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Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring the Smart Autonomous Vehicles using Blockchain


Abstract and Figures

Nowadays, technologies like Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are influencing the ways of our traveling. This paper observes closely the development of a decentralized blockchain-based mechanism for providing secure, reliable and real-time availability of AVs for the customers who want to do the ride. The AVs have many advanced control systems and sensors to detect a number of hurdles (Unsafe design of vehicles, Negligence of civilians, etc.) in the environment. Blockchain is a decentralized temper proof business protocol used to facilitate the users with transparent, reliable, secure and cost-effective solutions. The consensus mechanisms are used in blockchain for validation purposes. This paper uses the Proof of Work consensus algorithm for the validation of Demand Response (DR) events. It provides the mechanism for real-time monitoring and real-time supervision to the ride of the end-user. Furthermore, it briefly specifies that the AVs working with blockchain mechanisms provides real-time traffic information to the end-user. The blockchain-based mechanism providing secure services to the end-user also provides the mechanism of Peer to Peer (P2P) car-sharing which removes the need for any bank or any reliable authority. The proposed system is proved in the Ethereum environment by DR events in the network. The simulations portray that our system is much cost-effective, efficient and reliable to meet the demands of customers.
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Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring
the Smart Autonomous Vehicles Using
Zain Abubaker1, Muhammad Usman Gurmani1, Tanzeela Sultana1,
Shahzad Rizwan2, Muhammad Azeem1, Muhammad Zohaib Iftikhar1,
and Nadeem Javaid1(B
1Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad,
Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
2Department of Computer Science, COMSATS University Islamabad,
Attock Campus, Attock, Pakistan
Abstract. Nowadays, technologies like Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) are
influencing the ways of our traveling. This paper inspects closely the
development of a decentralized blockchain-based mechanism for provid-
ing secure, reliable and real-time availability of AVs for the customers
who want to do the ride. The AVs have many advanced control systems
and sensors to detect a number of hurdles (unsafe design of vehicles,
negligence of civilians, etc.) in the environment. Blockchain is a decen-
tralized temper proof business protocol used to facilitate the users with
transparent, reliable, secure and cost-effective solutions. The consensus
mechanisms are used in blockchain for validation purposes. This paper
uses the Proof of Work consensus algorithm for the validation of Demand
Response (DR) events. It provides the mechanism for real-time monitor-
ing and real-time supervision to the ride of the end-user. Furthermore, it
briefly specifies that the AVs working with blockchain mechanisms pro-
vides real-time traffic information to the end-user. The blockchain-based
mechanism provides secure services to the end-user. It also provides the
mechanism of Peer to Peer (P2P) car-sharing that removes the need for
any bank or any reliable authority. The proposed system is proved in the
Ethereum environment by DR events in the network. The simulations
portray that our system is much cost-effective, efficient and reliable to
meet the demands of customers.
Keywords: Blockchain technology ·Autonomous Vehicles ·Mobility ·
1 Introduction
The costs of transportation are rising gradually. Moreover, the environmental
damage occur due to ordinary vehicles are very serious. These issues prompted
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
L. Barolli et al. (Eds.): BWCCA 2019, LNNS 97, pp. 733–746, 2020.
734 Z. Abubaker et al.
the making of new methods for transportation such as AVs. AVs offer a large
number of solutions to many issues in transportation. The AVs are driver-less
and in this way, these AVs facilitate the people in a secure and flawless way. In
the next few years, the AVs will become the standard for consumers. However,
fully AVs are difficult for any individual to be an owner of it as these are very
expensive. The people who want to hire a vehicle to reach at their desired place
face many problems. First, they have to wait on the road for a taxi. Second,
when they gets their taxi, the safety of their ride is compromised or not fully
satisfied as there is human errors involved. The AVs vehicles working on the
mechanism of blockchain satisfies all issues of customer.
Autonomous Vehicles
The AVs have many sensors to detect the road hurdles (unsafe design of vehicles,
negligence of civilians etc.) very quickly. The AVs have capabilities to compute
the distance between other vehicles and traffic signals on their own. These are
also effective to communicate with other AVs and to store data. The sensors
of AVs senses the traffic signals and respond well to them as compared to the
drivers. There are a number of possible deficiencies that occurs with the taxi
driver like they may drink and drive or may do distracted driving [7]. Using AVs
these deficiencies definitely be removed from the transport system. In today’s
traffic the blockage of routes is one of the main issues, the AVs performs well
while operating around stable or moving obstacles. With all aforementioned
capabilities of AVs, these vehicles have problem of storing data. These vehicle
store data according to their capability and their capability to store data is
not enough for large amount of vehicles. Therefore, we use the mechanism of
blockchain to store data of vehicles to very large extent.
1.1 Motivation
The authors in [1] studied that blockchain based vehicular network is a reliable
and robust model. They studied that the model operates well while some mali-
cious activities are still damaging the network and reducing the performance
of the network. The authors in [2] studied that sharing of resources of AVs is
actually the combination of traditional car sharing and the services with the
AVs. These shared vehicles provide cost-effective and convenient mobility on-
demand services in real time [3]. The authors in [4] proposed the mechanism of
self-driving autonomous cars which works well without the involvement of any
human effort. Firstly, AVs were made in the US and Germany from 1980 to 2000
[5]. Satoshi Nakamoto proposed a decentralized model for P2P sharing of cash
[6]. Our proposed vehicular network operates in a decentralized way to make the
distributed transport management system more effective and reliable [1]. Our
model uses the mechanism of smart share to tackle the issue of DR [2].
1.2 Problem Statement
The searching for a driver of a taxi on the road frequently is not considered the
convenient mobility on-demand service [1,3]. One more issue with the existing
Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring the Smart Autonomous Vehicles 735
system of [1] is that it does not provide transparency about the traveling route
of the ride. This gives rise to concerns about security in the old system [1].
Moreover, the proposed model in [1] involves human deficiencies as the taxi
drivers are used in this model. When there is an ordinary car with driver, there
are security risks for the customer because he does not know the details of
the driver available for his ride. For the ride, he has to trust in case of driver
identification, because he has no other option. According to the situations of
nowadays, this is really a security risk for customers. The autonomous vehicles
are the proposed solution for this problem. The proposed model of [1] there is no
mechanism to tackle with DR events. When there are a lot of people who want
to do ride. When these people request over the network and number of vehicles
to serve them are small, this raises a serious issue to deal the customers. To
deal with a large number of requests with less number of vehicles, our proposed
model uses the mechanism of smart share.
2 Related Work
Networks share their resources to provide services to the nodes. However, these
networks have limited resources. To provide the services effectively, each and
every node in the network should participate and remain active for assigned
operations. With the increase in the data set and increasing size of the appli-
cation, networks are not more efficient and scalable. In [1,8,14,15,19,23,24]the
blockchain technology is used in the wireless sensors networks. Moreover, paper
[18] uses Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism for validation purposes
and consortium mechanism is used to make an alliance with other companies to
achieve the common goals. Moreover, Ethereum Geth -11.811 is used for transac-
tions in the proposed model. [15] uses the policy development process along with
LoRaWAN, Ethereum Geth -1-1.811. [22] uses Proof of Collaboration (PoC) for
authentication of nodes in the proposed network. In [18] all the simulations are
done in Python 3.6, Smart Contract and Raspberry pi2. All the simulations in
[24] are done using the mechanism of cloud-based data storage. The authors in
[26] proposed a cloud based mechanism for secure services for IoT devices. In
[2], the authors also perform simulations to prove secure distribution of services
over the network. [8] provides a mechanism for a decentralized system, spectral
efficiency Q-learning and exhaustive learning. [24] uses behavior chain and data
chain which ensures high data rate and high reliability in the network. [22]pro-
posed a mechanism for the sharing of data so that reuse the right of research
information be overseen by utilizing the innovations. Moreover, the authors in
[25] use blockchain mechanism over the smart grids for fair sharing of data in
deregulated smart grids. The authors perform some simulations to prove fair
data sharing in deregulated smart grids.
[1,2022] use the mechanism of blockchain in the vehicles to establish a
secure, transparent and reliable network for the Internet of Vehicles (IoV). [1]
and [22] use Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanism for validations purposes
in the network. [1] and [22] both use Ethereum environments for the transac-
tion of commodities between different entities and all the smart contracts are
736 Z. Abubaker et al.
designed using solidity in visual code. [20] provides us a mechanism for vehi-
cles to overcome trust issues; moreover, the deadlock process is overcome in this
method. [21] uses store transport data, sensory data, environmental data and
insurance data of vehicles and performs trading in data. In [1] ordinary nodes,
miner nodes, and controller nodes are used to achieve the robustness and adapt-
ability. [22] uses mathematical puzzles and distributed consensus for a secure
and reliable network. The blockchain is used on the Internet of Vehicles (IoVs)
to establish the security, transparency and trust management between vehicles.
In [812] the blockchain is used on the IoVs to establish the security, trans-
parency and trust management between vehicles. The limitation of the model
of [8] is that the usage of advanced management hub might reduce the perfor-
mance of the overall system. In [9] the system model of trust policy is made
to detect compromised Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The mechanism is
made to detect wrong information when an official UAV is physically hijacked.
The model explains that due to the dynamic topology of UAVs, these vehi-
cles raise security challenges. Go Methods, ABS security UAV, NetLogo is used
for its utility to support mobile ad-hoc network. Novel agent-based simulator
ABS- security UAV is used to validate the model. [10] addresses that the accu-
racy and power of driving safety assessments are limited. Dynamic prediction
of road safety in a city is not capable to provide safety on roads. This paper
proposes the model of a Deep learning framework (DeepRSI) to conduct the
prediction of real time road safety in order to improve the safety of vehicles.
Mobile sensing data collection is used in VANETs to identify problems. Intel
Core i7 machine with 32 GB Ram and NVIDIA TITAN X graphics card are
used for simulations purposes. The limitation of this proposed model is that
there is no mechanism to check the reliability of the prediction of road safety.
The authors in [27] applied blockchain mechanism on under water, Water Sen-
sor Network (WSN) and achieve efficient routing of energy. The authors in [28]
use the mechanism of blockchain on the management of data over the ethereum
network. The authors in [29] do monetization of data using data science over
the IoT devices. The authors in [30] achieve the trustfulness in complex network
using both blockchain and data science together. In [11] the blockchain based
decentralized mechanism is proposed to handle the energy demand by control-
ling the number of transactions. It explains the issues that to update the ledger,
a large amount of consumption of energy in the transaction of blockchain may
cause some serious issues for vehicles. Distributed clustering is used to label
every chain sequentially. The results are simulated in MATLAB TM. The model
does not provide a fully optimal solution in handling the energy. In [12]P2P
data sharing system is proposed to achieve accurate reputation management for
high-quality data sharing for vehicles. It explains that the vehicular edge com-
puting servers (Road Side Units) are not fully trusted and may cause serious
security and privacy challenges. Consortium blockchain and smart contracts are
used to achieve secure data storage. The authors in [31] balances the demand
and response in smart grids using blockchain mechanism. The authors in [32]
analyze and secure data using both broad fields data science and blockchain.
Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring the Smart Autonomous Vehicles 737
The authors in [33] introduce the mechanism of incentive for lightweight client
based on blockchain. The authors in [34] introduce the node recovery scheme for
wireless sensor network.
In [1], when the user selects any vehicle for the ride and starts the ride with this
particular vehicle. During his travel, there is no mechanism to show the details
of ride to the customer. This mechanism does not facilitate the user to keep
an eye on the route during traveling. The blockchain provides the capability
of transparency. In our proposed model, there is a mechanism to show each
and every detail of the vehicle on the network and the location of each vehicle
is also given. The user selects any vehicle according to his wish without any
inference of the third party. This proposed model increases the user’s choice for
transportation. However, in our proposed model, we have used the mechanism
where all details of the routes are mentioned for the network. These details are
also monitored by other miner nodes in the network. All miner nodes in the
network are static nodes. These miner nodes are actually the Road Side Units
(RSU). In this way, the model facilitates the customer with transparency about
the details of travel. The proposed model provides the mechanism to establish
communication between the smart vehicles and end users. Our proposed system
model shown in Fig. 1is similar to the system model proposed in [1].
In [1], the vehicles with drivers are used and this raises a big security concern
for customers. Because, the user knows nothing about the driver and he has to
travel with random driver. According to the situations of nowadays, there is a
lot of probability that the driver may drink or drive, may do distract driving.
The driver may harm the customer, this is really a big security concern. In
this way, with such security risks, the customer had to travel with the driver.
The issue with the system of [1] is that there is no mechanism to store and
to show these details to the customer. Here, one important point to keep in
mind is that all the way we use a mechanism to store the reputations’ details
of the driver. These details are shown to the customer. When the user selects
any vehicle for ride, there is also a chance that the driver do drink and drive or
harm the customer. Therefore, our proposed model uses AVs as these vehicles
are driver-less vehicles. So there is no security concern about the driver at all.
This proposed model solves this issue of security as AVs are used and there is
no driver involved. When the user interacts with the smart autonomous vehicle
through the blockchain mechanism, then the user sees each and every detail of
the vehicle about its previous rides and feels free to select any vehicle for his ride.
After that the user selects any vehicle for his trip and he sends his location to
the AVs, then this vehicle picks him from that particular location and drops him
at his desired place. In this way, all the mechanism is under control of traveler
as he selects any vehicle according to his wish.
Figure 1shows the system model in which a rider wants to do ride and
he requests over the network for the ride. While receiving his request, all the
738 Z. Abubaker et al.
nodes in the network respond him back about their availability. Our proposed
model provides two-way communication in the network. In this two-way com-
munication, the customer picks the vehicle according to his priorities. Moreover,
the vehicle also selects the customer according to its priority. This reduces the
latency in the DR event. Moreover, to handle the issue of DR, our proposed
model uses the mechanism of smart share. A vehicle using a smart share facili-
tates a lot of customers. When any customer is traveling from destination 1 to
destination 2, on the way the AV can facilitate another person who also wants
to go to destination 2. In this way, the smart share facilitates a lot of customers
in less time. Therefore, the proposed system becomes better to deal with a large
number of customers without any inconsistencies, because the proposed model
provides two-way communication. In this way, this model does not only facilitates
the customer/rider but also to the vehicles, that pick the customer according to
their priorities.
The system model shown in Fig. 1works without the involvement of any third
party and is owned by nobody. The reason for not having any involvement of the
third party is that this proposed model is blockchain based and blockchain works
in a decentralized way without involvement of any third party. This property of
blockchain suits us to tackle the issue of extra cost. The rider has only to pay
the vehicles for their services and has not to pay to the third party. In this way,
the proposed model using blockchain provides us a cost-effective solution.
4 Methodology
We proposed an Intelligent Transport System (ITS) based on the mechanism of
blockchain as shown in Fig. 1. This ITS system is made by taking the motivation
from [1] and [22]. All the transactions and consensus are held by following the
principles of the blockchain mechanism. Firstly, when a rider wants to go to his
desired place. He requests over the network by giving all his details like location,
from where he wants to take the ride and at which place he wants to reach.
After submitting his request over the network, he has to wait for a while for
the response. In the network, there are some AVs that respond to the request
of the rider. If more then one vehicle respond to the customer then it is the
choice of the customer to pick any vehicle according to his priorities. Moreover,
each and every detail of the vehicle is given on the network. Then the user
selects any vehicle according to his desire and comfort. When the user selects any
vehicle then a consensus mechanism is established between the customer/rider
and the vehicle in the form of the smart contract. The business rules are stored
in the smart contract. Every entity contains its own smart contract. After the
consensus is done, the AVs provide service to the customer and get the incentive
as decided in the smart contract. In this way, the customer easily gets his services
according to his desire. He picks any vehicle without any involvement of third
party that interferes in selecting the vehicle. Moreover, during the ride of the
customer, his ride is constantly monitored by miners. This capability of our
proposed model provides us the transparency in the network. Finally, when the
Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring the Smart Autonomous Vehicles 739
Smart Vehicle
Smart Vehicle
Miner Node
Miner Node
Mobile User
Miner Node
Mobile Users
Controller Node
DR Data Exchange
Ordinary Node
Environm ental Data
Vehicular Cloud Vehicular Cloud
Fig. 1. The proposed model for communication and transaction between Autonomous
Vehicles and End-Users
rider reaches his desired place and AV gets its reward/incentive, then miner
nodes authenticate the exchange of services and rewards between them. The
miner nodes also authenticate that the customer safely reached the desired place.
This authentication is done using the PoW mechanism. When 51% of miner
nodes authenticate the successful transaction between these entities then this
transaction becomes part of the ledger and permanently stored in the ledger.
Our blockchain based proposed model also balances the DR events. The
demands of customers and the responses to their demands are balanced well in
our proposed model. In the centralized approach, the customer has to rely on
the third party, he has to wait until the third party provides him the vehicle.
Sometimes, there are some drivers who are not interested to go to the specific
route. First, the third party searches for interested drivers and then provides the
vehicle to the customer. It is really a time consuming process and the customer
has to wait until the third party finds any vehicle. However, in our proposed
model, there is not any driver who influences the decision. Another issue of
the centralized approach is that sometimes, there are a lot of vehicles in the
network. It is only decided by the third party that which customer is given to
which vehicles. This reduces the equality for any vehicle to pick the customer. In
our proposed model, there is two-way communication. So, not only the customer
picks the vehicle according to his priorities. However, the vehicle also picks the
740 Z. Abubaker et al.
customer according to its priorities. The request of the customer is deployed on
the network where all the vehicles have equal chances to pick the customer and
to own currency. When there are more then one vehicles are interested to give
ride to the customer, In such situations, it is fully dependent on the customer to
pick any vehicle. Usually the customer picks the vehicle that offers him better
rates with better services. When all the vehicles and customers are involved
in the network, then this reduces the delay in responding to the customer. This
mechanism is helpful for both the customer and the vehicles. This helps to tackle
the DR event in the proposed model. Moreover, the mechanism of smart share
is also used to tackle the issue of DR.
In the centralized approaches, the driver of vehicles is not allowed to pick any
customer. First, the centralized authority takes the request from the customer
and then forwards it to the driver. The driver of the vehicle is only allowed
to say “yes” or “no” to the request. However, in our proposed model, the AVs
have full authorization to select any customer. After showing his interest in the
customer, the whole next process depends upon the consensus between customer
and AVs. In our proposed model, when there are a number of requests on the
network, and if the AVs select any customer, the network gives access to the
AVs to communicate with this specific customer if this customer is still the part
of the network. The access to communicate to the customer is not given to the
AVs if the customer is not still part of the network, i.e, the customer leaves the
network or selects another vehicle for a ride. The same mechanism is followed for
the customer, a customer can select any vehicle only if this vehicle is present in
the network. Moreover, the issue of DR is tackled by using the scheme of smart
sharing [1].
4.1 Smart Share
A vehicle using a smart share facilitates a lot of customers. As a customer wants
to go to destination 2 and another customer also want to go to destination 2.
They both can share their vehicle to go to the common destination (Destination
2). This scheme of smart share facilitates a lot of people in less time, resulting
in response to the requests of the customers. The mechanism of smart share is
helpful in two ways. First, when two or more customers are sharing the vehicle,
the total cost is equally divided between them and in this way smart share
provides cost effective solution. Second, it is helpful to tackle the DR issue.
4.2 Smart Contracts
The smart contracts are made to allow the trustworthy transaction between cus-
tomer and service providers. The business rules are stored in this smart contract.
First, the contract checks either the user has enough currency to travel at his
desired place or not. When the user has sufficient currency then the access to
travel is given to the user. On the other hand, the smart contract checks whether
Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring the Smart Autonomous Vehicles 741
the AVs have enough capabilities that they achieve the requirements of the cus-
tomer, i.e, electricity power and path planning, etc. Once the smart contract
checks the authentication of both, it gives access to both parties for the journey.
4.3 Mining
Once the successful travel is done, the details of the transactions broadcast on the
blockchain network and the miner nodes in the network start mining to validate
the transaction. All the miner nodes in the network are static nodes while the
vehicles and the mobile user are considered as mobile nodes. The validation is
done according to the consensus algorithm. PoW consensus algorithm is used
in our proposed model. The miner nodes check either the person reached his
desired place safely, means he got his services and the vehicle got its reward.
Once the miner nodes have completed mining, the blockchain mechanism checks
either the 51% nodes validate the transaction then this transaction permanently
becomes the part of the blockchain ledger. The miner nodes are static nodes,
these miner nodes are RSU in our proposed solution. The miner nodes should
have particular capabilities that are needed for mining.
4.4 Hashing Algorithm
Each block in the blockchain is connected to its next block. The blocks are
connected in this way that every node keeps the hash of its previous block. This
hash is created by using different hash functions. In our proposed model, SHA-
256 hashing algorithm is used for the encryption of data of the block. When
someone wants to alter any data in the block then the hash of this particular
block changes. This leads to the change of hashes of all the next blocks. This
capability of blockchain provides us a secure and reliable network.
4.5 Consensus Algorithm
Blockchain uses consensus algorithms for the validation of transactions done in
the network. These consensus mechanisms help in checking the effectiveness of
the transaction without the involvement of any third party [17]. Our proposed
model uses the PoW consensus mechanism for validation purposes. It is used to
authenticate the transactions and to produce new blocks in the blockchain. In
the mechanism of PoW, the miner nodes compete with each other to complete
the task given on the network for getting reward. These miner nodes performing
PoW solve the mathematical puzzle. First, the nodes solve this puzzle and then
get the incentives that has been decided earlier.
The above proposed model makes every ride safe for the end user. The pro-
posed model is blockchain based and the capabilities of blockchain solve many
issues for end users.
742 Z. Abubaker et al.
5 Simulations and Results
The simulations are done using laptop which has following storage and comput-
ing capabilities:
4.00 GB RAM and 500 GB ROM
64-bit window 10 (Operating System).
Intel (R) Core(TM) M-5Y10c CPU @ 0.80 GHz 1.00 GHz
In the centralized approach, there are many time slots when the number of
vehicles and the number of requests are not equal. Sometimes, the number of
vehicles are not enough to deal with the customer. So, the customer has to wait
for a while. Figure 2shows the results of centralized technique which is normally
known as Careem Ride Service. Figure 3shows the results of our proposed model.
In our proposed model, the mechanism of smart share is used to deal with this
issue. In this way, the customer without any wastage of time gets the service
from vehicles. Figure 3also shows the trade-off in DR events. When the number
of requests of customers are very high and the number of vehicles in the network
is small. Then, these vehicles are not able to deal with the requirements of the
customer. In proposed blockchain based network, the customers have to wait
for some while for the response. This shows the trade-off of time with demand
response events. It may be also seen that the cost of the ride increases a little
bit due to the high number of requests of customer. This shows the trade-off
between time and DR as well as between cost and DR.
Time (Hours)
Centralized Demand Response Mechanism
No. of Vehicles
No. of Requests
Fig. 2. Centralized demand response mechanism
In centralized approach, the third party is involved and customers have to
pay some charges to the third party. Moreover, the price is not stable for same
amount of distance. Therefore, the customer has to pay more charges for the
resources he used. In proposed model, there is no involvement of the third party.
Moreover, before starting the ride, the amount that the customer has to pay to
Decentralized Mechanism for Hiring the Smart Autonomous Vehicles 743
1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23
Time (Hours)
Decentralized Demand Response
No. of Vehicles
No. of Requests
Fig. 3. Decentralized demand response mechanism
the vehicle is predetermined. Therefore, our proposed model is considered to be
better than the centralized approach. The simulation results of both centralized
and decentralized approaches are shown in Fig. 4.
No. of TransacƟons
Centralized Approach
Fig. 4. Comparison of cost between centralized approach and decentralized approach
6 Conclusion and Future
In this paper, we propose the use of AVs together with decentralized blockchain
based protocol. The blockchain based model provides us the mechanism in which
the whole trip for the passenger is secure and transparent because the AVs are
used in our proposed model. This removes the necessity of identification of the
driver. Our blockchain based proposed model provides the whole information
744 Z. Abubaker et al.
about the route to the customer by real time traffic information. It makes the low-
cost transaction easier by providing the mechanism of peer to peer car sharing
which removes the need for any bank or any reliable authority. Moreover, the
property of smart sharing between different nodes of the network helps to tackle
In proposed model, AVs are used and actually these vehicles are driver-less.
Due to the use of these AVs, there are some issues that are given below:
Who will be responsible in case of an occurrence of an accident due to the
systematic error of AVs? In our above described proposed model, it is very
difficult to know the answer to this question that who is responsible for the
accident and who should reimburse for the damage?
The AVs are actually designed to work using the information propagated in
the environment. In proposed model, the vehicles use the sensitive information
of the user like the address of home or location, etc. These are very private
pieces of information, thus this creates major privacy issues.
The hackers can attack the autonomous vehicles and can easily get into the
system of the vehicle. It controls the operations of the AVs, which creates a
security concern.
In the future, more work will be done to tackle these issues. Some studies
are still needed in the future that the mechanism of rating is introduced in this
network. The vehicles that provide a feasible time and comfortable service to
the customer get a positive rating. Moreover, the vehicle that fails to provide
feasible time and comfortable services and gets a negative rating. All the ratings
of the vehicle should deploy on the network. This improves the services in the
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... However, the network does not assure the comfort of vehicles and a hassle-free environment for transportation. In [90], the authors propose a blockchain-based distributed and decentralized security storage management in a vehicular network. The data storage increases the performance and efficiency of the network. ...
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In this thesis, we proposed three system models to resolve the different problems related to energy optimization and anomaly detection. The exponential increase of EVs in smart cities has led to some complex trading problems. Therefore, in proposed system model, we deal with some major energy trading issues related to the charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in a Vehicular Energy Network (VEN). The enormous increase in the development of EVs and Intelligent Vehicles (IVs) has led to a complex network. When the number of vehicles increases, the number of links is also increased and generates intensive data. This complexity leads to insecure communication, road congestion, security and privacy issues in vehicular networks. Moreover, the detection of malicious IVs, data integration and data validation are also major concerns in VENs that hinder the network performance. To deal with these problems, we propose a blockchain based model for secure communication and detection of malicious IVs. In general, there are two major issues related to EVs charging. First, it is difficult to �find the nearest charging station with less energy consumption. Second, it is difficult to calculate the exact amount of energy needed to reach the nearest charging station from the current location of an EV. In traditional energy trading systems, centralized grids are being used where energy trading between EVs and charging stations is not secured. To deal with these issues, we proposed a consortium blockchain-based secure energy trading system with moderate charging cost. In the proposed work, the distance of nearest charging station is calculated using k-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) technique. Furthermore, EVs also face various energy challenges such as imbalance load supply, fluctuations in voltage level and energy scarcity from charging station. Therefore, a Demand Response (DR) strategy is used, which enables the EV users to flatten out the load curves and adjust the usage of electricity e�ciently. Secondly, we addressed the problem of insecure communication in Vehicular Network (VN). The integration of blockchain with vehicular network makes the network secure and trustful. For the authentication of IVs, Certi�ficate Authority (CA) is used, and InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) is integrated with CA to resolve the issue of storage. A reputation mechanism is introduced to detect the malicious IVs in the network based on their ratings. A branching concept is involved where the validated transactional data and the malicious data of IVs is stored in two separate chains: Integrity Chain (I-Chain) and Fraud Chain (F-Chain). In third contribution of our thesis, we deal with some major problems related to the �financial sector such as fraud and anomalies. These are common problems in E-banking and online transactions. Anomaly detection is a well known method to �find frauds and misbehavior in the �financial sector. However, with the advancement of �financial sectors, the methods of fraud and anomalies are also getting advanced. Furthermore, blockchain technology is introduced as the most secure technology and integrated with �finance. However, besides these advanced technologies, there still exist many fraudulent cases every year. Therefore, we proposed a fraud detection prediction model based on machine learning and blockchain. Machine learning techniques train the dataset according to the fraudulent and integrated transaction patterns and predict the new incoming transactions. Blockchain technology is integrated with machine learning algorithms to detect fraudulent transactions in �financial sectors. There are two machine learning algorithms: XGboost and Random Forest (RF) are used for the classi�fication of transactions. These models provide 99% accurate results to �find the frauds and anomalies in the given dataset. The proposed models are also able to predict the transaction patterns. We also calculate the precision and AUC of models to measure the accuracy. Simulation results show that our proposed integrated models outperforms the traditional techniques in terms of accuracy and security. A security analysis of proposed smart contracts is also shown in simulation section. The security analysis is used to identify the vulnerabilities of smart contracts. Furthermore, four attacker models are introduced to resolve the issue of sel�fish mining attack, double spending attack, replay attack, and Sybil attack.
... This research work has designed a blockchain-based SDN Controller and clustering operations with distributed network management. The SDN controller initiates communication between the possible IoT devices by connecting it to a single blockchain [30]. As observed in Bitcoin, a distributed peer-to-peer network is created by the SDN controllers. ...
The Internet of Things [IoT] is one of the most recent technologies that has influenced the way people communicate. With its growth, IoT encounters a number of challenges, including device heterogeneity, energy construction, comparability, and security. Energy and security are important considerations when transmitting data via edge networks and IoT. Interference with data in an IoT network might occur unintentionally or on purpose by malicious attackers, and it will have a significant impact in real time. To address the security problems, the suggested solution incorporates software defined networking (SDN) and blockchain. In particular, this research work has introduced an energy efficient and secure blockchain-enabled architecture using SDN controllers that are operating on a novel routing methodology in IoT. To establish communication between the IoT devices, private and public blockchain are used for eliminating Proof of Work (POW). This enables blockchain to be a suitable resource-constrained protocol for establishing an efficient communication. Experimental observation indicates that, an algorithm based on routing protocol will have low energy consumption, lower delay and higher throughput, when compared with other classic routing algorithms.
... In this proposed work, a blockchain framework of CAV is used to enable transparency and security of vehicles and users. To keep track of every activity that the IoT sensors perform [28], a secure methodology is introduced. Henceforth for ensuring and providing safety at the time of ride sharing in CAV, the transmission that takes place between the sensors through smart devices is also kept track of. ...
The advent of autonomous vehicles is indeed a potential field of research in today's situation. Connected Vehicles (CV) have received a lot of attention in the last decade, which has resulted in CV as a Service (CVaaS). With the advent of taxi services, there is a need for or demand for robust, seamless, and secure information transmission between the vehicles connected to a vehicular network. Thus, the concept of vehicular networking is transformed into novel concept of autonomous and connected vehicles. These autonomous vehicles will serve as a better experience by providing instant information from the vehicles via congestion reduction. The significant drawback faced by the invention of autonomous vehicles is the malicious floor of intruders, who tend to mislead the communication between the vehicles resulting in the compromised smart devices. To address these concerns, the best methodology that will protect and secure the control system of the autonomous vehicle in real time is blockchain. This research work proposes a blockchain framework in order to address the security challenges in autonomous vehicles. This research work enhances the security of smart vehicles thereby preventing intruders from accessing the vehicular network. To validate the suggested technique, money security criteria such as changing stored user ratings, probabilistic authentication scenarios, smart device compromise, and bogus user requests were employed. The observed findings have been documented and analysed, revealing an 82% success rate.
... The blockchain provides a tamper-proof ledger in which a new record is added after being validated by the miners. The miner nodes validate the transactions by different consensus mechanisms: proof of work (PoW), proof of authority (PoA), proof of stack(PoS) etc., [6], [7]. In the PoW, all the interested nodes participate and solve a mathematical puzzle. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, a secure blockchain based identity authentication for end-nodes is proposed in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Moreover, to resolve the issue of limited energy in WSNs, a mechanism of cluster head (CH) selection is also proposed. The nodes in a network are authenticated on the basis of credentials to prevent from malicious activities. The malicious nodes harm the network by providing false data to nodes. Therefore, a blockchain is integrated with the WSN to make the network more secure as it allows only authenticated nodes to become a part of the network. Moreover in a WSN, sensor nodes collect the information and send it towards CH for further processing. The CH aggregates and processes the information; however, its energy depletes rapidly due to extra workload. Therefore, the CH is replaced with the node that has the highest residual energy among all nodes. The simulation result shows the network lifetime increases after CH replacement. Moreover, it shows that he transaction cost is very low during authentication phase.
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Le concept de villes intelligentes gagne de plus en plus en importance dans les métropoles modernes en raison de l’émergence et de la diffusion d’appareils, de systèmes et de technologies intelligents embarqués et connectés dans la vie quotidienne, qui ont créé l’opportunité de connecter chaque “chose" à Internet. Dans l'ère à venir de l'Internet des objets, l'Internet des véhicules (IoV) jouera un rôle crucial dans la construction d'une ville intelligente. En fait, l'IoV a le potentiel de résoudre efficacement divers problèmes de trafic. Il est essentiel pour améliorer l'utilisation des routes, réduire la consommation d'énergie et la pollution et améliorer la sécurité routière. Néanmoins, le principal problème concernant l'IoV, et en particulier le Véhicule-à-Véhicule (V2V) et le Véhicule-à-infrastructure (V2I), est l'établissement de paiements et de communications sécurisés et instantanés. Pour répondre à ce défi, ce travail propose une solution basée sur la Blockchain pour mettre en place un paiement et une communication sécurisés afin d'étudier l'utilisation de la Blockchain comme middleware entre différents acteurs des systèmes de transport intelligents.Dans cette étude, nous avons évalué les propriétés les plus importantes de la solution développée, à savoir la consommation de la mémoire et de l’énergie, l’immutabilité, la confidentialité, la cohérence, l’intégrité, le temps d’exécution et le coût. L’objet de cette évaluation est de vérifier la capacité de la plateforme basée sur la Blockchain à assurer une communication efficace et un paiement sécurisé avec l’IoV. Selon les résultats, cette plateforme peut contribuer à résoudre les défis les plus critiques de la communication véhicule-à-tout (V2X) en améliorant la sécurité et l’évolutivité.
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The concept of smart cities is increasingly gaining prominence in modern metropolises due to the emergence and spread of embedded and connected smart devices, systems, and technologies in everyday lives, which have created an opportunity to connect every ‘thing’ to the Internet. In the upcoming era of the Internet of Things, the Internet of Vehicles (IOV) will play a crucial role in constructing a smart city. In fact, the IOV has a potential to solve various traffic problems effectively. It is critical for enhancing road utilization, reducing energy consumption and pollution, and improving road safety. Nevertheless, the primary issue regarding the IoV, and in particular to Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I), is establishing secure and instant payments and communications. To respond to this challenge, this work proposes a Blockchain-based solution for establishing secure payment and communication in order to study the use of Blockchain as middle-ware between different participants of intelligent transportation systems. The proposed framework employs Ethereum to develop a solution aimed at facilitating Vehicle-to-Everything (V2X) communications and payments. Moreover, this work qualitatively test the performance and resilience of the proposed systems against common security attacks. Computational tests showed that the proposed solution solved the main challenges of Vehicle-to-X (V2X) communications such as security and centralization.
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The use of Blockchain technology has recently become widespread. It has emerged as an essential tool in various academic and industrial fields, such as healthcare, transportation, finance, cybersecurity, and supply chain management. It is regarded as a decentralized, trustworthy, secure, transparent, and immutable solution that innovates data sharing and management. This survey aims to provide a systematic review of Blockchain application to intelligent transportation systems in general and the Internet of Vehicles (IoV) in particular. The survey is divided into four main parts. First, the Blockchain technology including its opportunities, relative taxonomies, and applications is introduced; basic cryptography is also discussed. Next, the evolution of Blockchain is presented, starting from the primary phase of pre-Bitcoin (fundamentally characterized by classic cryptography systems), followed by the Blockchain 1.0 phase, (characterized by Bitcoin implementation and common consensus protocols), and finally, the Blockchain 2.0 phase (characterized by the implementation of smart contracts, Ethereum, and Hyperledger). We compared and identified the strengths and limitations of each of these implementations. Then, the state of the art of Blockchain-based IoV solutions (BIoV) is explored by referring to a large and trusted source database from the Scopus data bank. For a well-structured and clear discussion, the reviewed literature is classified according to the research direction and implemented IoV layer. Useful tables, statistics, and analysis are also presented. Finally, the open problems and future directions in BIoV research are summarized.
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In this thesis, a blockchain-based data sharing and access control system is proposed, for communication between the Internet of Things (IoT) devices. The proposed system is intended to overcome the issues related to trust and authentication for access control in IoT networks. Moreover, the objectives of the system are to achieve trustfulness, authorization, and authentication for data sharing in IoT networks. Multiple smart contracts such as Access Control Contract (ACC), Register Contract (RC), and Judge Contract (JC) are used to provide efficient access control management. Where ACC manages overall access control of the system, and RC is used to authenticate users in the system, JC implements the behavior judging method for detecting misbehavior of a subject (i.e., user). After the misbehavior detection, a penalty is defined for that subject. Several permission levels are set for IoT devices' users to share services with others. In the end, performance of the proposed system is analyzed by calculating cost consumption rate of smart contracts and their functions. A comparison is made between existing and proposed systems. Results show that the proposed system is efficient in terms of cost. The overall execution cost of the system is 6,900,000 gas units and the transaction cost is 5,200,000 gas units.
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Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are promising and emerging frameworks having a wide range of applications. The underwater sensor deployment is beneficial; however, some factors limit the performance of the network, i.e., less reliability, high end to end delay and maximum energy dissipation. The provisioning of the aforementioned factors has become a challenging task for the research community. In UWSNs, battery consumption is inevitable and has a direct impact on the performance of the network. Most of the time energy dissipates due to the creation of void holes and imbalanced network deployment. In this work, two routing protocols are proposed to avoid the void hole and extra energy dissipation problems due to which lifespan of the network will increase. To show the efficacy of the proposed routing schemes, they are compared with the state of the art protocols. Simulation results show that the proposed schemes outperform their counterpart schemes. By keeping in mind the emerging security issues in sensor networks, we have proposed a blockchain based trust model for sensor networks to enrich the security of the network. Additionally, this model provides security along with data immutability. We have used a private blockchain because it has all the security features that are necessary for a private sensor network. Moreover, private blockchain cannot be accessed by using the Internet. In the proposed trust model, the Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus algorithm is used due to its low computational power requirement. In PoA consensus mechanism, a group of the validator is selected for adding and maintaining blocks. Moreover, smart contracts are used to validate and transfer cryptocurrency to service providers. In the end, transaction and execution costs are also calculated for each function to testify the network suitability.
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In a research community, data sharing is an essential step to gain maximum knowledge from the prior work. Existing data sharing platforms depend on trusted third party (TTP). Due to involvement of TTP, such systems lack trust, transparency, security and immutability. To over come these issues, this thesis proposed a blockchain based secure data sharing platform by leveraging the benefits of interplanetary file system (IPFS). A meta data is uploaded to IPFS server by owner and then divided into n secret shares. The proposed scheme achieves security and access control by executing the access roles written in smart contract by owner. Users are first authenticated through RSA signatures and then submit the requested amount as a price of digital content. After the successful delivery of data, a user is encouraged to register reviews about data by announcing customer incentives. In this way, maximum reviews are submitted against every file. In this scenario, decentralized storage, Ethereum blockchain, encryption and decryption schemes and incentive mechanism are combined. To implement the proposed scenario, smart contracts are written in solidity and deployed on local Ethereum test network. The proposed scheme achieves transparency, security, access control, authenticity of owner and quality of data. In simulation results, an analysis is performed on gas consumption and actual cost required in terms of USD, so that a good price estimate can be done while deploying the implemented scenario in real setup. Moreover, computational time for different encryption schemes are plotted to represent the performance of implemented scheme, which is shamir secret sharing (SSS). Results show that SSS shows least computational time as compared to advanced encryption standard (AES) 128 and 256.
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Decision fusion is used to fuse classification results and improve the classification accuracy in order to reduce the consumption of energy and bandwidth demand for data transmission. Decentralized classification fusion problem was the reason to use belief function based decision fusion approach in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With the consideration of improving the belief function fusion approach, we have proposed four classification techniques namely Enhanced K-Nearest Neighbor (EKNN), Enhanced Extreme Learning Machine (EELM), Enhanced Support Vector Machine (ESVM), and Enhanced Recurrent Extreme Learning Machine (ERELM). In addition, WSNs are fallible to errors and faults because of their different software, hardware failures, and their deployment in diverse fields. These challenges require efficient fault detection methods to be used to detect faults in WSNs in a timely manner. We induced four type of faults: offset fault, gain fault, stuck-at fault, and out of bounds fault and used enhanced classification methods to solve the sensor failure issues. Experimental results show that ERELM has given the first best result for the improvement of belief function fusion approach. The other three proposed techniques ESVM, EELM, and EKNN have provided the second, third, and fourth best results, respectively. Proposed enhanced classifiers are used for fault detection and are evaluated using three performance metrics ,i.e., Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), and Error Rate (ER). In this thesis, the owner of the (Internet of Thing) IoT device can generate revenueby selling IoT device’s data to interested users. However, on the other hand, users do not trust the owner of IoT device for data trading and are not confident about the quality of data. Traditional data trading systems have many limitations, as they involve third party and lack: decentralization, security and reputation mechanisms. Therefore, in this thesis, we have leveraged the IoTs with blockchain technology to provide trustful data trading through automatic review system for monetizing IoT’s data. We have developed blockchain based review system for IoT data monetization using Ethereum smart contracts. Review system encourages the owner to provide authenticated data and solve the issues regarding data integrity, fake reviews and conflict between entities. Data quality is ensured to users through reviews and ratings about the data, stored in blockchain. To maintain the data integrity, we have used Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)-256 encryption technique to encrypt data. All transactions are secure and payments are automated without any human intervention. Arbitrator entity is responsible to resolve problems between data owner and users. Incentive is provided to users and arbitrator in order to maintain the user participation and honesty. Additionally, Ethereum blockchain system requires gas for every transaction. Simulations are performed for the validation of our system. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time. Simulations show that the proposed methods outperform the existing techniques and give better results for belief function and fault detection in datascience WSNs. Additionally, blockchain based data trading in IoT system requires gas for every transaction. We have examined our model using three parameters: gas consumption, mining time and encryption time.
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are vulnerable to faults because of their deployment in unpredictable and hazardous environments. This makes WSN prone to failure such as software, hardware, and communication failures. Due to the sensor’s limited resources and diverse deployment fields, fault detection in WSNs has become a daunting task. To solve this problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM), Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN), Stochastic Gradient Descent (SGD), Multilayer Perceptron (MLP), Random Forest (RF), and Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) classifiers are used for classification of gain, offset, spike, data loss, out of bounds, and stuck-at faults at the sensor level. Out of six faults, two of them are induced in the datasets, i.e., spike and data loss faults. Likewise, sensors embedded mobile phones are used for the collection of data for some specific task which can effectively save cost and time in Crowd Sensing Network (CSN). The quality of collected data depends on the participation level from all entities of CSN, i.e., service provider, service consumers and data collectors. In comparison with the centralized traditional incentive and reputation mechanisms, we propose a blockchain based incentive and reputation mechanism for CSNs, which mainly consists of three smart contracts. The incentives are used to stimulate the involvement of data collectors and motivate the participants to join the network. Also, the issue of privacy leakage is tackled by using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES128) technique. In addition to that, a reputation system is implemented to tackle the issues like untrustworthiness, fake reviews, and conflicts among entities. Through registering reviews, the system encourages data utilization by providing correct, consistent and reliable data. Furthermore, the results of first scenario are compared on the basis of their Detection Accuracy (DA), True Positive Rate (TPR), Matthews Correlation Coefficients (MCC), and F1-score. In this thesis, a comparative analysis is performed among the classifiers mentioned previously on real-world datasets and simulations demonstrate that the RF algorithm secures a better rate of fault detection than the rest of the classifiers. Similarly, the second scenario is evaluated through analyzing the gas consumption of all the smart contracts, whereas, the encryption technique is validated through comparing the execution time with base paper technique. Lastly, the reputation system is inspected through analyzing the gas consumption and mining time of input string length.
Conference Paper
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Internet of Things (IoTs) is widely growing domain of the modern era. With the advancement in technologies, the use of IoTs devices also increases. However, security risks regarding service provisioning and data sharing also increases. There are many existing security approaches, although these approaches are not suitable for IoT devices due to their limited storage and limited computation resources. These secure approaches also require a specific hardware. With the invention of blockchain technologies, many security risks are eliminated. With the help of blockchain, data sharing mechanism is also possible. In this paper, we proposed a novel secure service providing mechanism for IoTs by using blockchain. We introduced cloud nodes for maintaining the validity states of edge service providers. The rating and cryptocurrency is given to edge servers. Given rating and incentive is stored in cloud node and updated with respect to time. The smart contract is proposed to check the validity state of the edge server as well as compare and verify the service provided by edge servers. In our proposed system we perform service authentication at cloud layer as well as edge server layer. Moreover, by using Proof of Authority (PoA) consensus mechanism overall performance of our proposed system also enhanced.By experimental analysis it is shown, our proposed model is suitable for resource constrained devices.
Conference Paper
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The emergence of smart homes appliances has generated a high volume of data on smart meters belonging to different customers which, however, can not share their data in deregulated smart grids due to privacy concern. Although, these data are important for the service provider in order to provide an efficient service. To encourage customers participation, this paper proposes an access control mechanism by fairly compensating customers for their participation in data sharing via blockchain and the concept of differential privacy. We addressed the computational issues of existing ethereum blockchain by proposing a proof of authority consensus protocol through the Pagerank mechanism in order to derive the reputation scores. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed model to minimize privacy risk, maximize aggregator profit. In addition, gas consumption, as well as the cost of the computational resources, is reduced. Index Terms-Blockchain, consensus mechanism, proof of authority, privacy preserving and smart grid. I. INTRODUCTION Presently, because of the rapid growth of the world population and the technological innovations, a lot of energy is needed in a short period of time and during peak hours, and its effect increases the cost of production. Customers can, therefore, optimize their utilization based on the current energy demand and supply. As a result, demand response and dynamic pricing proposal are subject to privacy issues. In a smart grid, customers will share their hourly information load profile with a service provider only to allow a certain level of privacy to be maintained, which is a major barrier for customer participation. In order to efficiently aggregate customer data, while preserving their privacy, Liu et al. [1] propose a privacy-preserving mechanism for data aggregation. The proposed solution minimizes the cost of communication and computational overhead. However, a trusted environment is not considered. To achieve a trusted environment, several studies in [2]-[8] used blockchain as privacy-preserving mechanism for data aggregation; privacy protection and energy storage; secure classification of multiple data; incentive announcement network for smart vehicle; crowdsensing applications; dynamic tariff decision and payment mechanism for vehicle-to-grid. A survey concerning privacy protection using blockchain is discussed in [9]. The survey highlights all the existing