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The very fast development of information technology which is characterized by an influx of industry 4.0 has changed the way of human and behavior in language. The grammar which is a phenomenon of interest to language is examined along with behavior change language in the internet world. A phenomenon in language online is the emergence of the use of visual language emoji in conducting conversations in social media. This paper aims to discuss the phenomenon of visual language emoji among internet users in social media (WhatsApp). The aspects that will be emphasized are language (grammar) of emoji. Research methods carried out is observation and descriptive. Method of data collection is the division of the questionnaire online, and communications in WA screenshot that uses emoji icons. The research result show that emoji is a language (grammar) used in communicating in social media. Emoji language has dominated the conversation or message written on the social media and emoji (WA) as a language (syntax, semantics, and pragmatics) is part of the sentence, punctuation, expression, expressing feelings and thoughts to the opponent talk. The language of emoji expression indicates that the emoji can represent the thoughts and feelings instead of using verbal language. Thus, emoji is composed of two directions, i.e. language and parole. The language of emoji is the social institution of emoji (grammar) in social media, and the individual is the parole act, an actualized manifestation of the function of the emoticons language in syntactic, semantic and pragmatic.
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 
        
 
Conference Paper
The Language of Emoji in Social Media
Burhanuddin Arafah and Muhammad Hasyim
   
Abstract
           
              
            
           
             
            
            
           
            
           
            
           
             
         
            
            
             
              
           

Keywords:      
1. Introduction
             
             
             
             
            
            
            
            
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     
  
  
   
   
    

   
    
  
 
              
 
             
              
                
           
             
               
               
             
          
                
          
           
               
               
           
           
            
             
         
  
            
           
           
             
            
           
             
               
             
            
      
           
             
               
   
 
             
              
  
2. Literature Review
2.1. Emoji
              
           
          
            
              
          
           
              
             
            
              
           
            
                 
            
           
             
              
             
               
         
2.2. Language dan Parole
            
   langue  paroleLangue       
             Langue 
              
   
 
     parole       
          
            
                
              
 
            
              
             
              
            
               
          
            
           
                
            
             
              
 
     langue  parole      
              
               
              
             
                 
              langue  parole
              
      
3. Research Method
               langue
  parole        
            
            
   
 
               
            
 
              
              
              
                
             
            
              
                
              
             
4. Result and Discussion
4.1. Langue dan parole emoji
                  
           
            
             

              
      
Figure    
   
 
             
               
              
              
 
               
Figure        
              
                
               
           
           
                 
      
4.2. The Syntax of Emoji
                
           
           
              
               
                 
           
                 
               
               
   
 
Figure         
Figure         
   
 
              
            
            
        
Figure          
          
          
            
             
             
           

4.3. Semantic of Emoji
             
            
             
          
            
                
               
              
             
   
 
    
Emoji
Seman!c
Grinning Face:
A yellow face with simple, open eyes and a broad, open smile, showing upper
teeth and tongue on some pla"orms. O#en conveys general pleasure and good
cheer or humor.
(h$ps://emojipedia.org/grinning-face/)
Face Blowing a Kiss:
A yellow face winking with puckered lips blowing a kiss, depicted as a small,
red heart. May represent a kiss goodbye or good night and convey feelings of
love and affec!on more generally.
h$ps://emojipedia.org/face-throwing-a-kiss/)
Loudly Crying Face:
A yellow face with an open mouth wailing and streams of heavy tears flowing
from closed eyes. May convey inconsolable grief but also other intense feelings,
such as uncontrollable laughter or overwhelming joy.
(h$ps://emojipedia.org/loudly-crying-face/)
Figure      
4.4. Pragmatics Emoji
          
          
                
         
          
           
    
             
              
   
 
Figure       
         
          
           
            
             
             
      
5. Conclusion
     langue  parole        
               
              
             
   
 
              
            
             
              
          
     
References
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    The Language of Fashion   

          
        
     
    The Semiotics of Emoji: The Rise of Visual Language in the
age of the Internet    
          
           
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 2
    Masyarakat Konsumsi: Pergeseran Interaksi Manusia
Ke Benda-Benda Konsumsi di Era Globalisasi.    
          
    Bahasa Zaman Now, Tantangan dan Peluang 
       

           
  . Journal of College Access  
    Smileys   
    The Adequacy of Grammatical Metaphor to Account for
World Languages         
     

     Course in General Linguistics  
 
   
... McCulloch and Gawne argue that the repeated emoji mimics the co-speech beat gesture to emphasise the rhythm of the speech [28]. Arafah & Hasyim consider such repetition of emojis as an interpersonal function to show intimacy with the interlocutors and promote interaction [29]. The repeated emojis might be similar to how repeated words in speech show either their original literal meaning or an intensified meaning [30], [31]. ...
... Repetition two or three times are the most common in all the repetitive uses, perhaps for some rhythmic purpose, as suggested by McCulloch and Gawne [28]. Nonetheless, we cannot determine from the data whether the users used repeated SSF emoji to intensify the feeling or promote interaction, as Arafah and Hasyim suggest, by lowering the offence of the sarcasm [29]. ...
Article
In most cultures, the Slightly Smiling Face (smiley) icon indicates friendliness and niceness. However, this SSF symbol in emoji may also indicate a negative meaning of sarcasm and irony to some Chinese social media users. This research analyses the sentiment reflected in the use of the SSF emoji as used by Chinese users on Twitter and applies quantitative methods to investigate the linguistic and social constraints of the SSF emoji's negative variable from 2016 to 2020. Results show that positive or negative emotional expression of SSF emoji is highly dependent on the content of the sentence and its context. Therefore, the SSF emoji has no semantic value as a word for expressing emotions but acts as an emotive anaphora or a modal particle. Simplified Chinese users from mainland China use the SSF emoji with a negative sense more than Traditional Chinese users from Taiwan. These differences may reflect the users’ media preference and cultural identification through the use of emoji, a global language for the digital age. Most Chinese users use a single SSF emoji, which can convey either emotion, at the end of the sentence, but when the SSF emoji is used in a repetitive manner, it is more likely to indicate a sarcastic emotion. Both variables, (single use / repetition) and Chinese types (Simplified / Traditional), significantly correlate with the use of the negative variant of the SSF emoji (p < 0.05). The change in the meaning of the SSF emoji from the expression of positive to negative sentiment demonstrates that emojis may change through time in ways similar to other forms of language.
... The five most commonly used emojis were the happy face (42%), the smile (22%), finger pointed up (21%) and angry and sadness emojis (each 18%) [27]. Arafah and Hasyim [28] found, furthermore, that emojis are part of the grammar of digital written communication, being used as punctuation at the end of a sentence. ...
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Background Little research has been done on nonverbal deception cues in computer-mediated communication (CMC). However, deception is a daily occurrence and since much communication is shifting towards CMC, it is important to understand the difference between truthful and deceptive messages. Objective This research obtained more insight in the use of emoji in deceptive messages by answering the question: Are the frequency and type of emoji different in deceptive compared to truthful online messages? Methods Participants sent three screenshots of deceptive, and truthful messages to WhatsApp. The used emoji were counted and sorted into levels of valence (positive, negative, and neutral) and intensity (strong versus weak). Results The results indicated that participants used more negative, weak emoji in deceptive compared with truthful messages and more positive, weak, and strong emoji in truth compared with deceit. No difference was found for the emoji frequency. Discussion The results are discussed in the light of earlier research. However, this is the first study investigating the use of emoji in the context of computer-mediated deception. Conclusion The type of emoji can be indicative of used as a nonverbal deception cue in online messages.
... A cleaned OOV list is obtained. In addition to using the symbol library to remove punctuation, most of the emoticons are removed using regular expressions (Burhanuddin & Muhammad, 2019). In the extraction stage of OOV, Chinese stop words are used. ...
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In this chapter, the authors propose to use contextual Word2Vec model for understanding OOV (out of vocabulary). The OOV is extracted by using left-right entropy and point information entropy. They choose to use Word2Vec to construct the word vector space and CBOW (continuous bag of words) to obtain the contextual information of the words. If there is a word that has similar contextual information to the OOV, the word can be used to understand the OOV. They chose the Weibo corpus as the dataset for the experiments. The results show that the proposed model achieves 97.10% accuracy, which is better than Skip-Gram by 8.53%.
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Instagram was a very popular social media today in Indonesia, especially for millennials. The popularity of Instagram media has been used as a means of promoting food products by culinary traders in the city of Makassar. With the promotion of food products through Instagram, netizens' speech interactions in the comments column started from asking for prices, menus, ordering or reservation systems, to marking each other and inviting their friends to eat together. This study aimed to describe the language variations on Instagram carried out by netizens in Makassar City. This research was a qualitative descriptive study and the research data is in the form of text, namely the speech of buying and selling food in the comments column for uploading advertisements for culinary account users on Instagram. Data collection was carried out from April 2020 to April 2021, during which this period was also marked by the implementation of large-scale social restrictions to minimize the spread of COVID-19. In netizen communication through Instagram, there was code-mixing of Indonesian language codes with foreign languages, regional languages and the mixing of Makassar Malay speech codes. This study found several uses of language variations in the form of words, phrases and sentences. There were various variations of non-standard language in the form of word approaches, abbreviations, and the use of foreign term insertions adopted by speakers. The use of code-mixing and informal language can be interpreted as a form of tertiary oral as well as everyday forms of communication but was carried out in written form through communication media. Communication through social media Instagram has changed the way individuals communicate and has also changed the use of people's language.
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This study aims to describe the representation of women’s dependence on men in Little Women. The descriptive qualitative approach was applied in this research. The data for this study were gathered from the talks of the characters in the novel’s Little Women. The data of this research are collected from Cinderella Complex syndrome through their actions and words. The research results showed the level to which characters are affected by the Cinderella Complex varies depending on how the Cinderella Complex influences their thoughts and behavior, either consciously or unconsciously. Meg's most dominant Cinderella Complex is Fear of losing femininity, and the most dominant factor is self-concept. Jo’s character showed only rely on man as the aspect and persona maturity as the factor. Meg and Jo were unconsciously reflected by Cinderella Complex syndrome.
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Technology as a learning tool or otherwise holds great attraction for learners today. The current study explored the impact of Short Messages as Learning Tool (SMLT) on EFL Saudi learners learning confused English words. It also gauges learners' satisfactions towards using such tools on their autonomy and language proficiency. The study pursued a quasi-experiment research design. It recruited 80 EFL learners across Najran University and Qassim University, KSA. To ensure parity of existing language proficiency and learning success, the Oxford Placement Test is administered once before and once at the end of the intervention to all of the 80 participants to obtain comparative values.. Furthermore, a semi-structured interview is also used with three randomly selected participants from each of the experimental groups to obtain data on individual perceptions of the EFL learners to the use of MALL in the EFL classroom. Content analysis is used to identify dominant themes in these. Findings revealed that learners acquisition for confusing words were developed to a great extent in both universities. Moreover, the study found that there is no significant difference in the students' achievement attributed to the learning sittings, Z = .935. Finally the students expressed satisfaction in terms of their autonomy ratings and complementary points of view on the use of SMS, based on the semi-structured interviews. The current research is useful as its findings can apply to mobile teaching and text messaging in the English classroom for EFL curriculum developers and English language teachers.
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One of the important goals of education is to shape good character among the students, and one of the sources of good character is culture. Therefore it is important to ensure that materials used in the teaching process are culturally appropriate. This article aims to elaborate on cultural content in Bahasa Indonesia textbooks especially in terms of negotiation. Using the Cultural Linguistics analysis, this study revealed three cultural schemas related to the role of building a good relationship, assertiveness, and communication style in negotiations.
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This study aims to describe the racial discrimination from white people against black people that was formerly a slave by analyzing Langston Hughes' poems; I, Too, To the Black Beloved, The White Ones, and My Beloved. Presentation of racial discrimination can be seen from the act of prejudice, insulting, words used, and the act of suppression to the black people. These poems represent the poet's feeling of social phenomena that happened. The data were analyzed utilizing the new historicism theory, enriched by historical text, socio-cultural, and political information during slavery. This study is a qualitative descriptive method using the new historicism approach to explain the racial discrimination experienced in Langston Hughes' poems. The result showed that Langston Hughes reflects the phenomena of racial discrimination through his poems, such as slave, victim, nigger, torture, darker brother, and not beautiful in his poems. Langston Hughes in his poetry concludes that black discrimination is treated badly; they eat in the kitchen, they are not beautiful, children's happiness is tarnished, and racial discrimination is inhumane.
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This study aims to analyze the act of slavery that happened in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot. The characters that are involved are Pozzo as the master and Lucky as his slave. By analyzing how Pozzo oppresses Lucky, it reflects the act of slavery that also happened in reality in the 20th century when the story was written. This study is a qualitative descriptive method using the sociology of literature approach to reveal the connection between the situations in the play with the situations of the world in the 20th century. The data of this research are collected from the utterances and dialogues of the characters in the text play Waiting for Godot. The result showed that the act of slavery acted by Pozzo and Lucky also happened in the 20th century before, during, and after World War II in the 1940s. An upper-class society would enslave and oppress a lower-class society at the time because they had power and money.
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Increased usage of e-mail brings a variety of communication patterns. One way of clarifying verbal meaning within e-mail messages is through the use of visual symbols, or emoticons. Emoticons are visual cues formed from ordinary typographical symbols that when read sideways represent feelings or emotions. This paper reports results of a study about emoticons that appear in list e-mail traffic in higher education.
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Digital writing is strikingly playful. This playfulness flourishes particularly in synchronous chat modes on the Internet. This paper is a study of writing, play and performance on IRC (Internet Relay Chat). We analyze a "virtual party" on IRC, whose highlight was a typed simulation of smoking marihuana. Three interrelated, yet analytically distinct types of play are discussed: 1) play with identity; 2) play with frames of interaction; and 3) play with typographic symbols. We adopt a qualitative, textual, and micro-sociolinguistic approach, drawing on work in discourse analysis, the study of orality and literacy, and the anthropology of play and performance. In all play there is reduced accountability for action. In the material world, masks and costumes at carnival time liberate participants; here, the ephemeral, non-material medium, the typed text, and the use of nicknames provide the mask. Although the improvisation analyzed here is typed and occurs between geographically dispersed strangers, it has fascinating affinities with "live" interactional forms such as jazz, charades, and carnivals.
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Dissertation (D.Ed.)--Teachers College, Columbia University, 1987.
The Language of Fashion
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The Semiotics of Emoji: The Rise of Visual Language in the age of the Internet
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