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Consensus Based Mechanism using Blockchain for Intensive Data of Vehicles


Abstract and Figures

The explosive development of Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) has led to a complex network, which is difficult to manage due to the extensive communication of vehicles and storage of vehicles data. Due to increase in number of vehicles, IVs come up with large difficulties. Huge data generated by IVs is very difficult to handle due to limited storage and lack of intelligent management. Many information security and privacy problems are also related to the IV networks. Traditional centralized approaches are used for storage and security purposes to face some issues. Increasing number of vehicles expand the number of links in network and also leads to the intensive data. Lack of coordination of vehicles, reliability of the network and traffic among vehicles are also some of the major issues. These issues hinder the performance of the vehicle industry. We propose a consensus based mechanism using blockchain technology to manage the intensive data and authenticate the data of vehicles in the EV industry. This mechanism also ensures data privacy, security and also promotes data immutability. The transactions are stored in distributed ledger making transparency a realization. In a nutshell, blockchain technology incorporated in EVs sector is a revolutionary thing.
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Consensus Based Mechanism Using
Blockchain for Intensive Data of Vehicles
Tehreem Ashfaq1, Muhammad Ahmed Younis2, Shahzad Rizwan3,
Zahid Iqbal4, Shahid Mehmood4, and Nadeem Javaid1(B
1COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan,
2University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Faisalabad, Pakistan
3COMSATS University Islamabad (CUI), Attock Campus, Attock, Pakistan
4Bejing University of Post’s and Telecommunication, Beijing, China
Abstract. The explosive development of Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) has
led to a complex network, which is difficult to manage due to the exten-
sive communication of vehicles and storage of vehicles’ data. Due to
increase in number of vehicles, IVs come up with large difficulties. Huge
data generated by IVs is very difficult to be handled due to limited
storage and lack of intelligent management. Many security and privacy
problems are also related to the IV networks. Traditional centralized
approaches are used to deal with limited storage and security issues.
Increasing number of vehicles expand the number of links in network and
also leads to the intensive data. Lack of coordination of vehicles, reliabil-
ity of the network and traffic among vehicles are some of the major issues.
These issues hinder the performance of the vehicle industry. We propose
a consensus based mechanism using blockchain technology to manage the
intensive data and authenticate the data of vehicles in the EV industry.
This mechanism also ensures data privacy, security and also promotes
data immutability. The transactions are stored in distributed ledger to
provide facility of transparency. In a nutshell, blockchain technology is
incorporated in EVs sector to revolutionize the World.
Keywords: Blockchain technology ·Consensus mechanism ·Intensive
data ·Intelligent vehicles
1 Introduction
In the modern era, vehicle sector is getting modernized with the advancement in
the infrastructure and the communication sector. With the immense increase in
the population over the past few years, number of vehicles running on the roads
has also increased. With this advancement, the transport sector has undergone a
whole new driving experience, comprising of autonomous cars, self-driven cars,
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
L. Barolli et al. (Eds.): BWCCA 2019, LNNS 97, pp. 44–55, 2020.
Consensus Based Mechanism Using Blockchain 45
etc. Not just the infrastructure of the vehicles is changing, also new services
are being introduced, particularly the communication services [1]. Blockchain
is an emerging technology. It is a distributed ledger that can record the trans-
actions between two nodes/vehicles managed by a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) network.
Blockchain is about the transparency, security and trust without any third party.
Third party is like a centralized system. Blocks are connected to each other
and each block has its own hash. Blockchain is also about transparency; dis-
tributed ledger is managed by network nodes, each having the copy of ledger.
Nowadays, blockchain based P2P smart contracts for Internet Vehicles (IVs) are
one of the recent applications of blockchain which is growing rapidly. With the
increase in IVs, many problems arise, e.g., huge amount of data generated, lim-
ited storage capacity, lack of management, etc. Privacy and security issues also
Accordingto[1], number of IVs will increase to 140 million by 2030. These
figures show that it is just a matter of time when the conventional vehicles will
totally be replaced by the IVs. Even now, the conventional vehicles are being
equipped with latest technologies. IVs communicate in a P2P manner, which
removes the involvement of the third party. Still, the security issues exist in the
vehicle sector and the vehicle users are hesitant to interact and communicate
with each other. The users personal data can be hacked by the malicious users,
as this data is quite easily accessible and can be tampered.
To overcome the security issues, blockchain technology has been proposed.
Blockchain is an emerging technology which promotes decentralization along
with security, data immutability and transparency [2]. Therefore, people are
migrating towards blockchain technology. In blockchain, data is stored in a dis-
tributed ledger, copy of which is available with all the participants of the network.
All the transactions taking place in a blockchain network are stored in blocks;
each having a unique hash [3].
The blockchain based IV scenario is proposed, which deals with the issues of:
lack of coordination between vehicles and generation of intensive data. It also
manages the storage and channel reliability. The vehicles are added in the net-
work and assigned unique cryptographic identities. The consensus mechanism
is used whenever a new vehicle is added in the network and it requires 51%
positive response. The proposed blockchain network is divided in two separate
branches. i.e., Integrity Chain (I-Chain) and Fraud chain (F-Chain). The val-
idated vehicles and the associated transactions are stored in integrity I-Chain
whereas the malicious users are added to the F-Chain [4]. Figure 1shows the in-
depth communication between the vehicles and also the following of the smart
1.1 Motivation
After reviewing the past work done by many authors for secure communication
between vehicles, sellers and buyers in [1,2,4], we have the following motivations
for this paper:
46 T. Ashfaq et al.
Fig. 1. V2V communication using blockchain
to deal with the issue of unsecured and trustless communication, blockchain
technology should be used,
to deal with the issue of lack of privacy of IVs, crypto IVTP is used and
a new secure technique is required to remove the unauthenticated vehicles
from the network.
1.2 Problem Statement
As we are living in a world of automation and latest technologies are being
introduced, each field of life is getting automated and inter connected. Intelligent
Vehicle (IV) is an entity, which is connected with other IVs through internet for
communication purposes. It enables a better vehicular network, still it has many
issues which needs to be addressed like security and privacy issues.
The explosive development of IVs has led to a complex network, resulting
in difficulty in communication and storage of vehicles. Huge amount of data
generated by IVs is very difficult to handle due to limited storage and lack of
intelligent management. Many information security and privacy problems are
also related to the IoV networks [3].
Consensus Based Mechanism Using Blockchain 47
For promoting distributed storage and security purposes, blockchain technol-
ogy is used. However, channel reliability and coordination among the vehicles is
not considered. Increasing the number of vehicles expand the number of links
and nodes. Ultimately, single loop hole can open the way for attackers. For effi-
cient working of vehicular network, it is necessary that proper coordination exists
between the vehicles. It minimizes the number of malicious vehicles. Range anx-
iety also exists in the vehicular network, i.e., vehicles are reluctant to go on long
travels because of limited resources [4].
To tackle these issues, the blockchain based IV scenario is proposed, which
deals with the issue of: lack of coordination between vehicles, intensive data stor-
age. Proposed work manages the data storage and promotes channel reliability.
2 Related Work
In recent times, researchers have applied BC technology is various areas. Follow-
ing are some related studies;
2.1 Network Communication with Blockchain
Blockchain is an emerging technology so, different authors used this technology
with different domains. There are some works which focused on blockchain based
WSNs. The authors consider the issues of security, data storage constraints of
sensor nodes, computational capability and node failure. In [3], authors identify
the problem of user access control to optimize the network. Proposed solution
considers authenticity of Channel State Information (CSI) using blockchain con-
sensus and deep learning.
In [5], authors deal with the nodes failure issue during data transmission.
There are two main reasons for node failure: mobility and selfishness of nodes.
Firstly, they set a threshold value to check the node failure. In the second step, a
multi-link concurrent tree is built using greedy approach. In this way, transmit-
ting capacity of node is maximized while validating a block transaction time is
decreased. However, they did not consider selection of failure nodes, which leads
to transmission delay and security issues.
In [6] and [7], authors proposed an incentive mechanism for location privacy
protection of users. The proposed structure is divided into sub parts. The data is
sensed by crowd sensing network and sent to the confusion mechanism. Confusion
mechanism protects the data from attacks. Blockchain makes the data temper
proof and maintain its integrity. They compared the non-encrypted traditional
method with proposed encrypted method. Results showed that females are less
concerned for privacy as compared to males. In the paper [811], they identified
the problems of data sharing. They proposed the solution on secure data sharing
and data rights management. In [12], the authors proposed novel hybrid net-
work architecture. The proposed architecture consists of two sub parts: (i) core
network (ii) edge network. The proposed network is based on both distributed
network and centralized architecture. They also proposed a scheme based on
48 T. Ashfaq et al.
Proof of Work (PoW) to ensure the privacy and security of a network. In the
proposed architecture, there is no privacy encryption and no user involvement.
In [13], authors used Provable Data Possession (PDP) technique instead of
PoW to obtain better results. They also applied preserving hash function to
compare the existing data of nodes with the new one. The only problem with
PDP is that it can identify the damaged data on nodes, but is unable to recover
2.2 IoT with Blockchain
In complex IoT networks, some technical challenges are being faced. There are
many scenarios and models have proposed for security purposes. However, the
centralized nature of IoT networks create many issues. It is difficult to deal with
the centralized IoT networks. Blockchain provides a secure decentralized IoT
network which manages the IoT devices in a network. In [14], authors proposed
a solution for IoT network which provides scalability. More throughput and
minimum delay in access management framework.
In [15], authors proposed a Distributed BC based Network (DistBlockNet)
for IoT networks. The authors use the advantage of blockchain and Software
Defined Network (SDN) technologies, which solve the issues of scalability, effi-
ciency, availability and security. System is also able to provide threat detection
and data protection. However, distributed architecture for data storage is still
2.3 Vehicular Communication with Blockchain
The concept of Electric Vehicle, i.e., EV brings new concepts in the market.
Road congestion has increased manifold due to vast increase in the number of
vehicles. To reduce this huge amount of energy, scientific and research community
has focused on the EVs as a source of clean energy [1620].
In [21], blockchain is integrated with IVs to provide large and secure data
storage. The authors designed multiple blockchain model which consists of five
blockchain based on different data blocks. Results show that this integration
provides large and secure data storage. They achieved high throughput with
increasing data. However, delay also increases.
Branch based blockchain technology for Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) was pro-
posedin[4]. Branching is done at Locally Dynamic blockchain (LDB). It is to
handle the large amount of data generated by IVs. Blockchain is used to keep
track of the data generated by IVs and to verify it. Additionally, the concept of
IV Trust Point (IVTP) is also introduced to build trust. Problem with branching
is that duplicate state changes increase with increasing load.
In smart cities, communication of smart vehicles is not secure. So, we proposed a
secure ITS scenario for the secure communication of the intelligent smart vehicles
Consensus Based Mechanism Using Blockchain 49
using blockchain which can keep data of smart vehicles and their transactions.
When vehicles communicate with each other, they use proof of work for mining
of blocks. In the proposed model, there is an IVTP which assigns the unique ID
to each vehicle. This IVTP is generated by crypto mechanism. Vehicles use this
IVTP during communication for building the trust and for using the network
services. Each vehicle has its own IVTP known as IVTP-ID of that particular
vehicle. The details of the vehicles are stored in separate blocks and when these
blocks are joined together, a blockchain is formed. Each block has its current
hash and previous hash, time stamp, nonce number and targeted address of the
previous block. When more vehicles are added to the network, the computational
power is increased and the data of vehicles becomes more intensive. From the
user’s perspective, it becomes difficult to deal with such type of data. To deal
with intensive data, consensus based scheme for authentication of data is used.
This scheme is used to add the user to the network on the basis of authenticity
while enhancing the efficiency and performance of the network.
Fig. 2. System model
50 T. Ashfaq et al.
The blockchain based proposed IV scenario deals with the issues of: lack of
coordination between vehicles and intensive data. Moreover, it also deals with
the issues of limited storage and channel reliability. The vehicles are added in the
network and are assigned unique crypto identities, respectively. The consensus
mechanism is used to achieve 51% positive response. The validated vehicles and
the associated transactions are stored in I-chain; whereas, the malicious users
are added to the F-chain [4].
Whenever a new user joins the network, the ledger broadcasts this on the
mobile gateway for all the users. When the broadcast message is received by all
other users then the consensus mechanism is applied to check the authenticity.
Once a user is verified to be authentic then a message is sent to the I-chain; oth-
erwise, if the user is not authentic and a message is sent to the F-chain. Figure2
shows the proposed system model in which the V2V communication, V2X com-
munication and the central trust point is shown. The idea of this proposed model
is taken from [4].
4 Reasoning of Graphs
In this section, the results are displayed and their discussion is also given. Ini-
tially, when the smart contracts are made and deployed, the transaction and exe-
cution costs are calculated. Simulations are performed on Solidity and RemixIDE
(online platform); Solidity is used for writing the smart contracts and Remix-
IDE is used to deploy the smart contracts. For the testing of smart contracts,
we use Ganache and for the validation of transactions, we use MetaMask. Sim-
ulations are run on the system having specifications: Intel Core i5, 4 GB RAM
and 500 GB storage. Presently, the conversion rate of gas and ether is as follows,
taken from [22].
There are some performance parameters for the proposed system.
Gas consumption of smart contracts.
Execution cost for the processing power.
Transaction cost of operation being performed.
4.1 Execution Cost
The execution cost of a smart contract depends upon the processing power of
the system that how many tasks are performed. The execution cost is directly
proportional to the processing power. The execution cost is the cost of executing
only a certain function.
4.2 Transaction Cost
The transaction cost depends on: the cost of data being sent, operations being
performed and the storage of contract. It can be said that transaction cost is the
sum of the execution cost and the deployment cost.
Consensus Based Mechanism Using Blockchain 51
Fig. 3. Transaction cost
Fig. 4. Execution cost
52 T. Ashfaq et al.
Transaction cost is determined by
Transaction Cost = Gas Used ×Gas Price
Figures 3and 4shows the transaction and execution costs for the smart
contracts and the functions are deployed in terms of gas. These values are taken
from RemixIDE. Fluctuations can be observed in the gas values for different
functions. The function “transferring balance” has the maximum cost. It can be
observed that the function “transferring balance” has the maximum cost because
it is a function that used more processing power. Similar is the case with the
function “assigning plate number”. This function is intended to add new IVs
to the blockchain network. The transaction costs are always higher than the
execution costs. The reason is because the transaction costs are the costs of
deploying the contract whereas the execution costs are the costs of executing
only a certain function.
The six functions shown in these figures are: assigning the plate number, acti-
vating the car, signing a car, sharing request, transferring balance and assigning
value to car. When the smart contract is deployed, then less gas consumption is
used for the activation function that is 21650 gwei. The gas consumption also
shows the complexity of different functions; the computational power decreases
with the decrease in gas consumption.
Fig. 5. Computational time
In Fig. 5, the increasing trend between the amount of data generated and
the computational time is shown. When the number of vehicles to be added in
the network increases, the data associated with the vehicles also increases. This
in turn increases the computational time which is required to access that data.
It is seen that the increasing trend is exponential in nature. The reason is that
Consensus Based Mechanism Using Blockchain 53
the computational time is an exponential function of the amount of data stored,
which increases exponentially when more vehicles are added in the network.
Fig. 6. Users’ status
Figure 6shows the number of total users, authentic users, unauthentic users
and the total number of requests made. By users we mean vehicles, which are
to be added in the network. The authentic users will be added to the I-chain;
whereas, the unauthentic users will be added to the F-chain. The graph is plotted
between the number of participants (vehicles) and the requests made by them.
It is seen that, the proposed model behaves in an efficient manner and is able to
respond to large number of authentic requests made and only a few are marked
as unauthentic.
5 Conclusion
In this paper, the blockchain technology is proposed in the EV sector to solve
the existing issues. The proposed work helped to solve the trust issue among
the users, ensured the data immutability and distinction among the authentic
and unauthentic data. The vehicles are validated by the use of unique crypto
identities being assigned to all the vehicles. All vehicles communicate through
these crypto identities. Each vehicle is connected with its neighbors. When two
vehicles want to communicate, they broadcast a message on network and then a
smart contract is deployed for their communication. The consensus mechanism
is employed to ensure the transparency and the transaction data is stored in
the form of distributed ledger, i.e., copy of data which is available at all nodes.
The proposed work surpasses the existing work as it involves the concept of
branching the vehicles in two different branches instead of keeping the data in a
54 T. Ashfaq et al.
single blockchain. This branching mechanism helps reducing the computational
time and the storage requirement. The concept of IVTP also helps in assigning
the vehicles according to respective trust value. The simulation results prove the
claim that the proposed work is better than the existing works.
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... As a result, it is difficult to keep the whole blockchain on each IoV device. Furthermore, the enormous data generated in the IoV, in near real time, complicates the issue [108]. Consequently, strategies to restrict the amount of storage resources required by the ledger are needed. ...
... Thus, IoVspecific and optimized consensus algorithms have the potential to expand the usefulness of incorporating blockchain into IoV [59]. Even though there are some preliminary studies and implementations of IoV-specific consensus algorithms [108,117,118], they still lack reliability, since they need to be further tested and evaluated. ...
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However, there are some challenges which affect the performance of the network, i.e., high Energy Consumption (EC), high End to End (E2E) delay, low Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR), minimum network lifetime, high probability of void hole occurrence, limited bandwidth and high bit error rate.~Thus, fast, energy efficient, reliable, collision and interference free routing protocols are required to improve the throughput of a network. Therefore, in this thesis, firstly, two routing protocols are proposed namely: Improved GEogrphic Depth Adjustment Routing (Im-GEDAR) and Co-Improved GEographic Depth Adjustment Routing (Co-Im-GEDAR) to maximize the PDR by minimizing the probability of void hole occurrence (with minimum EC). This enhanced PDR is attained by prohibiting the immutable forwarder nodes selection using three parameters including energy, depth and number of neighbor nodes. Moreover, the probability of void hole occurrence is minimized up to 30\% using fixed nodes deployment at different strategic locations in the network. Secondly, two energy efficient routing protocols namely: Shortest Path-Collision avoidance Based Energy-Efficient Routing (SP-CBE2R) protocol and Improved-Collision avoidance Based Energy-Efficient Routing (Im-CBE2R) protocol are proposed. These routing protocols minimize the probability of void hole occurrence, which minimizes the EC and E2E delay. In addition, both proposed routing protocols enhance the PDR and throughput of the network. In both routing protocols, greedy forwarding is opted to forward the data packets. Moving towards Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), during the data transmission, maximum energy is consumed in void hole recovery. In addition, location error and nodes' battery consumption are inevitable. Meanwhile, the loss of data packets and more EC degrade the performance of the network, significantly. Thirdly, three energy conservation routing protocols are implemented. These routing protocols are proposed to maximize the network stability (by avoiding void hole). Fourthly, a Proactive routing Approach with Energy efficient Path Selection (PA-EPS-Case I) is proposed to provide interference free communication. The proposed protocol adaptively changes its communication strategy depending on the type of the network, i.e., dense network, partially dense network and sparse network. Similarly, Bellman-Ford Shortest Path-based Routing (BF-SPR-Three) and Energy-efficient Path-based Void hole and Interference-free Routing (EP-VIR-Three) protocols are proposed for an efficient, reliable, collision and interference free communication. Afterward, the algorithms for the proposed routing protocols are also presented. Feasible regions for proposed routing protocols using linear programming are also computed for optimal EC and maximum network throughput. Moreover, the scalability of the proposed routing protocols is also analyzed by varying the number of nodes. In the end, extensive simulations have been performed to authenticate the performance of the proposed routing protocol. Meanwhile, comparative analysis is performed with state-of-the-art reactive and proactive routing protocols. The comparative analysis clearly shows that proposed routing protocols namely: Im-GEDAR and Co-Im-GEDAR achieved 21\% higher PDR and minimized 7\% EC than GEographic and opportunistic routing with DA based topology control for communication Recovery (GEDAR). The proposed routing protocols outperformed Transmission Adjustment Neighbor-node Approaching Distinct Energy Efficient Mates (TA-NADEEM) and minimized the void hole occurrence up to 30\%. Meanwhile, Im-CBE2R, SP-CBE2R, HA-ECMAE, HA-ECMAE2H and GTBPS-3H outperformed the counterparts. Furthermore, in PA-EPS-Case I, comparative analysis is performed with two cutting edge routing protocols namely: Weighting Depth and Forwarding Area Division Depth Based Routing (WDFAD-DBR) and Cluster-based WDFAD-DBR (C-DBR). Results demonstrate that proposed protocol achieve 12.64\% higher PDR with 20\% decrease in E2E delay than C-DBR. Furthermore, the proposed routing protocol outperformed C-DBR in terms of packet drop ratio up to 14.29\% with an increase of EC up to 30\%. In the end, comparative analysis of BF-SPR-Three and EP-VIR with benchmarks disclose that the proposed routing protocols outperformed in order to provide efficient path selection and to minimize the void hole occurrence.
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are promising and emerging frameworks having a wide range of applications. The underwater sensor deployment is beneficial; however, some factors limit the performance of the network, i.e., less reliability, high end to end delay and maximum energy dissipation. The provisioning of the aforementioned factors has become a challenging task for the research community. In UWSNs, battery consumption is inevitable and has a direct impact on the performance of the network. Most of the time energy dissipates due to the creation of void holes and imbalanced network deployment. In this work, two routing protocols are proposed to avoid the void hole and extra energy dissipation problems due to which lifespan of the network will increase. To show the efficacy of the proposed routing schemes, they are compared with the state of the art protocols. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform their counterpart schemes. By keeping in mind the emerging security issues in sensor networks, we have proposed a blockchain based trust model for sensor networks to enrich the security of the network. Additionally, this model provides security along with data immutability. We have used a private blockchain because it has all the security features that are necessary for a private sensor network. Moreover, private blockchain cannot be accessed by using the Internet. In the proposed trust model, the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus algorithm is used due to its low computational power requirement. In PoA consensus mechanism, a group of the validator is selected for adding and maintaining blocks. Moreover, smart contracts are used to validate and transfer cryptocurrency to service providers. In the end, transaction and execution costs are also calculated for each function to testify the network suitability.
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In a research community, data sharing is an essential step to gain maximum knowledge from the prior work. Existing data sharing platforms depend on trusted third party (TTP). Due to involvement of TTP, such systems lack trust, transparency, security and immutability. To over come these issues, this thesis proposed a blockchain based secure data sharing platform by leveraging the benefits of interplanetary file system (IPFS). A meta data is uploaded to IPFS server by owner and then divided into n secret shares. The proposed scheme achieves security and access control by executing the access roles written in smart contract by owner. Users are first authenticated through RSA signatures and then submit the requested amount as a price of digital content. After the successful delivery of data, a user is encouraged to register reviews about data by announcing customer incentives. In this way, maximum reviews are submitted against every file. In this scenario, decentralized storage, Ethereum blockchain, encryption and decryption schemes and incentive mechanism are combined. To implement the proposed scenario, smart contracts are written in solidity and deployed on local Ethereum test network. The proposed scheme achieves transparency, security, access control, authenticity of owner and quality of data. In simulation results, an analysis is performed on gas consumption and actual cost required in terms of USD, so that a good price estimate can be done while deploying the implemented scenario in real setup. Moreover, computational time for different encryption schemes are plotted to represent the performance of implemented scheme, which is shamir secret sharing (SSS). Results show that SSS shows least computational time as compared to advanced encryption standard (AES) 128 and 256.
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Decision fusion is used to fuse classification results and improve the classification accuracy in order to reduce the consumption of energy and bandwidth demand for data transmission. Decentralized classification fusion problem was the reason to use belief function based decision fusion approach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the consideration of improving the belief function fusion approach, we have proposed four classification techniques namely Enhanced K-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN), Enhanced Extreme Learning Machine (EELM), Enhanced Support Vector Machine (ESVM), and Enhanced Recurrent Extreme Learning Machine (ERELM). In addition, WSNs are fallible to errors and faults because of their different software, hardware failures, and their deployment in diverse fields. These challenges require efficient fault detection methods to be used to detect faults in WSNs in a timely manner. We induced four type of faults: offset fault, gain fault, stuck-at fault, and out of bounds fault and used enhanced classification methods to solve the sensor failure issues. Experimental results show that ERELM has given the first best result for the improvement of belief function fusion approach. The other three proposed techniques ESVM, EELM, and EKNN have provided the second, third, and fourth best results, respectively. Proposed enhanced classifiers are used for fault detection and are evaluated using three performance metrics ,i.e., Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), and Error Rate (ER). In this thesis, the owner of the (Internet of Thing) IoT device can generate revenueby selling IoT device’s data to interested users. However, on the other hand, users do not trust the owner of IoT device for data trading and are not confident about the quality of data. Traditional data trading systems have many limitations, as they involve third party and lack: decentralization, security and reputation mechanisms. Therefore, in this thesis, we have leveraged the IoTs with blockchain technology to provide trustful data trading through automatic review system for monetizing IoT’s data. We have developed blockchain based review system for IoT data monetization using Ethereum smart contracts. Review system encourages the owner to provide authenticated data and solve the issues regarding data integrity, fake reviews and conflict between entities. Data quality is ensured to users through reviews and ratings about the data, stored in blockchain. To maintain the data integrity, we have used Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption technique to encrypt data. All transactions are secure and payments are automated without any human intervention. Arbitrator entity is responsible to resolve problems between data owner and users. Incentive is provided to users and arbitrator in order to maintain the user participation and honesty. Additionally, Ethereum blockchain system requires gas for every transaction. Simulations are performed for the validation of our system. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time. Simulations show that the proposed methods outperform the existing techniques and give better results for belief function and fault detection in datascience WSNs. Additionally, blockchain based data trading in IoT system requires gas for every transaction. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are vulnerable to faults because of their deployment in unpredictable and hazardous environments. This makes WSN prone to failure such as software, hardware, and communication failures. Due to the sensor’s limited resources and diverse deployment fields, fault detection in WSNs has become a daunting task. To solve this problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers are used for classification of gain, offset, spike, data loss, out of bounds, and stuck-at faults at the sensor level. Out of six faults, two of them are induced in the datasets, i.e., spike and data loss faults. Likewise, sensors embedded mobile phones are used for the collection of data for some specific task which can effectively save cost and time in Crowd Sensing Network (CSN). The quality of collected data depends on the participation level from all entities of CSN, i.e., service provider, service consumers and data collectors. In comparison with the centralized traditional incentive and reputation mechanisms, we propose a blockchain based incentive and reputation mechanism for CSNs, which mainly consists of three smart contracts. The incentives are used to stimulate the involvement of data collectors and motivate the participants to join the network. Also, the issue of privacy leakage is tackled by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES128) technique. In addition to that, a reputation system is implemented to tackle the issues like untrustworthiness, fake reviews, and conflicts among entities. Through registering reviews, the system encourages data utilization by providing correct, consistent and reliable data. Furthermore, the results of first scenario are compared on the basis of their Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), Matthews Correlation Coefficients (MCC), and F1-score. In this thesis, a comparative analysis is performed among the classifiers mentioned previously on real-world datasets and simulations demonstrate that the RF algorithm secures a better rate of fault detection than the rest of the classifiers. Similarly, the second scenario is evaluated through analyzing the gas consumption of all the smart contracts, whereas, the encryption technique is validated through comparing the execution time with base paper technique. Lastly, the reputation system is inspected through analyzing the gas consumption and mining time of input string length.
Conference Paper
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Internet of Things (IoTs) is widely growing domain of the modern era. With the advancement in technologies, the use of IoTs devices also increases. However, security risks regarding service provisioning and data sharing also increases. There are many existing security approaches, although these approaches are not suitable for IoT devices due to their limited storage and limited computation resources. These secure approaches also require a specific hardware. With the invention of blockchain technologies, many security risks are eliminated. With the help of blockchain, data sharing mechanism is also possible. In this paper, we proposed a novel secure service providing mechanism for IoTs by using blockchain. We introduced cloud nodes for maintaining the validity states of edge service providers. The rating and cryptocurrency is given to edge servers. Given rating and incentive is stored in cloud node and updated with respect to time. The smart contract is proposed to check the validity state of the edge server as well as compare and verify the service provided by edge servers. In our proposed system we perform service authentication at cloud layer as well as edge server layer. Moreover, by using Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism overall performance of our proposed system also enhanced.By experimental analysis it is shown, our proposed model is suitable for resource constrained devices.