractable Solids (ChUS), the residue after water- and EDTA extraction, was ball milled and subsequently water extracted. For tomato and strawberry, pectin and substantial amounts of hemicellulose were solubilised. Anion exchange chromatography (AEC) showed co-elution of pectin and acetylated glucuronoxylan in tomato, representing 18% of solubilised uronic acid and 48% of solubilised xylose by ball milling from ChUS. The existence of a covalently linked pectin-xylan complex was proposed since xylan co-precipitated with pectin under mild alkali conditions. It was proposed that pectin links with xylan through the RG-I region since degradation of HG did not alter AEC elution patterns for RG-I and xylan, suggesting RG-I – xylan interactions.
Article
To investigate the characteristics of the pectins from fermented and steeped hawthorn wine pomace (FHP and SHP), they were acid-extracted, respectively, and compared detailedly. The results of esterification degree indicated that these two pectins were both defined as high methoxyl pectin, which was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis. Molecular weight of SHP was higher than that of FHP. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis showed that the melt temperature of SHP was lower than that of FHP, and the molecular arrangement of SHP is more orderly than FHP. FHP and SHP solutions exhibited shear-thinning properties but SHP had a stronger anti-shear ability. FHP tended to be more elastic-solid as the concentration increased, which was not prominent in SHP. This study suggested that FHP and SHP powder could be new sources of pectin and both pectins could be potentially used as a thicker and stabilizer in food processing.
Article
This study was to identify active pectin fragments of high in vitro anti-proliferation activities against human colon adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cells, using various pectin fragment preparations dominant with rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I), rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), and galacturonic acid oligomers (GAOS). The samples were prepared from citrus high and low methoxy pectins (HPE and LPE) by endo-α-D-(1,4)-polygalacturonase action coupling with a green process as ultrafiltration (membrane molecular weight cut off > 10k, 1k-10k, and < 1k, giving fragment preparations I, II, and III, respectively). It is indicated that, in the fragment preparations HPE-I, II, and III, the molecular fractions HPE-F1 (RG-I), HPE-F2 (RG-II), and HPE-F3 (GAOS) showed an averaged Mw = 26.7k, 3.4k, and 0.3k, respectively, notably higher than their LPE counterparts. All fragment preparations exhibited concentration-dependent, inhibition effects on Caco-2 cells, where HPE-II (RG-II-domain) revealed an interesting inhibition effect, significantly higher than those did HPE-I (RG-I domain) and HPE-III (GAOS). The HPE-F2 (RG-II) was elucidated and found of IR = 88% at 1.0 mg/mL and half-inhibition concentration (IC50) = 0.12 mg/mL, doubling the effect of HPE-F1 (RG-I) (IR = 45% at 1.0 mg/mL). Conclusively, citrus RG-II fragment showed a promisingly high anti-Caco-2 activity, significantly higher than did RG-I and GAOS, possibly attributed to its special branched structure and low molecular size.
Article
Background A large amount of food wastes and by-products are produced from farm to plate. They represent valuable sources for the production of high-added value compounds such as pectin. Pectin is the methylated ester of polygalacturonic acid and presents a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products as well as in food industry such as gelling agent in fruit-based products, stabilizer in fruit and milk beverages and fruit filling for bakery and confectionary products, among others. Therefore, pectin recovery is of great importance. Scope and Approach The commercially available pectin is almost exclusively derived from citrus peels or apple pomace, by-products from fruit juice manufacturing. But, nowadays the number of novel food waste and by-products sources for pectin extraction are increasing. Moreover, the application of innovative approaches is necessary due to the limitation of conventional processes. The present review will focus on the conventional and innovative processing techniques (microwave extraction, enzymatic extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction) to extract pectin from different wastes and by-products. Key Findings and Conclusions The pectin extraction differs according to the matrix studied as well as temperature, pH, time, solvents, and solid to liquid ratio. The use of innovative extraction processes such as ultrasound, microwave and enzymes can be a useful tool to increase pectin yield and quality, and reducing extraction time, temperature, use of toxic solvents and strong acidic conditions for pectin recovery. Moreover, the combination of solvent modelling and the use of particular extraction processes can enable the selective recovery of pectin.