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Block-VN: A Distributed Blockchain-based Efficient Communication and Storage System


Abstract and Figures

Internet of vehicles (IoV) are connected with each other through Internet. In recent years, IoV provides security mechanisms and quick information sharing schemes, etc. The rapid growth of IoV causes various challenges including data storage, intelligent transport system, selfishness, distrust of nodes and sensor's data leakage of information. To overcome data storage and delay in services, a decentralized , distributed, secure, transparent and scalable management system is proposed using blockchain technology. Provable data possession (PDP) scheme is used to validate the new data blocks. Message transfer process argon2 (MTP-Argon2) technique is used for data filtration. It filters the raw data to remove the duplicate and unnecessary data which is set by threshold. Data storage, less delay in service request or response, more sensor's data sharing and secure communication channel are achieved using proposed system.
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Block-VN: A Distributed
Blockchain-Based Efficient
Communication and Storage System
Hassan Farooq1, Muhammad Usman Arshad1, Muhammad Faraz Akhtar2,
Shahid Abbas1, Bilal Zahid2, and Nadeem Javaid1(B
1Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University,
Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2Computer Science, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan
Abstract. Internet of vehicles (IoVs) are connected with each other
through Internet. In recent years, IoV provides security mechanisms and
quick information sharing schemes, etc. The rapid growth of IoV causes
various challenges including data storage, intelligent transport system,
selfishness of nodes, distrusted nodes and sensor’s data leakage of infor-
mation. To overcome data storage and delay in services, a decentral-
ized, distributed, secure, transparent and scalable management system
is proposed using blockchain technology. Provable data possession (PDP)
scheme is used to validate the new data blocks. Message transfer pro-
cess argon2 (MTP-Argon2) technique is used for data filtration. Using
this technique, the raw data are filtered to remove the duplicate and
unnecessary data which are obtained from different nodes. Data storage,
less delay in service request or response, more sensor’s data sharing and
secure communication channel are achieved using proposed system.
Keywords: Blockchain vehicular network ·Internet of Things ·
Internet of vehicle ·Scalable ·Provable data possession
1 Introduction
Nowadays, smart vehicles (SVs) are efficient, faster and secure due to different
features, such as automatic braking system, low fuel consumption, automatic
driving system and electronic control units (ECUs), etc. The smart vehicle man-
ufacturers are introducing not only physical vehicle design, they are also intro-
ducing the new functionalities which facilitate the drivers. These functionalities
are achieved using vehicle’s ECUs having hundreds of megabytes of code. When
these SVs are connected with each other through the Internet, it becomes an
internet of vehicles (IoVs) network. There are numerous new protocols and safety
devices in SVs such as automatic emergency braking, forward collision warnings
and vast communication network, etc. Intelligent transport system (ITS) uses
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
L. Barolli et al. (Eds.): BWCCA 2019, LNNS 97, pp. 56–66, 2020.
Block-VN: Efficient Communication and Storage System 57
ad-hoc networks for communication of SVs, such as wireless access vehicular
environment (WAVE), dedicated short range communication (DSRC) and cel-
lular network, etc., however, these networks do not ensure data transmission
[1]. ITS also provide different sensory information, traffic road safety informa-
tion and low to high congestion information for services. SVs gather information
from different sources and process the information either by sending it to central
server or locally. A huge amount of data is generated through SVs, road side units
(RSUs), sensors and Internet of things (IoT) devices, which is stored on central
servers causes the traffic load and low storage. As the traffic load is increased
with the increase in large amount of SV’s data, it is difficult to handle it on a
centralized server. It is also difficult to secure and store all information obtained
from different information providers like SVs, RSUs and cellular devices, etc.
When artificial intelligence is combined with IoV, it can produce infinite
possibilities. When numerous SVs share their services with each other, the tra-
ditional centralized system will encounter different challenges like data storage,
data security and communication delay. Therefore, distributed and decentralized
data storage management is required in the future to overcome these issues. The
high security is required for data storage and communication with other vehicles
or service providers when the decentralized system is adopted.
Blockchain technology is the decentralized approach used to solve the afore-
mentioned problems. Blockchain is a distributed ledger that contains all infor-
mation of nodes. Every node contains a duplicate copy of the ledger and when
any transaction occurs, it first validated by all miner nodes then added in the
blockchain. In a distributed system, nodes do not have to trust each other
because all nodes have a shared copy of the ledger. Each information of data
is stored in a block which is validated by miner nodes having high computation
power. Each block contains a previous hash, current hash, nonce and timestamp.
Blockchain technology solves high computational problem, data encryption, dis-
tributed consensus and insecure data storage which are common problems in
centralized systems. With the rapid growth of blockchain technology, it is used
in wireless sensor networks, intelligent vehicles, smart grids and deep underwater
sensor networks, etc.
The main challenging issues in the rapid growth of data are lack of distrust
and insecure communication among SVs. In IoV network, SVs cannot commu-
nicate with each other without compromise of trust. Yang et al. use blockchain
in a distributed network as it is being considered as more secure for the data
credibility vehicular network [2]. It provides data security mechanism based on
ITS standards. Due to increase in data packet size of SVs, the latency of message
and waiting time is increased which affects the whole vehicular network. Some
SVs receive the data from other vehicles and become a selfish node and do not
share the sensor data.
To overcome all the above mention issues, a scalable, secure, transparent and
distributed system is proposed for data storage mechanism based on blockchain
vehicular network (Block-VN). Provable data possession (PDP) scheme is used
to validate the new data blocks. Message transfer process argon2 (MTP-Argon2)
58 H. Farooq et al.
technique is used for data filtration. Using this technique, the raw data are fil-
tered to remove the duplicate and unnecessary data which are obtained from dif-
ferent nodes. Data storage, less delay in the service request or response and secure
communication channel are achieved using a proposed system. Local blockchain
stores vehicles sensory data for a limited time. The main blockchain contains all
local blockchain data, RSUs data and all types of service records.
The rest of the paper is structured as follows: Sect. 2reviews the related work
and literature. Section 3presents the motivation. Section 4presents the problem
statement. Section 5presents the distributed Block-VN system model. Finally,
Sect. 6concludes this work.
2 Related Work
2.1 Blockchain in Smart Grid
The main challenging issues in smart grid are scheduling and optimization
of manageable devices. They have not enough power production to fulfill the
requirement of consumers. Electricity trading is distribution of energy with
wholesale energy market which is centralized. In distributed renewable energy
system, energy supply and trading are based on trusted third party.
The authors in [3] used centralized approaches which are costly in compu-
tation and communication with different devices. The authors in [4] used smart
metering and IoT to collects transfer data between different entities using differ-
ent communication techniques. In [5], authors used concept of game theory on
base of incentives and penalties. The authors in [6] proposed decentralized mar-
ket based on blockchain. It fulfills the needs of energy consumption for end users
in transparent and user-friendly applications. In [7], the authors proposed fair
data sharing in deregulated smart gird using blockchain. In [8], the proposed
blockchain-based electricity demand and supply balancing. In [9], the authors
proposed decentralized, secure and trusted electricity trading using consortium
blockchain technology.
To overcome aforementioned problems, a decentralized blockchain is pro-
posed for authorization, authentication and monitoring of different power volt-
ages. Hyper-ledger consensus algorithm is used to manage the accounts of con-
sumer to done efficient power trading. However, there are some limitations in
above proposed models: traditional power trading, power transaction cost and
supervisory utility constraint mechanisms are not considered, which can decide
the pricing scheme of power supply and demand.
2.2 Blockchain in Wireless Sensor Network
The main challenging issue in wireless sensor network is that a huge amount of
data is produced which is stored at central network and very difficult to manage.
Device-to-device (D2D) network is used to manage the user access control and
dynamic power with cellular users. These IoT devices have limited storage so they
Block-VN: Efficient Communication and Storage System 59
cannot manage their own resources and single point of failure can breakdown
the network. The mobile operator can only trust on narrow-band IoT (NB-IoT)
network which has high cost of deployment and licensed spectrum resources.
In [10], IoT virtual resources using different IoT components is proposed
in wireless sensor network. In [11], the authors described user friendly network
which processes, collects, and maintains data easily and also provides incen-
tive mechanism for data storage. In [12], the authors elaborated dynamic power
control mechanism to control D2D data transmissions. In [13,14], the authors
proposed node recovery scheme in WSN using blockchain technology. In [15], the
authors proposed blockchain-based smart networks to analyze and secure data.
In [16], the authors proposed blockchain-based complex networks to achieve
energy efficiency and trustfulness. In [17], the authors proposed blockchain
based analyzing and monetization of data. In [18], virtual extensible LAN based
blockchain is used in tunnels to enhance the security and performance mecha-
nism. In [19], constrained application protocol (CoAP) is proposed that manages
the data of these devices on centralized server. To overcome these issues, long
range wide area network (LoRaWAN) provides long range and secure network
for mobile operators at low cost using blockchain based trusted servers. D2D
mechanism is used for authentication of each user by channel state information
(CSI) using consensus blockchain technology. Software defined networks (SDNs)
is based on blockchain which improves performance based scalable access man-
agement for IoT devices.
However, there are some limitations in aforementioned models. They can-
not provide a fully-scaled network to link servers, gateways and customers.
The recovery of damaged nodes with failure rate is also a challenging issue in
request of data. They cannot be applied and achieved in reality to get spec-
tral highest efficiency due to large consumption of resources. Shared network
asset approaches realized the multi-signature smart contract which integrates
the consistency issue.
2.3 Blockchain in Intelligent of Vehicle
The main challenging issue in IoV and IoT devices is generation of huge data
rapidly. So, it builds insecure and distrust among vehicles. In [2], the authors
used blockchain in distributed network as it is being considered as more secure for
the data credibility vehicular network. In [20], peer-to-peer (P2P) mechanism to
communicate among vehicles. In intelligent vehicles, they cannot communicate
with each other without compromise of trust.
To overcome these problems, intelligent vehicle network is proposed based on
blockchain. It also provides security mechanism based on ITS standard. Authors
used combination of proof of work (PoW) and proof of authority (PoA) consen-
sus mechanism to find the malicious vehicles and build the trust among them.
However, there are some limitations in existing model for exchanging of traffic
information services. Due to increase in data packet size of vehicles, the latency
of message and rating are increased that affects the whole vehicular network.
60 H. Farooq et al.
3 Motivation
IoV technology is increasing rapidly with the increase in population and devel-
opment. It has capability to share and exchange information with different IoVs
using IoT devices [21]. Due to increase in IoV, it is expected that there are lack
of wide roads, inefficient communication channel and low storage mechanisms to
tackle rapid increase of data problem. IoV cannot trust with each other due to
selfishness of nodes. To overcome these issues, authors in [22] proposed an archi-
tecture of distributed scalable access management system based on blockchain.
It stores all distributed data on decentralized servers which reduce the storage
In [23], authors proposed decentralized, secure and reliable distributed trans-
port management system based on blockchain for vehicular network. It stores all
type of information and services from sensors, vehicles and computing devices.
The stored information manages scalability, security and transparency. In [24],
authors proposed secure blockchain-enabled IoV using reputation and contract
theory. It encourages the IoV to share data with each other. The IoV nodes gets
more incentive which provide valid sensor’s data while the IoV nodes have to
pay penalty, which do not share valid sensor’s data. Reputation of IoV nodes are
evaluated on the basis of historical interaction either valid or invalid response and
recommended opinions either positive and negative rating from other IoV nodes.
In [2528], authors proposed blockchain-based secure network service provision-
ing for lightweight clients. They introduce service providers and service codes
to be validated on-chain transaction which helps to reduce the overhead of data
from different IoT devices. They also introduce off-chain transaction to maintain
the validity states of services.
4 Problem Statement
The development of IoV network is originated from smart vehicles such as driver-
less cars. Nowadays, IoV have been applied in many smart cities to control traffic,
enhance driving aids and environment. Due to increase in population, IoV net-
works are increasing day-to-day. To manage the large network, it faces different
challenges such as communication delay, low data storage, selfishness of nodes,
distrusted nodes and high congestion, etc. To overcome these challenges, authors
in [23] proposed transport management system based on blockchain. In this sys-
tem, ordinary nodes collect local sensor’s data and upload on controller node
through miner nodes. The proposed system can easily resolves the high conges-
tion problem. However, due to constantly uploading duplicated or unnecessary
ordinary node’s data on controller node, the system can face low storage man-
agement issue which causes high communication delay in request and response
of services.
To overcome these issues, we propose a scalable, secure, transparent and dis-
tributed system for data storage mechanism based on Block-VN. The new data
blocks are validated using PDP scheme. For data filtration, MTP-Argon2 tech-
nique is used. It filters the obtained raw data from different nodes to remove the
Block-VN: Efficient Communication and Storage System 61
duplicated and unnecessary data. Data storage, less delay in the service request
or response, more sensor’s data sharing and secure communication channel are
achieved using proposed system.
5 Proposed System Model of Distributed Block-VN
By getting motivation from existing model in [23], a Block-VN for smart IoV
is proposed. In Fig. 1, there are three types of nodes: ordinary nodes are SVs,
miner nodes having high computational power shown in red circle; and controller
nodes are static base stations. Ordinary nodes have low storage, low battery life,
low computing power and less resources. These nodes are connected with other
ordinary and miner nodes to request services. These nodes can directly request
for services with controller node, if there is no ordinary or miner node near
to request services. Miner nodes have high storage, high computing power and
high resources as compared to ordinary node. The purpose of miner nodes is to
get request from ordinary nodes and provide valid services. All miner nodes are
connected with each other to share services. They store all road side information,
traffic information, ordinary nodes information, environmental information and
performance of vehicles through different sensors like global positioning system
(GPS), event data recorder (EDR), radio handset, small-scale radar, cameras
and various kind of detection devices. Controller nodes are connected with cloud
server and miner nodes. These nodes are connected P2P with other controller
nodes. They provide the necessary information to all miners and ordinary nodes
on large scale. They store the information of whole area provided by miner nodes.
Cloud server gathers filtered information and services from all controller nodes.
5.1 Proposed Model of Miner Node
Each miner node has three main types of classification assets: computing, sensors
and data storage. Each miner node has public local blockchain which contains
all these assets shown in Fig. 2. It shares the duplicate copy of stored services to
other miner nodes. IoV authority has all records of miner and ordinary nodes.
When new service request is generated, it must be validated before stored in
local blockchain. The service request is also sent to IoV authority which checks
from stored record that either the given request is valid or not.
There are different types of services which are provided by miner nodes
like road accident, traffic blockage, sensor data of ordinary nodes and service
sharing of data, etc. For example, miner nodes searches the services from local
blockchain, if ordinary node wants the data of weather or traffic. If the required
service is not found, then it requests the controller node to give response back
to ordinary node. Miner nodes have low storage, low computing power and less
sensor capabilities as compared to controller node. At some point, the storage of
miner nodes will become full due constant storing of data from other ordinary
and miner nodes.
62 H. Farooq et al.
Fig. 1. Proposed system model for blockchain based vehicular network.
To overcome this issue, we got motivation from existing flowchart in [29]
and propose a storage mechanism which sets the time limit and blocks limit
on local blockchain. After this step, new data blocks are created and stored on
local blockchain. When the storage of local blockchain is full, minor node stores
the previous blocks’ data on controller node and deletes all blocks’ data of local
blockchain. In flowchart of local blockchain in Fig. 2, we assumed that the total
time limit (M) of stored blocks is 24-hours. The total number of blocks (N)
created in one hour is 100. The first block of local blockchain is genesis block
(B0). When SV shares information with miner node, new data block is created
by miner node and stored in memory cell of local blockchain. After one hour, the
100 memory-cell slot is full, then it shifts all data blocks to controller node and
delete previous data blocks from its memory cells. In this way, the data storage
issue of IoV is optimized and 24-hours of data is stored in the controller nodes.
5.2 Proposed Model of Controller Node
Each controller node is connected in distributed and static manner to provide
services such as road traffic, routes, charging stations, etc. These services are
stored and provided to all miners and ordinary nodes. Each controller node has
public main blockchain ledger as shown in Fig. 3. Each controller node shares
duplicate main blockchain ledger’s data to all other controller nodes. All received
Block-VN: Efficient Communication and Storage System 63
Fig. 2. Proposed system model of miner node and flowchart of local blockchain.
raw data from miner node can process and necessary data is stored in main
blockchain. Controller nodes are responsible to provides all necessary data to
miner or ordinary nodes. Cloud server gathers filtered information and services
from all controller nodes.
When ordinary nodes are moving from one place to another, they require nec-
essary information like traffic signal data, traffic blockage, which path is shortest
path and less time consuming, number of vehicles in their path, how much far the
charging station if they have low battery, etc. All these types of informations are
stored in miner nodes and controller nodes. IoV simply requests to its neighbor
nodes which is either miner or ordinary node. If it cannot respond to its request,
then it direct request to controller node. Controller node provides services to
the IoV node. If IoV can request public data (which is: traffic on road, charging
station and environment condition) then it cannot pays any cryptocurrency fee.
However, if it requires private data (which is: vehicle moving position, video of
road condition) it must have to pays the fee of specific data which is sets on the
basis of smart contract. All the set of rules are written in programmatic form
which are validated by all controller nodes. When smart contract is triggered,
the new block is created in main blockchain. In flowchart of main blockchain,
the work-flow is as follow.
First, IoV sends the sensor node’s data to miner node for storage. Miner
node checks the received data. If the data is same as previous one, then it
will send “unnecessary data” message back to IoV node. If the data is new,
necessary and important for other nodes, it starts processing and combining the
data in blocks. When miner node’s storage is full, it transfers all raw data to
controller node and delete all the previous memory slot data. The raw data is
then filtered using MTP-Argon2 technique, which reduces the data by removing
64 H. Farooq et al.
duplicate and unnecessary data. In this technique, we defined the threshold
value which contains the required information that is set on the basis of our
scenario. For example, if only accident detections traffic state on road is required,
then a threshold value is assigned and than compared with the raw data. If the
compared data matches with threshold value then it adds the information and
continue comparing. At last, we have filtered data that is transfered for validation
to controller node.
For validation, we use PDP consensus technique which ensure the integrity of
stored data. It reduces the mining and computing power to validate the new data
block. By using this technique, request or response delay of services are efficiently
decreased. Due to decrease in delay, vehicles can efficiently communicate with
each other and gain low latency. After validation process, blocks are created
which contain previous hash, current hash, timestamp, Merkel root data and
signature value. After that, blocks are uploaded in main blockchain and provide
services to requester nodes and also uploaded in cloud server for further use in
Fig. 3. Proposed system model of controller node and flowchart of main blockchain.
6 Conclusion
In this paper, we observed that as the number of IoV increases, an efficient com-
munication channel is required to share information with each other. There is a
need of secure and improved storage mechanism to store all sensors information.
A Block-VN model for smart IoV is proposed. We improved the storage and
communication mechanism of existing system which increases the storage opti-
mization and capacity using local blockchain and decreases the communication
delay using cloud server. Due to these improvements, our Block-VN is secure,
distributed, decentralized, scalable, trusted and transparent using blockchain.
Block-VN: Efficient Communication and Storage System 65
Future Work
In future work, we will increase the size of vehicular network in different areas.
We will improve the delay time and response of services. The storage problem
remains a big issue because the number of IoV nodes or SVs are increasing day-
to-day. We need an efficient detection and security mechanism for malicious IoV
nodes or SVs that share invalid or wrong information to other IoV nodes.
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... Several cities worldwide are launching blockchain-based initiatives as part of their efforts to shape their futuristic development (Nordrum, 2017;Ojo & Adebayo, 2017;Ølnes & Jansen, 2018;Shen & Pena-Mora, 2018). There have been several studies about utilization of blockchain for different aspects of urban environment, e.g., land and property management and administration (Badea, 2019;Bennett, Pickering, & Sargent, 2019;Vos, Lemmen, & Beentjes, 2017), incentivize and encouraging citizen for cycling (Jaffe, Mata, & Kamvar, 2017), monitoring environmental qualities (Ibba, Pinna, Seu, & Pani, 2017), will drafting (Sreehari, Nandakishore, Krishna, Jacob, & Shibu, 2017), smart power grid management (Cheng, Zeng, & Huang, 2017), and distributed transportation management system (Farooq et al., 2020), to name but a few. ...
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Web-based public participatory GIS (PPGIS) has been used by governmental organizations to facilitate people's contribution to decision-making processes. However, these applications do not provide an open and transparent environment for public participation. This study suggests that PPGISs should be developed as decentralized applications (DApp) based on Ethereum blockchain technology to have a fully open, transparent, and accountable environment for public participation. In a blockchain-based PPGIS, the collected data are securely saved on the blockchain. The validity of the data, replicated on the nodes of the peer-to-peer blockchain network, is ensured through a consensus process without any central control. The data is tamper-free and immutable. Additionally, the data is openly accessible to institutions and citizens. A prototype PPGIS was developed as a DApp through which users can participate in the site selection of urban facilities. Using the application, they compare and rank different criteria. The system solves an analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weights of the criteria. A suitability map is generated afterward and published to be used by both citizens and decision-makers. The feasibility of the application, along with the issues that need to be considered while using blockchain technology for urban planning and development, are thoroughly discussed.
In the study, we propose a double blockchain based vehicular system for optimizing data storage and securing communication in Internet of Vehicles (IoV) networks. We propose an incentive mechanism and a reputation system to reduce the selfish and distrustful behavior of IoV nodes. Moreover, we propose an encryption technique to protect the proposed system from passive and active attacks. The proposed technique is a hybrid of Rivest Shamir Adleman and Advanced Encryption Standard-256 (AES-256+RSA). We use this hybrid approach to efficiently and secretly share the users' secret keys. To address the issues of high resource consumption and communication delay, we propose a cache memory technique for miner and controller nodes. In addition, we propose an authentication mechanism to remove malicious nodes from the system. The simulation results depict that our system provides security, scalability, optimized data storage, node's trustworthiness, and transparent data sharing.
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The Internet of Things (IoT) industry is growing very fast to transform factories, homes, farms and practically everything else to make them efficient and intelligent. IoT is applied in different resilient scenarios and applications. IoT faces lots of challenges due to lack of computational power, battery and storage resources. Fortunately, the rise of blockchain technology facilitates IoT in many security solutions. Using blockchain, communication between IoT and emerging computing technologies is made efficient. In this work, we propose a secure service provisioning scheme with a fair payment system for Lightweight Clients (LCs) based on blockchain. Furthermore, an incentive mechanism based on reputation is proposed. We use consortium blockchain with the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism. Furthermore, we use Smart Contracts (SCs) to validate the services provided by the Service Providers (SPs) to the LCs, transfer cryptocurrency to the SPs and maintain the reputation of the SPs. Moreover, the Keccak256 hashing algorithm is used for converting the data of arbitrary size to the hash of fixed size. AES128 encryption technique is used to encrypt service codes before sending to the LCs. The simulation results show that the LCs receive validated services from the SPs at an affordable cost. The results also depict that the participation rate of SPs is increased because of the incentive mechanism.
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are promising and emerging frameworks having a wide range of applications. The underwater sensor deployment is beneficial; however, some factors limit the performance of the network, i.e., less reliability, high end to end delay and maximum energy dissipation. The provisioning of the aforementioned factors has become a challenging task for the research community. In UWSNs, battery consumption is inevitable and has a direct impact on the performance of the network. Most of the time energy dissipates due to the creation of void holes and imbalanced network deployment. In this work, two routing protocols are proposed to avoid the void hole and extra energy dissipation problems due to which lifespan of the network will increase. To show the efficacy of the proposed routing schemes, they are compared with the state of the art protocols. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform their counterpart schemes. By keeping in mind the emerging security issues in sensor networks, we have proposed a blockchain based trust model for sensor networks to enrich the security of the network. Additionally, this model provides security along with data immutability. We have used a private blockchain because it has all the security features that are necessary for a private sensor network. Moreover, private blockchain cannot be accessed by using the Internet. In the proposed trust model, the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus algorithm is used due to its low computational power requirement. In PoA consensus mechanism, a group of the validator is selected for adding and maintaining blocks. Moreover, smart contracts are used to validate and transfer cryptocurrency to service providers. In the end, transaction and execution costs are also calculated for each function to testify the network suitability.
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In a research community, data sharing is an essential step to gain maximum knowledge from the prior work. Existing data sharing platforms depend on trusted third party (TTP). Due to involvement of TTP, such systems lack trust, transparency, security and immutability. To over come these issues, this thesis proposed a blockchain based secure data sharing platform by leveraging the benefits of interplanetary file system (IPFS). A meta data is uploaded to IPFS server by owner and then divided into n secret shares. The proposed scheme achieves security and access control by executing the access roles written in smart contract by owner. Users are first authenticated through RSA signatures and then submit the requested amount as a price of digital content. After the successful delivery of data, a user is encouraged to register reviews about data by announcing customer incentives. In this way, maximum reviews are submitted against every file. In this scenario, decentralized storage, Ethereum blockchain, encryption and decryption schemes and incentive mechanism are combined. To implement the proposed scenario, smart contracts are written in solidity and deployed on local Ethereum test network. The proposed scheme achieves transparency, security, access control, authenticity of owner and quality of data. In simulation results, an analysis is performed on gas consumption and actual cost required in terms of USD, so that a good price estimate can be done while deploying the implemented scenario in real setup. Moreover, computational time for different encryption schemes are plotted to represent the performance of implemented scheme, which is shamir secret sharing (SSS). Results show that SSS shows least computational time as compared to advanced encryption standard (AES) 128 and 256.
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Decision fusion is used to fuse classification results and improve the classification accuracy in order to reduce the consumption of energy and bandwidth demand for data transmission. Decentralized classification fusion problem was the reason to use belief function based decision fusion approach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the consideration of improving the belief function fusion approach, we have proposed four classification techniques namely Enhanced K-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN), Enhanced Extreme Learning Machine (EELM), Enhanced Support Vector Machine (ESVM), and Enhanced Recurrent Extreme Learning Machine (ERELM). In addition, WSNs are fallible to errors and faults because of their different software, hardware failures, and their deployment in diverse fields. These challenges require efficient fault detection methods to be used to detect faults in WSNs in a timely manner. We induced four type of faults: offset fault, gain fault, stuck-at fault, and out of bounds fault and used enhanced classification methods to solve the sensor failure issues. Experimental results show that ERELM has given the first best result for the improvement of belief function fusion approach. The other three proposed techniques ESVM, EELM, and EKNN have provided the second, third, and fourth best results, respectively. Proposed enhanced classifiers are used for fault detection and are evaluated using three performance metrics ,i.e., Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), and Error Rate (ER). In this thesis, the owner of the (Internet of Thing) IoT device can generate revenueby selling IoT device’s data to interested users. However, on the other hand, users do not trust the owner of IoT device for data trading and are not confident about the quality of data. Traditional data trading systems have many limitations, as they involve third party and lack: decentralization, security and reputation mechanisms. Therefore, in this thesis, we have leveraged the IoTs with blockchain technology to provide trustful data trading through automatic review system for monetizing IoT’s data. We have developed blockchain based review system for IoT data monetization using Ethereum smart contracts. Review system encourages the owner to provide authenticated data and solve the issues regarding data integrity, fake reviews and conflict between entities. Data quality is ensured to users through reviews and ratings about the data, stored in blockchain. To maintain the data integrity, we have used Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption technique to encrypt data. All transactions are secure and payments are automated without any human intervention. Arbitrator entity is responsible to resolve problems between data owner and users. Incentive is provided to users and arbitrator in order to maintain the user participation and honesty. Additionally, Ethereum blockchain system requires gas for every transaction. Simulations are performed for the validation of our system. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time. Simulations show that the proposed methods outperform the existing techniques and give better results for belief function and fault detection in datascience WSNs. Additionally, blockchain based data trading in IoT system requires gas for every transaction. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are vulnerable to faults because of their deployment in unpredictable and hazardous environments. This makes WSN prone to failure such as software, hardware, and communication failures. Due to the sensor’s limited resources and diverse deployment fields, fault detection in WSNs has become a daunting task. To solve this problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers are used for classification of gain, offset, spike, data loss, out of bounds, and stuck-at faults at the sensor level. Out of six faults, two of them are induced in the datasets, i.e., spike and data loss faults. Likewise, sensors embedded mobile phones are used for the collection of data for some specific task which can effectively save cost and time in Crowd Sensing Network (CSN). The quality of collected data depends on the participation level from all entities of CSN, i.e., service provider, service consumers and data collectors. In comparison with the centralized traditional incentive and reputation mechanisms, we propose a blockchain based incentive and reputation mechanism for CSNs, which mainly consists of three smart contracts. The incentives are used to stimulate the involvement of data collectors and motivate the participants to join the network. Also, the issue of privacy leakage is tackled by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES128) technique. In addition to that, a reputation system is implemented to tackle the issues like untrustworthiness, fake reviews, and conflicts among entities. Through registering reviews, the system encourages data utilization by providing correct, consistent and reliable data. Furthermore, the results of first scenario are compared on the basis of their Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), Matthews Correlation Coefficients (MCC), and F1-score. In this thesis, a comparative analysis is performed among the classifiers mentioned previously on real-world datasets and simulations demonstrate that the RF algorithm secures a better rate of fault detection than the rest of the classifiers. Similarly, the second scenario is evaluated through analyzing the gas consumption of all the smart contracts, whereas, the encryption technique is validated through comparing the execution time with base paper technique. Lastly, the reputation system is inspected through analyzing the gas consumption and mining time of input string length.
Conference Paper
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Internet of Things (IoTs) is widely growing domain of the modern era. With the advancement in technologies, the use of IoTs devices also increases. However, security risks regarding service provisioning and data sharing also increases. There are many existing security approaches, although these approaches are not suitable for IoT devices due to their limited storage and limited computation resources. These secure approaches also require a specific hardware. With the invention of blockchain technologies, many security risks are eliminated. With the help of blockchain, data sharing mechanism is also possible. In this paper, we proposed a novel secure service providing mechanism for IoTs by using blockchain. We introduced cloud nodes for maintaining the validity states of edge service providers. The rating and cryptocurrency is given to edge servers. Given rating and incentive is stored in cloud node and updated with respect to time. The smart contract is proposed to check the validity state of the edge server as well as compare and verify the service provided by edge servers. In our proposed system we perform service authentication at cloud layer as well as edge server layer. Moreover, by using Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism overall performance of our proposed system also enhanced.By experimental analysis it is shown, our proposed model is suitable for resource constrained devices.
Conference Paper
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The emergence of smart homes appliances has generated a high volume of data on smart meters belonging to different customers which, however, can not share their data in deregulated smart grids due to privacy concern. Although, these data are important for the service provider in order to provide an efficient service. To encourage customers participation, this paper proposes an access control mechanism by fairly compensating customers for their participation in data sharing via blockchain and the concept of differential privacy. We addressed the computational issues of existing ethereum blockchain by proposing a proof of authority consensus protocol through the Pagerank mechanism in order to derive the reputation scores. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed model to minimize privacy risk, maximize aggregator profit. In addition, gas consumption, as well as the cost of the computational resources, is reduced. Index Terms-Blockchain, consensus mechanism, proof of authority, privacy preserving and smart grid. I. INTRODUCTION Presently, because of the rapid growth of the world population and the technological innovations, a lot of energy is needed in a short period of time and during peak hours, and its effect increases the cost of production. Customers can, therefore, optimize their utilization based on the current energy demand and supply. As a result, demand response and dynamic pricing proposal are subject to privacy issues. In a smart grid, customers will share their hourly information load profile with a service provider only to allow a certain level of privacy to be maintained, which is a major barrier for customer participation. In order to efficiently aggregate customer data, while preserving their privacy, Liu et al. [1] propose a privacy-preserving mechanism for data aggregation. The proposed solution minimizes the cost of communication and computational overhead. However, a trusted environment is not considered. To achieve a trusted environment, several studies in [2]-[8] used blockchain as privacy-preserving mechanism for data aggregation; privacy protection and energy storage; secure classification of multiple data; incentive announcement network for smart vehicle; crowdsensing applications; dynamic tariff decision and payment mechanism for vehicle-to-grid. A survey concerning privacy protection using blockchain is discussed in [9]. The survey highlights all the existing