Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity
Demand and Supply
Maheen Zahid, Ishtiaq Ali, Raja Jalees Ul Hussen Khan, Zainib Noshad,
Atia Javaid, and Nadeem Javaid(B
COMSATS University Islamabad, Islamabad, Pakistan
email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com,
Abstract. The growing number of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in
the energy system provides new market approaches according to price
and decentralized generation of electricity. Local market, in which con-
sumers and prosumers can trade locally by generation of electricity
through RES directly within their community. This approach creates
a balance between generation and consumption in a decentralized man-
ner. In this paper, a distributed technology of Blockchain is used, which
highlights the decentralized nature of local market. It provides a decen-
tralized market platform for trading locally without the need of central
intermediary through Periodic Double Auction (PDA) mechanism. With
the introduction of Smart Grid (SG) systems, there have been improve-
ments in how utility companies interact with customers with regards of
electricity usage. However, there is a tendency for the data of users to
be compromised in SG. In this proposed system, users are able to do
trading through PDA and get access of their own previous history. The
blockchain provides transparency, traceability and is utilized to mitigate
the above mentioned problems. Smart contacts, are used to exclude the
third party to provide a transparent system between users in the network.
Keywords: Smart Grid ·Blockchain ·Electricity trading ·Periodic
Electricity plays a vital role in the development of the latest technologies. It is the
basic necessity for the economic development of any country. It is helpful in var-
ious areas: transportation, education, banking and computing etc and it enables
several revolutions. The integration of Information and Communication Technol-
ogy (ICT) in the traditional grid it becomes Smart Grid (SG). SG is an emerging
technology of this modern era . It provides the facility of bi-directional com-
munication between the utility and its consumers. It introduces the recently
advanced energy generation ways such as solar panels and charging/discharging
of Electric Vehicles (EV) . Smart Home (SH) is an important entity to make
Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020
L. Barolli et al. (Eds.): BWCCA 2019, LNNS 97, pp. 185–198, 2020.
186 M. Zahid et al.
any city smart. The SH directly communicates with SG through Smart Meter
(SM) to get electricity according to its demand. SG enables consumers to prop-
erly manage their electricity consumption through the Home Energy Manage-
ment System (HEMS) . The data recorded from the SM is transmitted directly
to SG in real-time through communication medium. SM’s data is stored in the
SG database and used for billing and also available for research purpose [4,5].
However, SG is a centralized system and it does not provide data access to the
users. Furthermore, the data stored in the SG systems may easily be tempered
by malicious attacks, which tend to increase the amount of electricity bill with-
out knowing the consumer and utility companies. Users do not know why they
are paying huge amount of bills. There are also many issues facing by consumer
and SG about users data such that: traceability, authorization, immutability,
security of data and single point of failure. To solve the above aforementioned
issues, a new emerging technology of blockchain is introduced.
A scientist named Satoshi Nakamoto gives the idea of “Bitcoin” digital cur-
rency, a form of electronic cash in 2008. A concept of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) online
trading of digital currency is introduced without the need of an intermediary
party . For electronic payments on the Internet, a trusted third party is
required as a ﬁnancial institution. Moreover, for P2P trading digital signatures
are used as an initiator to verify the existence of both parties. The crypto-
graphic proof is necessary to build trust that shows the willingness and trust-
worthiness of two parties. In this article, Satoshi proposed the system of P2P
trading. However, this concept is beneﬁcial for online trading, when any com-
pany or enterprise wants to use it practically. So, to implement this concept in
a real-time environment, an idea proposed about the innovative technology 
named “Blockchain” in 2015. According to this, Blockchain technology changed
the vision of the business model all over the world. It is an innovative disruption
in the world of computers, social networks. It is deﬁned as structural database
for decentralized storage of data . A block is a collection of data containing
related information known as transactions .
A timestamp shows the creation time of a block, when many transactions
are done and after that, a block is generated. A block comprises of header and
body. A header contains hash of the previous block, through which the current
block is combined with the previous one and current block knows about its
previous block through its hash. The body contains all the transactions and
their hashes. Once a block is a part of the chain then, it is very diﬃcult to
be tempered. When block is created and validated then, it becomes the part
of the chain due to its hash. Blockchain is classiﬁed into three types: public,
private and consortium blockchain. Public is open, anyone can be a part of
this. Private has some restrictions so, only authorized nodes are the part of the
network. Consortium blockchain contains half features of public and half features
of private. Its data is publicly available to users for read-only, while the write
access is available to just authorized nodes . Diﬀerent characteristics of these
three types of Blockchain are shown in Table1.
Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply 187
Diﬀerent consensus mechanisms are also used for the validation of blocks
and after consensus the block becomes the part of the chain. There are diﬀerent
kinds of consensus mechanisms which are as following: Proof of Work (POW),
Proof of Stake (POS), Proof of Identity (POI) and Proof of Authority (POA)
. The base of all other types of consensus mechanisms are POW.
Table 1. Characteristics of blockchain types
Type Openness Decentralization Wri te Read
Public Anyone Complete Any one Everyone
Private Speciﬁc individuals Partially Speciﬁc nodes Speciﬁc
Consortium Speciﬁc groups Partially Speciﬁc nodes Anyone
Now-a-days Blockchain is used in diﬀerent paradigms: in health monitoring,
data sharing, getting feedback from users, decentralized trading. To minimize
the chances of single point failure, unauthorized persons are not the part of any
network to prevent malicious attacks.
In this paper, the solution of blockchain based diﬀerent smart contracts are
proposed that creates a system of P2P trading through Periodic Double Auction
(PDA). Authorized users are just able to get access to their own data history.
Due to immutability, the users can easily see their original record ﬁle and this
data is not altered by anyone. Diﬀerent smart contracts are used to eliminated
the third party concept. It is beneﬁcial for users to prevent them to pay the huge
amount of taxes in their bills. Due to the deployment of smart contracts, the
users pay a small amount of ethers for the transaction.
Section 2described and discussed the related work. In Sect. 3, provided the
implementation details of the proposed model. Section 4summarized the main
ﬁnding of this paper.
2 Related Work
In , Blockchain based P2P energy trading platform is proposed for eﬃcient
transaction of power between prosumers and consumers. The suggested platform
is used two diﬀerent types of P2P trading scenarios: one is Pure P2P and the
other is Hybrid P2P. In Pure P2P trade, energy is used as a transaction item
and in Hybrid P2P, energy tag is used as a transaction. A Tag is assigned to
block for validation and transaction. The production of electrical energy from
diﬀerent domains are divided into ten diﬀerent categories. Some of them are
consumer-oriented and some of them are supply-oriented.
In , the authors presented the concept of sovereign Blockchain technology,
which prevents data tempering from any malicious source. It also maintained the
records of tempered data in side Blockchain. Consumers send their requests of
electricity according to their demand to SG through SM. The users monitored
188 M. Zahid et al.
their usage and also know about how much electricity they demand. If the tem-
pering happened then, the record of this tempered data is also kept in side chain
of the sovereign Blockchain.
Authors in , discussed the idea of distributed trading of electricity in
which nodes are used as: consumers and prosumers for P2P trading. They pro-
posed a model consists of two layers: one layer is Multi-Agent System (MAS)
used for the sustenance of prosumer side information of generation of electricity.
MAS enabled users to negotiate the prices and form coalition. The second layer
showed the secure and trustworthy trading through transactions between MAS
and Social Coordination Agent (SCA). The trading is secure due to Blockchain
based settlement system in which the double-chain and high-frequency veriﬁca-
tion mechanism worked parallelly, which helped to make trading transparent.
In every negotiation system, data is chained one by one and stored in the ﬁrst
chain. The high-frequency mechanism are used to detect any malicious activity
occurred between contract and ledger.
In this paper , the authors proposed the concept of Federated Power
Plants (FPP) and Virtual Power Plants (VPP). VPP made P2P transactions
through self-organizing users. They also discussed the incentive mechanism dur-
ing trade between prosumers and consumers. Two diﬀerent types of strategies
are proposed: Coordination between Distributed Energy Resources (DER) into
VPP and P2P energy trading platform.
Noor et al.  worked on the Demand Side Management (DSM) to improve
the reliability of the whole system. A game theoretic approach is used in sim-
ple DSM model, which does not only minimize the peak-to-average ratio in
SG. It also reduced the dips in a load proﬁle of users. Blockchain technology
implemented a DSM system to make P2P trading system secure. In , the
maintenance and skillful usage of natural resources are essentially related and
beneﬁcial for utilization of electricity. The use of the enormous powers, i.e., coal,
water, daylight, geothermal resources, wind and gravitational forces for elec-
tricity generation. In , the authors proposed a framework, which contains
seven components. These components are used to implement private Blockchain
in Brooklyn case study. In this paper, the authors introduced the merged con-
cept of MG and Blockchain to introduced MG energy market. Homes are acting
as prosumers and they generate electricity through PV. The physical layer is
showing the infrastructure of MG. Virtual layer displays the price and trad-
ing mechanism. Regulation layer tells about the government policies, taxes and
In , the authors addressed the issue of Demand Response (DR) with a
decentralized system and encouraged the consumers use less energy consumption
in on peak hours. The authors proposed the framework of Distributed Load
Balancing Trade Framework (LBTF) with two diﬀerent schemes: Utility-Grid
contract and MG contract. Consortium Blockchain is used and POW consensus
algorithm is public key encryption, digital signatures and hash functions are
used to maintain security of users’ information.
Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply 189
Pop et al.  used a Blockchain based model for storing, managing and val-
idation of DR in low or medium voltages of SGs. Blockchain stored all that data
in P2P distributed ledger network which is collected from IOT smart metering
devices in a secure manner which is called as temper proof mannered. Authors
implemented a new smart contract named as a self-enforcing smart contract
which is used for checked out and tracked each Distributed Energy Prosumer
(DEP) proﬁles. All DEPs are enrolled in DR program. Their penalties or rewards
are calculated here and it also detects the unbalanced grid energy for DR events.
In , the authors described the P2P energy trading system using coalition
formation method. Surplus energy and depicted energy MGs are also able to com-
municate directly with each other. They know about each other state and if they
want to share electricity, they trade easily with each other. A Blockchain-based
system provides this facility to maintain their state record, whether they want
to sell or buy electricity to fulﬁll the demand of their consumers. Blockchain pro-
vided secure transactions and a consensus mechanism allows every valid trans-
action to add in a block.
The utilities realized their role in the power systems. When the consumers’
need a power supply to fulﬁll their electricity demands. They directly contact
utilities. The authors in  described the responsibilities of utilities. They
collect domestic communities information because there is a rapid increase in
the usage of electricity. These modern systems fully spread the power markets
and also increased the accessibility of decentralized renewable power production.
However, the utilities are able to modernize their business models and support
SG markets by proﬁcient knowledge.
Wang et al. proposed the system of transactions between MGs through
Blockchain and they are using the continuous double auction mechanism for
trading . The authors proposed the concept of Unspent Transaction Out
(UTXO) model. In this system, the authors used Continuous Double Auction
(CDA) with Blockchain technology parallelly to achieved low-cost transactions
and transparent data of MG. Satoshi is used as a digital currency which is the
sixteenth part of the bitcoin. It is also used as a token. The mechanism of trad-
ing of electricity and transfer of tokens are very helpful. MGs can sell/ buy
their energy with each other. MGs are able to fulﬁll the requirements of their
consumers. In this system, the unique data structure of Blockchain conﬁrmed
the security of data. However, in this system, the authors ignored the power
ﬂuctuation in the main SG.
In , the authors discussed the issues of management and control of sus-
tainable energy forms. To solved these problems, blockchain implemented with
energy through the internet and gives the new concept of energy internet. It con-
sists of renewable energy generation, Energy Storage Devices (ESD) and inter-
net is used for connectivity between them. The energy internet involved various
energy forms and diﬀerent participants. The main contributions are to intro-
duce the compatibility of energy internet and blockchain technology. Blockchain
is implemented in many companies and is helpful to provide decentralized appli-
cations, however, the excessive power usage is considered. It is just suitable for
190 M. Zahid et al.
some small communities and the practical implementation on a huge commercial
level needs more resources. Smart Community (SC) is a necessary part of the
Internet of Energy (IoE) which connected all the RES, SG and EV. Permissioned
blockchain is used on the basis of smart contracts for secure and private com-
munication. The authors proposed reputation based Delegated Byzantine Fault
Tolerance (DBFT) consensus algorithm for energy trading. Users also take elec-
tricity from traditional SG or electricity generated through RES, it depends on
EV user. Furthermore, this system is designed for SGs, however, prosumers are
not considered to participate in it.
In , authors proposed the privacy preserving mechanism through private
blockchain. Authors in [25,26] proposed incentive mechanism and repudiation
Table 2. Summary of related work of blockchain
Proposed models Achievements Limitations
 Energy Internet with
Reduced costs Reliability and excessive
LEM Short term electricity
High Energy Consumption
 Grid Monitoring
Customer utility control Storage Capacity is small
 MAS system Eﬃcient negotiation
Interruption of third party
 FPP platform Conﬁdential coordination
Cost consumption is very
 Game theoretic model Reduce peak-to-average
ratio and reduced dips
Storage capacity is less
 Brooklyn MG Scalability and robustness Cost is high
LBTF Privacy and integration of
between nodes is very high
 Decentralized DR
DSM system Multi stakeholder market
 P2P using distributed
Trust and robustness Speciﬁc for only two MGs
UTXO Low cost transactions and
Ignored the power
ﬂuctuation in the main SG
DBFT Energy trading Third party is involved
 Pure P2P and hybrid
Invalid transaction, energy
loss, cost eﬃcient
Privacy and no access
control of users
POC Saved the labor cost,
minimized the human
Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply 191
system through blockchain for data storage of IoT devices on cloud edge network.
In [27–29] authors used blockchain for data trading and store health records of
patients on IPFS. Authors in [30–32] performed node recovery in wireless sensor
networks and provide secure communication in crowd sensor networks through
blockchain (Table 2).
2.1 Problem Statement
Home Energy Management Controller (HEMC) is a centralized system which
monitors and controls the home appliances. A consumer requests its electricity
demand through SM to SG which can reveal the consumption behavior in front
of third party . In such a way, all the data of users can be easily hacked and
the malicious person can extract the behavior of users about the routine of the
SH dwellers or inhabitants. Authors in  proposed cloud based systems to save
the large amount of data. SG uses cloud to store vast amount of the information
of users. They send their requests of electricity demand and get early responses
of their requests. However, the communication between users and cloud is not
secured. The record maintained about users detail cannot be seen by users.
Users are not able to get access of their own proﬁle history, i.e., demand history
of electricity. So, any malicious person can hack the cloud server and can change
the users data. In result, the users received huge amount of bills. SG is a single
entity to fulﬁll the electricity demand of consumers. In , the authors provide
the facility of P2P trading through DSO between users to divide the load of SG.
However, authorization of users is not considered. Anonymous users can also
become the part of the trading. Moreover, the users are not able to know about
the available amount of electricity from DSO. In , authors used Blockchain
for decentralized trading. However, the users purchase electricity on the deﬁned
prices of utility which is considered as one sided market. Users pay taxes to third
party which acts as a communication link between prosumers and consumers.
The data of users is maintained by DSO. However, there is also an issue of
data integrity and conﬁdentiality. In this paper, the Blockchain is implemented
for decentralized and P2P trading between diﬀerent consumers and prosumers.
Authorized users can just participate through PDA  and do negotiation on
prices. They also get access their own previous history of electricity (selling and
buying). If an unauthorized user wants to change the data in Blockchain, or wants
to add any malicious block in the chain the hash of the block will be changed and
a new block is generated. Due to distributed ledger, P2P decentralized trading
and immutable nature, the existing block of data remains same.
3 Proposed System Model
This section describes the methodology adopted for the study. The description
of the system model represents in Fig. 1is given below. This proposed model is
designed by taking motivation from ﬁgs in .
192 M. Zahid et al.
History Smart Grid
Fig. 1. System model
Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply 193
3.1 User Layer
The user layer contains all the entities who purchase electricity from the market
for the beginning and running of processes that are necessary for routine works.
Prosumers and consumers can directly communicate with each other without
any central party.
They can share their information through blockchain either they want to
sell electricity or they need to buy energy from any prosumer. There is a small
community in which the registered users are able to do trading. All the infor-
mation about available electricity sell and buy can be seen by authorized users.
A home which has PV panel for electricity generation it acts as a prosumer.
When a home has surplus energy after its own usage, then it is able to sell
this surplus energy to those homes which are energy deﬁcient. All those homes
which purchase electricity to fulﬁl their electricity demand called consumers.
This layer connects with information layer and users provide some information
to get registered themselves for become the part of the network.
3.2 Information Layer
It is a second layer of the system model. It comprises of two parts: registration
and authentication. When a user wants to be a part of this system then, he must
register himself through interface by providing some necessary information his
name, password and email address. In addition to this, the user gets its speciﬁc
unique ID and every user has its own proﬁle. All the information of user is saved
on Blockchain and the data stored in the form of hash in block.
In this paper, users are ﬁrstly registered themselves and after the authenti-
cation they get access to see the history of their previous usage.
When user enters its unique ID and password, the hash will be calculated and
matched with the copy of the existing hash which is already saved in Blockchain.
If the user can enter wrong ID or password, then the hashes are diﬀerent and
it does not matched with the already calculated hashes. The system shows a
message or give pop up notiﬁcation, your ID or password is incorrect.
The users demand and generation of electricity measured from SM details
either this user have surplus amount of energy or energy deﬁcient. On the basis of
this information, the deﬁcient and surplus energy details saved in a blockchain
and it is a distributed ledger. Every user in the blockchain network have the
record of all the transactions happened.
The users demand and generation of electricity measured from SM details
either this user has excess amount of energy or needs energy to buy. On the
basis of this information, the deﬁcient energy and surplus energy details saved
in a blockchain and it is a distributed ledger. Every user in the network have the
record of all the transactions done in the blockchain.
3.3 Market Layer
First of all, the consumer gets login from his unique ID and after that, the
consumers can place their order in an open market according to their requirement
194 M. Zahid et al.
and also their suggested prices for buying and selling. Prosumers give a response
to that consumer who submit its required demand of electricity to buy. The
PDA helds for price negotiation between consumer and prosumer. The price
auction occurs within a speciﬁc time slot for one bid. When bidding is done,
then trading occurs. A message is broadcasted in blockchain to SG provides
this amount of electricity to that consumer. Every user is known by its special
account address in blockchain. It provides the required quantity of electricity
to that speciﬁc consumer. The transaction cost is deducted for double auction
and for the transfer of electricity from the consumer account. All the data of
sell/purchase is maintained in blockchain through hashes. It is a distributed
ledger which maintains all the records of every transaction in a block. A block
creates when all the transactions are added in it for single bidding. A single
block can store more than one transaction and it depends upon the consensus
mechanism is using in the system. After the generation and validation of a block,
it becomes the part of the chain. The users can also be able to see the history of
their own usage of energy. The history contains all the information of user details
i.e., meter id, amount of electricity demand, electricity sell, electricity buy and
timestamp. SG maintains all the history record of every user. Consumer and
prosumer can access their own history of sell and purchase through proﬁle. They
can also see that how much extra quantity purchased from prosumer, how much
electricity consumed. Blockchain provides transparency and immutability.
In this layer, blockchain used to make the system secure and users access their
own history. SG acts as a prosumer here. SG is connected physically with all the
consumers. So, when the bidding is going to be happen between prosumers and
consumers, for transfer of energy to that speciﬁc consumer, then Prosumer sends
message to SG to transfer electricity to a speciﬁc consumer. Every prosumer
provides its surplus energy to SG. After the authentication, then user can also
be able to do trading and also get access their own data: how much electricity
sells at which time and at which price. It checks all the buying and selling
transactions. When all the transactions are done then a block is generated and
after the validation of a block, it becomes the part of the chain. Hashes of
transactions are calculated. These hashes are used to verify about the ownership
of sender through its address. Every node in a network has its speciﬁc address
and all the nodes in the network are anonymous. So, no one can see the name
or other details of any user, the address of the account is just visible.
For energy trading within a small community, electricity is generated through
PV panels and the PDA mechanism is used. PDA used closed order book system
for trading. A particular clearing price is obtained for every single time slot t.
In this speciﬁc time slot, one bidder could be entertained. Consumer can send
their demand of particular amount of electricity and price into the market for
bidding. When prosumers received the order, then they reply their own prices and
quantity for bidding. After that, the prices are matched between both of them.
Then, prosumer sends encrypted message through its SM to SG, provide this
speciﬁc amount of electricity to this speciﬁc consumer. SG decrypts this message
through the public key of user. The price of per unit of sell/ purchase of electricity
is followed by the tariﬀ price given by utility market. Prosumers cannot send their
Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply 195
surplus energy to consumers below the minimum price limit of tariﬀ. Consumers
cannot purchase the electricity per unit more than the maximum price limit
already deﬁned by the utility. Electricity cannot be sell or buy from SG in this
local market. SG is also acts as a prosumer here because it is physically connected
to every SM to provide electricity.
4 Simulations and Results
In this section, the implementation details is based upon an open source platform
of Ethereum blockchain, which inherits some technical features and block cre-
ation after validation. Market mechanism and authentication of users by RBACS
are implemented through smart contracts which are written in solidity language.
The speciﬁcations for implementation setup are: intel(R) core (TM) m3-7Y30
CPU@1.61 GHz, 8 GB RAM, 64 bit Operating system and X64-based proces-
using for front user interactive form. The tools used to develop this system are
Visual Studio Code: It is an open source editor designed by Microsoft for
diﬀerent windows and operating systems. It is used for code compilation and
also supports java script for user interface. Ganache: It is a virtual emulator
which has ten addresses of Ethereum accounts and each account contains 100
ethers. It is used as a wallet to test the smart contracts, to run test and to execute
diﬀerent commands. Meta mask: It is the extension which is added in a browser
to create connectivity between ganache and smart contract for transactions.
For simulations, python language is used and Spyder is used as a tool to
perform all of these results are showing here.
Diﬀerent graphs are showing about the transaction cost and execution cost of
various smart contracts. Transaction cost is the total gas consumption of sending
data to the blockchain . Transaction gas depends on four things: Base cost of
a transaction is 21000 gas. Base fee is the cost of an operation which retrieve
the sender address from the signature. The minimum deployment cost of the
contract is 32000 gas, zero byte data or cost for a code of transaction and the
cost of nonzero byte of data or the cost for a code of transaction. Execution cost
is also included in a transaction cost. Execution gas is the cost which depends on
the cost of computation operation of every line of code in a function. Basically,
the execution cost is the everything cost which is used as a runtime cost used
for the calling of single method or function.
Figure 2shows the execution and transaction costs of the contract to deploy
and calling of every function. The contract is used to do double auction at which
the global variables call. This graph represents the diﬀerence in transaction cost
and execution of every function. The total transaction and execution gas con-
sumed for the deployment of these contract is $0.8541 and $0.4310, respectively.
The diﬀerent bars show the diﬀerent amount for execution and transaction gas.
Transaction cost of every function is high because it contains execution cost of
that function and also it contains the deployment of every function in smart
contact (Fig. 3).
196 M. Zahid et al.
Fig. 2. Double sided auction
Fig. 3. Data access
5 Conclusion and Future Work
Blockchain is used to do decentralized trading. Through PDA mechanism, users
are able to purchase electricity according to their own suggested prices. In this
proposed work, authorized users are just able to do trading and also achieved
immutability, decentralization and data security. In this paper, users are also
able to see their own history (buy and sell electricity). Authentic users are just
able to do trading and access their history through interface. Smart contracts
are used to remove third party. PDA is used to do negotiation in prices and pur-
chase electricity according to demand. Gas consumption prices are also analyzed
through calculation of transaction cost and execution cost of smart contracts.
The challenge of this work is limited amount of storage. In future, decentralized
storage is used to store large amount of data on it.
Blockchain Based Balancing of Electricity Demand and Supply 197
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