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Essential oil of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium): Composition and applications as alternatives to pesticides—New tendencies

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The widespread use of pesticides has made them into a frequent pollutant of soils and water. The usage of essential oils has gathered the attention of the scientific research community in the last decade as they present a reduced environmental impact compared to conventional pesticides and are equally or more effective in controlling pests in crops. Pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) essential oil is of particular interest due to its traditional usage in plague/pest control. In fact, recent studies show that it is highly effective and presents a broad spectrum of action as a biocide, affecting bacteria, fungi, yeast, insects, acarines, parasites, nematodes, and plants. This is mainly due to the most common constituents of the essential oil, pulegone and menthone, which are known to have strong pesticidal and antioxidant properties. This review focus on summarizing and systematizing the composition and efficacy as a biocide of M. pulegium essential oils and the developments of the last decade regarding the usage of M. pulegium essential oil as an alternative to pesticides. Encapsulation and inclusion in biofilms are also mentioned as strategies to incorporate M. pulegium essential oil in applications associated with pharmaceutical and food industries.
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... According to the literature, GP and GS extracts and oils are used in many diverse industries-for instance, the food, and cosmetic industry-with very different purposes, as shown in Figure 2. The extracts from GP and GS are rich in bioactive compounds that have advantages since they exhibit therapeutical and functional properties, beneficial to the human being [19][20][21]. Some recent studies, exhibited in Table 1, show that extracts obtained from these by-products have been incorporated in both industries. ...
... Over the past years, the cosmetic industry has evolved to create and develop new products, entitled green cosmetics, that is, products in which formulations are of natural origin or mainly with natural ingredients. These ingredients have advantages against synthetic compounds since they are biodegradable and exhibit therapeutic and functional properties, beneficial to the human being [20,21]. This industry has focused on using BAC from natural sources-such as agricultural by-products, plants, amid others -not only as it helps to develop a value-added product (since the product is more sustainable) but also generates a more appealing products for consumers [3,21]. ...
... These ingredients have advantages against synthetic compounds since they are biodegradable and exhibit therapeutic and functional properties, beneficial to the human being [20,21]. This industry has focused on using BAC from natural sources-such as agricultural by-products, plants, amid others -not only as it helps to develop a value-added product (since the product is more sustainable) but also generates a more appealing products for consumers [3,21]. ...
Article
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Grape pomace and grapeseed are agro-industrial by-products, whose inadequate treatment generates socioeconomic and environmental concerns. Nevertheless, it is possible to valorize them by extracting their bioactive compounds, such as antioxidants (phenolic compounds), vitamin E and fatty acids. The bioactive compounds were extracted using solid-liquid extraction. The yields for phenolic compounds were 18.4 ± 0.4% for grape pomace, and 17.4 ± 0.4%, for grapeseed. For the oil, the yields were 13.3 ± 0.2% and 14.5 ± 0.3% for grape pomace and grapeseed. Antioxidant capacity was assessed by the assay with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and showed that phenolic extract has higher antioxidant capacity than the oils. Grape pomace and grapeseed extracts exhibit, correspondingly, values of 90.8 ± 0.8 and 87.5 ± 0.5 of DPPH inhibition and IC50 of 48.9 ± 0.5 and 55.9 ± 0.7 μgextract·mLDPPH −1. The antimicrobial capacity was assessed by the disk diffusion test, and revealed that, phenolic extracts inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The obtained extracts were incorporated in 10 face cream formulations, with slight modifications in quantities of formulation stabilizers. Their stability was studied for 35 days, and this revealed the possibility of incorporating extracts and oils obtained from by-products as antioxidants in cosmetics, and replacing synthetic ones. As a future recommendation, microencapsulation of the extracts should be performed, in order to increase their stability.
... Mentha pulegium L., a herbaceous perennial plant (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) has been proven to exhibit potential antioxidant, antifungal, antibacterial, anthelmintic, acaricidal and insecticidal activities (Attia et al. 2012;Bouyahya et al. 2017;Domingues and Santos 2019;Sebai et al. 2020;Allali et al. 2021). Regarding insecticidal activities, high contact, inhalation and/or ingestion insecticidal toxicities of Mentha pulegium essential oils have been shown against several insect pest species, which has encouraged the application of M. pulegium essential oils as a sustainable pest control alternative to chemical pesticides. ...
... As indicated earlier, M. pulegium essential oil exhibited high levels of toxicity toward nymphs of the three scale insect species involved in our study, which is the first scientific research effort to demonstrate this. A number of research articles already showed the great potential of applying M. pulegium essential oil as a sustainable insect pest control alternative to the use of hazardous chemical pesticides (Domingues and Santos 2019). These authors indicated that the promising insecticidal properties of M. pulegium essential oil, being effective against insects belonging to the Orders Hemiptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera, are mainly due to its most common constituents, which are pulegone and menthone. ...
Article
Applying botanical extracts with potential insecticidal actvity has long been considered a promising eco-friendly alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. In the present study, we evaluated the contact toxicity of Mentha pulegium essential oil (applied at either 2.73 mg/L, 9.56 mg/L, 13.65 mg/L, 27.31 mg/L, or 40.96 mg/L) toward three pest scales, Planococcus citri, Aonidiella aurantii, and Chrysomphalus aonidum, and two chemical insecticides, chlorpyrifos (100 mL/hL) and spirotetramat (120 mL/hL), against P. citri and A. aurantii under laboratoty conditions. Toxicity of M. pulegium essential oil and both insecticides was also assessed on the coccinellid predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri. The highest mortality rates for all scale insect nymphs (> 97% for A. aurantii and 100% for P. citri or C. aonidum) were obtained following essential oil application at a dose of 40.96 mg/L. Lowest mortality rate (3.6 ± 0.92%) of C. montrouzieri adults was induced by an essential oil application at a dose of 8.95 mg/L, compared to either dose 11.26 mg/L or 17.66 mg/L. Both chemical insecticides significantly affected survival of mealybug and armored scale insect nymphs until 21 days after treatment. Chlorpyrifos, being highly effective against P. citri and A. aurantii, was significantly more toxic than spirotetramat toward both A. aurantii nymphs and predatory C. montrouzieri adults until three weeks after treatment. Using M. pulegium essential oil in combination with spirotetramat could be recommended for eco-friendly, sustainable control of P. citri, A. aurantii and C. aonidum in citrus orchards while minimizing harmful side effects on C. montrouzieri.
... It was first isolated from the EO of Mentha pulegium (L.) (also known as pennyroyal), where it can be encountered in consistently higher concentrations (70-97 %) (Božović and Ragno, 2017;Franzios et al., 1997;Kokkini et al., 2002;Weglarz and Zalecki, 1985). Pulegone, alongside menthone (when present) is responsible for many of the active properties of the M. pulegium oil, but is regarded as the most effective compound against arthropods (Domingues and Santos, 2019). Synergistic and antagonistic effects have also been observed for Pulegone, as it seems to be highly reliant on its compatibility with other compounds in the mixture (Domingues and Santos, 2019). ...
... Pulegone, alongside menthone (when present) is responsible for many of the active properties of the M. pulegium oil, but is regarded as the most effective compound against arthropods (Domingues and Santos, 2019). Synergistic and antagonistic effects have also been observed for Pulegone, as it seems to be highly reliant on its compatibility with other compounds in the mixture (Domingues and Santos, 2019). ...
Article
Agricultural activity relays deeply on the usage of synthetic insecticides for pest control, however, the extensive use or misuse of these substances can have negative impacts on the environment, human health and even on agricultural ecological subsystems. Essential oils (EOs) are secondary metabolites synthesized in plant secretory structures that are less hazardous to the environment and safer to handle, with known effectivity against arthropods, thus presenting a viable eco-friendly alternative for typical synthetic insecticides. Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major threat for citrus production, expanding rapidly throughout the Iberian Peninsula. To this day, no effective control method to sustainably control T. erytreae populations has thus far been obtained and the effects of EOs on this pest have not yet been documented. In this study, the insecticidal potential of EOs active compounds Eugenol (99%), Pulegone (85%) and their combination was assessed by determining their toxicity through topical application on T. erytreae nymphs and their phytotoxicity on Citrus limon ((L.) Burm.), T. erytreae preferred host, in laboratory conditions. Pulegone was more toxic to T. erytreae nymphs than Eugenol, showing the lowest LD50 values both after 24 h (0.005 µL.nymph⁻¹) and 48 h (0.003 µL.nymph⁻¹) whereas for the LD90, the combination of both oils was the most toxic both after 24 h (0.020 µL.nymph⁻¹) and 48 h (0.012 µL.nymph⁻¹). On concentrations equal or lower than 3.60%, Eugenol presented the highest phytotoxic effect. In concentrations that did not pose a significant phytotoxic effect on C. limon, the combination of both active compounds exhibited the highest nymphal mortality. The beneficial integration of both Eugenol and Pulegone in a mixture was shown to be the best approach for utilizing these compounds, but care in their concentrations must be taken, given the possible effects on phytotoxicity. This preliminary study presents new insights on the potential effects of EOs on T. erytreae and their applicability in citrus crops, thus making an entry way for the development of more sustainable control strategies for this pest control.
... Pulegone (5-methyl-2-propan-2-ylidenecyclohexan-1-one) is an oxygenated monoterpene and one of the main components in essential oils from species of Mentha [28,29]. Different bioactivities have been described for pulegone, such as antifeedant; a biocidal against bacteria, fungi, and yeasts; and insect repellency activity [29][30][31][32]. Pulegone has also been shown to display a strong phytotoxic activity, suppressing germination and seedling growth of several plant species, such as Lactuca sativa and Cucumis sativus [23,24]. ...
... Accordingly, the enantioselective behavior of this monoterpene should be considered, both to understand its ecological functions, and if intended to be used as a natural herbicide. Given that monoterpenes are, in general, labile in the environment, their activities may be constrained by their susceptibility to volatilize [35] and by their short-half-lives in soils [6,31]. On the starting hypothesis that a deep understanding of the soil processes that dictate the behavior of monoterpenes in the soil environment will help a better assessment of their real ecological function and potential as ecofriendly herbicides, the objectives of this work were: (i) to characterize the adsorption and dissipation of the two enantiomeric forms of the monoterpene pulegone in soils with different physicochemical characteristics; (ii) to assess their phytotoxicity to different plant species through Petri dish and soil bioassays; and (iii) to demonstrate that reducing the dissipation losses of pulegone by enhancing the soil adsorption process can increase its phytotoxic activity and may represent a mechanism by which the bioactivity of monoterpenes in the soil environment can be potentiated. ...
Article
Full-text available
Plant monoterpenes have received attention for their ecological functions and as potential surrogates for synthetic herbicides, but very little is known about the processes that govern their behavior in the soil environment, and even less about the possible enantioselectivity in the functions and environmental behavior of chiral monoterpenes. We characterized the adsorption and dissipation of the two enantiomers of the chiral monoterpene pulegone in different soils, and their phytotoxicity to different plant species through Petri dish and soil bioassays. R- and S-pulegone displayed a low-to-moderate non-enantioselective adsorption on the soils that involved weak interaction mechanisms. Soil incubation experiments indicated that, once in the soil, R- and S-pulegone are expected to suffer rapid volatilization and scarcely enantioselective, biodegradation losses. In Petri dishes, the phytotoxicity of pulegone and its enantioselectivity to Lactuca sativa, Hordeum vulgare, and Eruca sativa was species-dependent. Lactuca sativa was the most sensitive species and showed higher susceptibility to S- than to R-pulegone. Biodegradation and volatilization losses greatly reduced the phytotoxic activity of S-pulegone applied to soil, but the addition of a highly-adsorptive organoclay stabilized the monoterpene and increased its phytotoxic effect. Stabilization by adsorption may represent an important mechanism by which the bioactivity of plant monoterpenes in soils can be increased.
... Essential oil and extract of herbs have ingredients that can enhance organoleptic characteristics (aroma, color, and flavor) and be applied for decreasing some chemical and microbial activities. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plants and fruits are related to the amount of phenolic agents [6]. Several researchers have reported that Mentha piperita essential oil is of a good potential to be added to cassava in order to make antimicrobial coating or film for food packaging [7]. ...
... It grows mostly in Asia, specifically Iran, Europe, and Africa. The antibacterial and antioxidant potency of M. pulegium has been mostly related to the presence of pulegone, piperitone, and menthone [6]. Barberry (Berberis vulgaris L. family Berberidaceae) fruit is cultivated in Asia, in Iran particularly. ...
Article
The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant attributes of chitosan (CH) incorporated with Berberis vulgaris extract (BE) and Mentha pulegium essential oil (MEO) on the shelf life of turkey breast meat packaged with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% CO 2 and 20% N 2) at refrigerated temperature. The alterations in thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), pH, color, odor, texture, and taste, as physico-chemical and senso-rial factors, were investigated. In addition, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts-molds, Pseudomonas spp., and total viable counts (TVC) for microbial situation were monitored during 25 days of storage. The outcomes of microbial counts and lipid oxidation revealed a significantly lower count and oxidation level in CH-BE 2%-M and CH-BE 4%-M treatments on the 25th day of storage. According to these outcomes, the appropriate method of CH coating incorporated with BE and MEO could be an enhancing approach to decreasing deterioration of turkey meat in modified atmosphere packaging.
... Essential oil and extract of herbs have ingredients that can enhance organoleptic characteristics (aroma, color, and flavor) and be applied for decreasing some chemical and microbial activities. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plants and fruits are related to the amount of phenolic agents [6]. Several researchers have reported that Mentha piperita essential oil is of a good potential to be added to cassava in order to make antimicrobial coating or film for food packaging [7]. ...
... It grows mostly in Asia, specifically Iran, Europe, and Africa. The antibacterial and antioxidant potency of M. pulegium has been mostly related to the presence of pulegone, piperitone, and menthone [6]. Barberry (Berberis vulgaris L. family Berberidaceae) fruit is cultivated in Asia, in Iran particularly. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial and antioxidant attributes of chitosan (CH) incorporated with Berberis vulgaris extract (BE) and Mentha pulegium essential oil (MEO) on the shelf life of turkey breast meat packaged with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP: 80% CO2 and 20% N2) at refrigerated temperature. The alterations in thiobarbituric acid value (TBARS), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), pH, color, odor, texture, and taste, as physico-chemical and sensorial factors, were investigated. In addition, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts–molds, Pseudomonas spp., and total viable counts (TVC) for microbial situation were monitored during 25 days of storage. The outcomes of microbial counts and lipid oxidation revealed a significantly lower count and oxidation level in CH-BE 2%-M and CH-BE 4%-M treatments on the 25th day of storage. According to these outcomes, the appropriate method of CH coating incorporated with BE and MEO could be an enhancing approach to decreasing deterioration of turkey meat in modified atmosphere packaging.
... Many natural products released by living organisms have a positive or negative influence on neighboring living organisms, a phenomenon known as allelopathy [5]. The use of allelochemicals as active ingredients in formulations for crop protection has been proposed, considering that allelochemicals can be potential eco-friendly substitutes or complements to synthetic pesticides [6][7][8][9]. Given that herbicidal, fungicidal, and insecticidal properties have been ascribed to many allelochemicals [10], these could help decrease the amounts of conventional pesticides introduced into the environment, reducing problems related to contamination, toxicity, and pest resistance [11]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Based on the effects that allelochemicals can exert over organisms, their use as alternatives to synthetic pesticides has been proposed. To this aim, it is important to understand their behavior in soils as allelochemicals can readily dissipate by different routes. In this work, novel granules based on the commercial organoclay Cloisite® 10A were prepared as a new strategy for the possible application of S-carvone as a bioherbicide, overcoming its rapid dissipation in the environment. Batch release, degradation, mobility, and phytotoxicity tests in soil were performed. Until now, the phytotoxicity of organoclay-based formulations of S-carvone in soil has not been studied. The release of S-carvone in water from the granules occurred slowly. There were no differences in the persistence of the allelochemical after its application to soil as a free compound (readily available form) or supported on granules. However, the granulated formulation reduced and delayed the leaching of S-carvone, thus controlling its downward movement in soil columns, as compared to the free S-carvone. Bioassays revealed that S-carvone supported on granules reduced the germination and aerial biomass of Lactuca sativa L. to a greater extent than the free compound. Our results demonstrated that the prepared formulation of S-carvone, based on granules of the commercial organoclay Cloisite® 10A, could be used to control transport losses, such as leaching or volatilization, increasing the bioefficacy of the allelochemical. These findings could inspire further investigations for the preparation of novel formulations of monoterpenes as potential bioherbicides.
... The Mentha pulegium plant is mainly characterised by a pungent minty scent, presenting a prostate stance except during flowering when it becomes upright, and blooming pink to blue flower clusters. Extracts obtained from this plant, including the EO, have traditionally been used in the last centuries in food preparation and also as antiseptic, antispasmodic, carminative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial [11], aromatic stimulant, analgesic, and abortifacient [12]. Nano-emulsification of essential oils (EOs) is one of the common techniques that prevent the EO interaction with food components and improve its bioavailability and absorption [13]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Today, the increasing use of chemical preservatives in foods is considered one of the main problems in food industries. This study aimed to produce the pasteurised Doogh (Iranian yogurt drink) containing a nanoemulsion of essential oil (EO) with appropriate quality. A factorial test based on a completely randomised design with two treatments in three levels, including EO type (pennyroyal, Gijavash, and their equal combination) and a control sample was applied to assess the physicochemical and sensory properties of Doogh. The highest negative zeta potential and antioxidant activity percentage were observed in the sample containing the nanoemulsion of pennyroyal and enriched with a combination of two essential oils. The microbial evaluation results indicated that the total microorganism count was minimised in the Doogh containing the nanoemulsion of Gijavash. The nanoemulsions of pennyroyal and Gijavash can be added into Doogh formulation to produce a new product with maximum sensory acceptability.
... Among the most employed natural biopesticides, there are microbial larvicides (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis var. Israelensis or Wolbachia) [2] natural essential oils (e.g., oil of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium) or Ruta chalepensis [3][4][5] entomopathogenic fungi, such as Metarhizium anisopliae or Beauveria bassiana (Bb) [6][7][8]. Precision pest management approaches, PPM [9,10], are diametrically opposite to random chemical spraying. ...
Article
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Pest management is looking for green and cost-effective innovative solutions to control tiger mosquitoes and other pests. By using biomimetic principles and biocompatible/biodegradable biopolymers, it could be possible to develop a new approach based on substrates that selectively attract insects by reproducing specific natural environmental conditions and then kill them by hosting and delivering a natural biopesticide or through mechanical action (biomimetic lure and kill approach, BL&K). Such an approach can be theoretically specialized against tiger mosquitoes (BL&K-TM) by designing hydrogels to imitate the natural oviposition site's conditions to employ them inside a lure and kill ovitraps as a biomimetic oviposition substrate. In this work, the hydrogels have been prepared to prove the concept. The study compares lab/on-field oviposition between standard substrates (absorbing paper/masonite) and a physical and chemically crosslinked hydrogel composition panel. Then the best performing is characterized to evaluate a correlation between the hydrogel's properties and oviposition. Tests identify a 2-Hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC)-based physical hydrogel preparation as five times more attractive than the control in a lab oviposition assay. When employed on the field in a low-cost cardboard trap, the same substrate is seven times more capturing than a standard masonite ovitrap, with a duration four times longer.
... Natural oil extracted from Mentha pulegium was considered a corrosion inhibitor of steel in molar hydrochloric using weight loss measurements and electrochemical polarization [39,40]. Pennyroyal essential oil is an effective biocide against a wide range of pests [41]. Dietary supplementation of pennyroyal was found to ameliorate feed conversion ratio and lactic acid bacteria count as well as lessened Escherichia coli count of the jejunum in broilers [42]. ...
Article
Background Natural herbal medicines may contribute to prevent and treat various diseases, and they have substantial medicinal properties. Objective The goal of this manuscript is to survey natural benefits, chemical components, and medicinal values of pennyroyal. Methods The goal of this manuscript was to outline the most notable advantages and pharmaceutical benefits of pennyroyal. The manuscript includes review articles, randomized control experiments, analytical studies and observations, which have been gathered from different sources such as Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct and PubMed. A review of the literature was carried out using the keywords such as pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium L., natural products and pharmaceutical benefits. Results The major pennyroyal essential oils are pulegone, menthone, isomenthone, piperitone, mentol, neo-menthol and 3-Octanol. The major health benefits of pennyroyal are antiseptic, depurative, digestive, anti-rheumatic, anti-arthritic, antimicrobial, antibacterial, stomachic, astringent, emmenagogue, decongestant and insecticide. Conclusion Nutrition therapy on the basis of traditional medicinal science is definitely useful for treating common diseases. Pennyroyal has notable promising health benefits, and its phytochemical and pharmacological benefits indicate its importance in modern medicinal studies.
... Although the salt presence did not affect EO composition quantitatively, significant effects can be seen in the abundances of their major components. In general, the obtained results are in accordance with previous studies of M. pulegium EOs whereas it can be seen from numerous studies that EOs are characterized by having predominant compound above 90%; having a relatively simple composition, and being rich in menthone and pulegone which are two most commonly found constituents in M. pulegium EO (Domingues and Santos, 2019;Mollaei et al., 2020). Previous investigations also showed that variations in main components of EOs from M. pulegium can be related to seasonal variation, geographical location, plant part used, and all these factors affecting the biological activities of M. pulegium EOs (Marzouk et al., 2008;Kimbaris et al., 2017;Benomari et al., 2018;Mollaei et al., 2020). ...
Article
Plant secondary metabolites, including essential oils, are very important in the adaptive responses to stress conditions. Salt stress is a major element in natural saline habitats. Plants adapted to variations in substrate salinity (such as facultative halophytes) are very suitable for comparative analysis of the adaptive response under saline conditions on natural habitats. Based on their distribution on both saline and non-saline habitats, Teucrium scordium L. and Mentha pulegium L. were selected to determine the potential importance of essential oil components in the adaptive response to salt-induced stress conditions as stress-related metabolites. Quantitative-qualitative analysis of essential oils in plant material of the tested species sampled from two saline habitats was performed and compared with samples from non-saline habitat. The prepared plant material of T. scordium and M. pulegium was hydrodistilled using a Clevenger-type apparatus by standard procedure. Volatile compounds were analyzed by GC/MS. The qualitative composition of the T. scordium and M. pulegium essential oils are related to the substrate salinity. The results obtained for the composition of the essential oils indicate that the adaptive response is specific and can be taxonomically related. Both analyzed plants are characterized by the increased synthesis of individual components of essential oil that are potentially important in the adaptive response to saline stress conditions. The adaptive response to saline stress of the analyzed plants includes increased synthesis of individual components of essential oils. Essential oil components such as α-pinene, β-pinene, β-caryophyllene, limonene and caryophyllene oxide, as well as piperitenone, pulegone, isopulegone are important in the adaptive response on saline habitats for T. scordium and M. pulegium, respectively.
... Moreover, it has been reported that the two Lamiaceae plants, Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis have many important biological activities [5]. M. pulegium possesses several biological properties; this aromatic plant has proven antioxidant and anticholinesterase [6], anthelmintic [7], antimicrobial [4] and insecticidal effects [8][9][10]. Similarly, R. officinalis is well known for its beneficial effect as a therapeutic agent [11] and it also displays insecticidal potential [12]. ...
Article
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The present study investigates the insecticidal effect of plant extract such as Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils and some of their major compounds; these plants are well known for their many biological activities. The fumigant toxicity was evaluated, using glass jars, against female adults of Culex pipiens that constitute a mosquito vector of important diseases such as the West Nile virus. The adulticidal test showed that both essential oils and monoterpenes presented an insecticidal effect better than the chemical insecticide (Deltamethrin). The highest mortality percentages for the two essential oils have occurred at 312.5 µL/L air (between 56.14 ± 1.7% and 97.71 ± 3.03% after 24 h and 48 h of treatment). Moreover, all tested monoterpenes (carvone, R(+)-pulegone, 1,8-cineole, camphor and α-pinene) have produced high mortalities that varied depending on the time of the treatment and the concentrations used. Lethal concentrations (LC50) obtained for the essential oils and the main compounds have also varied according to the exposure time. M. pulegium and R. officinalis essential oil exhibited the lowest LC50 values after 24 h (72.94 and 222.82 µL/L air, respectively) and after 48 h (25.43 and 55.79 µL/L air, respectively) while the pure molecules revealed the lowest LC50 values after 48 h (between 84.96 and 578.84 µL/L air). This finding proves that the two essential oils and their main compounds have an insecticidal potential, which could help to develop natural toxic fumigants that may be used as an eco-friendly alternative in integrated and sustainable vector management.
... New movements towards a more holistic and environmental friendly management, as well as organic farming are arising [26] as a response to the overuse of pesticides in modern agriculture. This involves biological pest control as well as the use of alternative natural and biodegradable pesticides [27][28][29]. Nevertheless, as pesticides are still used, research focused on the effects of pesticides continues to be relevant as well. ...
Thesis
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Pesticides are widely used for pest control in agriculture. Besides their intended use, their long-term fate in real systems is not well understood. They may persist in soils, thereby altering ecosystem functioning and ultimately affecting human health. Pesticide fate is assessed through dissipation experiments in the laboratory or the field. While field experiments provide a close representation of real systems, they are often costly and can be influenced by many unknown or uncontrollable variables. Laboratory experiments, on the other hand, are cheaper and have good control over the governing variables, but due to simplification, extrapolation of the results to real systems can be limited. Mechanistic models are a powerful tool to connect lab and field data and help us to improve our process understanding. Therefore, I used mechanistic, process-based models to assess key microbial regulations of pesticide degradation. I tested my model hypotheses with two pesticide classes: i) chlorophenoxy herbicides (MCPA (2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid) and 2,4-D (2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid)), and ii) triazines (atrazine (AT)), in an ideal scenario, where bacterial degraders and pesticides are co-localized. This thesis explores some potential controls of pesticide degradation in soils: i) regulated gene expression, ii) mass-transfer process across the bacterial cell membranes, iii) bioenergetic constraints, and iv) environmental factors (soil temperature and moisture). The models presented in this thesis show that including microbial regulations improves predictions of pesticide degradation, compared to conventional models based on Monod kinetics. The gene-centric models achieved a better representation of microbial dynamics and enable us to explore the relationship between functional genes and process rates, and the models that used transition state theory to account for bioenergetic constraints improved the description of degradation at low concentrations. However, the lack of informative data for the validation of model processes hampered model development. Therefore, in the fourth part of this thesis, I used atrazine with its rather complex degradation pathway to apply a prospective optimal design method to find the optimal experimental designs to enable us identifying the degradation pathway present in a given environment. The optimal designs found suggest to prioritize determining metabolites and biomass of specific degraders, which are not typically measured in environmental fate studies. These data will lead to more robust model formulations for risk assessment and decision-making. With this thesis, I revealed important regulations of pesticide degradation in soils that help to improve process understanding and model predictions. I provided simple model formulations, for example the Hill function for gene expression and transition state theory for bioenergetic growth constraints, which can easily be integrated into biogeochemical models. My thesis covers initial but essential steps towards a predictive pesticide degradation model usable for risk assessment and decision-making. I also discuss implication for further research, in particular how mechanistic process-based modeling could be combined with new technologies like omics and machine learning.
... Biological approaches have been proposed as an alternative or complement to chemical methods. Bioinsecticides such as bacteria (e.g., Bacillus thuringiensis [Bti]), symbionts (e.g., Wolbachia pipientis), entomopathogenic fungi (e.g., Beauveria bassiana [Bb] and Metarhizium anisopliae) [52][53][54][55], and natural essential oils (e.g., oil of pennyroyal [Mentha pulegium] or Ruta chalepensis) [56][57][58] have been among the most commonly promoted. However, they may still present difficulties in targeting and selectivity when sprayed. ...
Article
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Background Pest management has been facing the spread of invasive species, insecticide resistance phenomena, and concern for the impact of chemical pesticides on human health and the environment. It has tried to deal with them by developing technically efficient and economically sustainable solutions to complement/replace/improve traditional control methods. The renewal has been mainly directed towards less toxic pesticides or enhancing the precision of their delivery to reduce the volume employed and side effects through lure-and-kill approaches based on semiochemicals attractants. However, one of the main pest management problems is that efficacy depends on the effectiveness of the attractant system, limiting its successful employment to semiochemical stimuli-responsive insects. Biomaterial-based and bioinspired/biomimetic solutions that already guide other disciplines (e.g., medical sciences) in developing precision approaches could be a helpful tool to create attractive new strategies to liberate precision pest management from the need for semiochemical stimuli, simplify their integration with bioinsecticides, and foster the use of still underemployed solutions. Approach proposed We propose an innovative approach, called “biomimetic lure-and-kill”. It exploits biomimetic principles and biocompatible/biodegradable biopolymers (e.g., natural hydrogels) to develop new substrates that selectively attract insects by reproducing specific natural environmental conditions (biomimetic lure) and kill them by hosting and delivering a natural biopesticide or through mechanical action. Biomimetic lure-and-kill-designed substrates point to provide a new attractive system to develop/improve and make more cost-competitive new and conventional devices (e.g. traps). A first example application is proposed using the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus as a model. Conclusions Biomaterials, particularly in the hydrogel form, can be a useful tool for developing the biomimetic lure-and-kill approach because they can satisfy multiple needs simultaneously (e.g., biomimetic lure, mechanical lethality, biocompatibility, and bioinsecticide growth). Such an approach might be cost-competitive, and with the potential for applicability to several pest species. Moreover, it is already technically feasible, since all the technologies necessary to design and configure materials with specific characteristics are already available on the market. Graphical Abstract
... In addition to the medical usage, these essential compounds are used in food, drugs and perfumery industries [16]. For examples, in France, Lebanon and Jordan, many studies showed that herbal plants are used in cosmetic, food, pharmaceutical and perfumery applications, treatment of abdominal pains and disorders, flatulence, diabetes, common cold, arthritis, parasitic worms, neurodegenerative diseases, urinary tract infections and kidney stones [9][10]13,[17][18][19][20]. ...
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In this study, for the first time, quantitative and qualitative chromatographic analysis for the content measurements of parsley varieties in nine cities of three big producers/consumers countries in the Mediterranean region: France, Lebanon and Jordan, were carried out. Parsley oils were extracted by hydrodistillation then examined by GC-MS to reveal their complex chemical profiles for plants clustering. Results showed that 29 compounds were quantified and identified in all parsley plant oil extracts. Among organics; apiol, myristicin, adamantane and benzenamine,N,N-4-trimethyl, not only displayed the highest levels in overall contents, but also were the responsible compounds for parsley-origin classification. Among the countries, France has clearly distinct content of benzenamine,N,N-4-trimethyl. GC-MS data were exposed to PCA and HCA to reveal: the variations of parsley chemical profiles as a result of geographical areas, to show the compounds that were responsible for clustering cultivars, and finally, to facilitate the future profile prediction and countries clustering of unknown parsley based on their chemical profile. Nine different cities of parsley samples from different origins were divided into two clusters based on benzenamine,N,N,4-trimethyl, apiol, myristicin, adamantane contents. Classification of parsley based on GC-MS profile will meet the practical requirements of parsley applications in clinical researches, industrial production, patients' self-production, and contribute to the standardization of commercially available parsley cultivars in the Mediterranean countries. The results of this work will accelerate the future profile prediction and origin-clustering of unknown parsley based on their profile.
... The aerial parts of pennyroyal are widely used in traditional medicine mainly for the treatment of various digestive tract diseases such as flatulence, dyspepsia, and intestinal colic (Brahmi et al. 2016). The essential oil of M. pulegium is also used in perfumery, confectionary, pharmaceutical products (Domingues and Santos 2019) and as an insect repellent (Brahmi et al. 2016). Previous reports (Karray-Bouraoui et al. 2009;Benabdallah et al. 2018;Brahmi et al. 2016) suggested that pulegone and menthone are the major components of the essential oil, but with different proportions. ...
Article
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This research was conducted to find out whether the foliar application of salicylic acid (SA) at 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mM in comparison with water spray (control) could mitigate the adverse effects of salinity (0, 25, 50, and 75 mM NaCl as non-saline and low, moderate, and high salinities, respectively) on pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) plants. Salt stress increased Na⁺ content, while decreased the ratio of K⁺/ Na⁺, calcium and magnesium contents in both shoots and roots. Decreasing rubisco activity, photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and stomatal conductance led to a reduction in photosynthesis rate by 25.26% in SA untreated plants under high salinity. Application of SA especially at 1 mM concentration alleviated the harmful impacts of salinity via reducing the Na⁺ translocation from roots to the shoots and improving nutrients uptake and photosynthetic activity. Leaf area and root and shoot biomasses were decreased with increasing salt stress, but these growth parameters were improved by foliar spray of SA. The essential oil content of plants was significantly increased under low and moderate salinities by 18.57% and 35.71%, respectively. Foliar spray of 1 mM SA also enhanced essential oil content of plants in non-saline and all saline conditions by up to 36.84%. Salinity changed the relative proportions of essential oil constituents and induced production of new constituents such as α-thujene, myrcene, isophorone, and germacrene D. The antioxidant activity of essential oil in salt-stressed and SA-treated plants was higher than untreated plants. This research proved that SA-induced salt tolerance in pennyroyal plants was related to increasing nutrient uptake, photosynthetic activity, plant growth, and essential oil production. Graphic Abstract
... It is known for its carminative, antispasmodic, antiseptic, diaphoretic and emmenagogue analgesic, diuretic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and insecticide activities. It is also used for the treatment of fevers, headaches, minor respiratory infections, digestive disorders, menstrual disorders, and various minor ailments [28][29][30][31][32]. e chemical composition of the plant is rich in volatile compounds such as Pulegone, Isomenthone, 1,8-Cineole, Piperitone, and Piperitenone [28,[33][34][35]. ...
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The present study aimed to determine the chemical composition and the synergistic effect of three plants' essential oils (EOs), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (ECEO), Mentha pulegium (MPEO), and Rosmarinus officinalis (ROEO), against three bacterial strains, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus, in order to increase the antimicrobial effectiveness by the use of a low dose of essential oils, consequently decreasing the toxicity and negative impact. For this reason, an augmented simplex-centroid mixture design was used to build polynomial models in order to highlight the synergy between the essential oils against bacterial strains. Antimicrobial effect screening was performed by the disc diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were also studied. The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) results show the richness of these essential oils by terpenic compounds, especially 1,8-Cineole and P-Cymene for ECEO, Pulegone for MPEO, and α-Pinene and Camphene for ROEO. Moreover, a significant antibacterial effect has been demonstrated and the best values were revealed by MPEO and ECEO against P. mirabilis and K. pneumoniae, with inhibition zones (IZ) of 25 and 20 mm, respectively, and an MIC of 0.0391% (v:v) against K. pneumoniae. The optimal mixtures showed a synergistic effect of essential oils, and the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations of the mixtures (MICm) were in the order of 29.38% of MPEO, 45.37% of ECEO, and 25.25% of ROEO against P. mirabilis and in the order of 60.61% of MPEO and 39.39% of ROEO against K. pneumoniae. These results indicate the antibacterial efficacy of the three essential oils combined and suggest their importance in the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by resistant bacterial strains.
... EOs and their compounds affect pests physiological and biochemical processes, which specifically inhibited the detoxifying enzymes and acetylcholine esterase activity, disrupted the endocrinologic balance of insects, induced cell death and effect of lipids metabolism (Kumar et al., 2011;Kiran and Prakash, 2015;Shahriari et al., 2017;Piri et al., 2020). Mentha, a genus of the family Lamiaceae, has been turned to be quite promising to develop as green-safe biopesticides for pest control (Kumar et al., 2011;Singh and Pandey, 2018;Domingues and Santos, 2019). Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), belonging to the Lamiaceae family, mainly distributed in Africa, temperate Asia and Europe (Kumar et al., 2011). ...
Article
This study evaluated the chemical components of spearmint essential oil, and determined individually the efficacy of spearmint EO and its major constituents, and their mutual binary combination against Reticulitermes dabieshanensis. We also evaluated the activities of esterases (ESTs), glutathione S-transferases (GST) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymes in treated insects. GC–MS analysis showed that the major constituents of spearmint EO were carvone (52.25 %), limonene (19.78 %), and dihydrocarvone (11.1 %). In fumigant toxicity assay, the spearmint EO achieved a LC50 value of 0.194 μl/L. The three major constituents, carvone, dihydrocarvone, and limonene were most effective against R. dabieshanensis, with LC50 values of 0.074, 0.155, and 2.650 μl/L, respectively. The toxicity assay of binary mixtures of carvone + dihydrocarvone, carvone + limonene and limonene + dihydrocarvone in all the used ratios showed the three major constituents exhibited synergistic effects against R. dabieshanensis. Spearmint EO and its major constituents showed significantly stronger insecticidal efficacies at the high temperature, with rapid insecticidal action. The increased activity of ESTs and GST were observed, but with the decreased activity of AChE in all treatments. In vitro experiments, all treatments showed significant inhibition of AChE activity, except for dihydrocarvone, with IC50 values were 0.871, 2.405, 2.653 and 4.343 μl/mL for limonene, carvone, carvone + limonene and carvone + dihydrocarvone, respectively. The results showed that the insecticidal efficacy of spearmint EO can be attributed to the major component, possibly carvone, with strong AChE inhibition properties. Hence, spearmint EO and its bioactive constituents have the potential to be used as new environmentally safe insecticides for controlling R. dabieshanensis.
... The high rate of crop yield and food losses caused by microbial pathogens and the residual problem and toxicity of chemical pesticides to the living environment are demanding for alternative plant and food protection measures (Ogunnupebi et al., 2020). The use of plant EOs is an environmentally friendly alternative approach against pathogens and pests (Domingues and Santos, 2019). This study explored the potential of EOs of 14 Z. multiflora populations covering three chemotypes to inhibit a broad spectrum of agriculturally important fungal pathogens and elucidated the effects of leaf elements concentration, heat and drought stress and UV-light intensity on the production of antifungal compounds. ...
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There is an increasing need for natural compounds for pest control and food preservation in agriculture, food and dairy industries. To satisfy this need, essential oils (EOs) from aromatic plants can serve as flavors, food preservatives and ecofriendly pesticides. This study investigated the potential of different EOs from field-collected leaves of fourteen Zataria multiflora Boiss. populations representing three different chemotypes (carvacrol, thymol and linalool) to inhibit a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens important in food industry and agriculture and the relationship between total leaf elements concentration and EOs compounds. Furthermore, a greenhouse experiment was performed to elucidate the effects of heat stress (33 °C vs. 20 °C), drought stress (50 % reduced irrigation), and ultraviolet light intensity (3, 6 and 9 W m −2 UV-A radiation) on the relative content of specific volatile compounds. The results indicated that low concentrations of carvacrol and thymol, but not of linalool chemotype EOs inhibit significantly the growth of pre-and postharvest pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Fusarium sambucinum, Fusarium culmorum, Alternaria dauci and Botrytis cinerea (thymol/carvacrol EOs: 0.8− 1 μL, linalool EOs: 4 μL). The analyses revealed further significant correlations between the concentrations of mineral elements in Z. multiflora leaves and relative amounts of EO compounds and antifungal activity. Abiotic stresses, particularly heat and the interaction of drought and heat, induced changes in plants of the linalool chemotype resulting in higher relative amounts of carvacrol (22.7 % and 32.9 % vs. 1.5 %), while drought stress alone did not influence the relative amount of the main volatile compounds of Z. multiflora (carvacrol 1.7 %). Furthermore, the relative amount of linalool was slightly reduced in the linalool chemotype, when plants were subjected to high intensities of UV-A radiation (33.9 % vs. 44.6 %), whilst the relative amount of carvacrol was slightly increased (20.1 % vs. 9%). Moreover, the main volatile compounds of plants from the carvacrol chemotype did not change in response to abiotic stresses. Understanding the effect of environmental conditions on aromatic plant populations and chemotype development helps agriculture and food industry fully exploiting the potential of aromatic plants as a source of natural sustainable fungicides or insecticides.
... M. pulegium L. is an herbal plant belonging to the Lamiaceae family and has a wide geographical distribution worldwide (Domingues and Santos 2019). The species is an essential oil producer but also polar components have been described in the past (Ibrahim 2013) among its phytoconstituents. ...
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Herein, the chemical profiles of the essential oils and volatiles obtained from the aerial parts of Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae) are reported respectively using microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) and headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) approaches associated to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) quantification. Using MAHD-GC-MS and HS-SPME-GC-MS techniques, 30 and 28 constituents were screened in the essential oils and volatiles of M. pulegium L. aerial parts with high prevalence of oxygenated monoterpenes and non-terpene hydrocarbons, respectively. Accordingly, in the characterized chemical profiles, carvone was found to constitute about 56.0% of the oil using the former technique (MAHD), whereas oleic acid (20.1%), carvone (17.7%) along with limonene (16.1%) were found as the major constituent components of the volatile profile using the latter approach (SPME). The two methods might be used in combination to obtain a wider set of information about the chemical composition of one specific plant sample.
... Cluster 4 is a thymol/p-cymene chemotype and is made up of variety M4 samples. Chemotype 1, rich in pulegone but also with high concentrations of menthone and isomenthone, is similar in composition to several samples of Mentha pulegium L. (pennyroyal) [13] and may, therefore, serve as a substitute herb for pennyroyal. Commercial M. pulegium essential oil contains around 84% pulegone (Aromatic Plant Research Center, Lehi, UT, USA). ...
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In this peer-reviewed journal paper, the leaf essential composition of four mountain mint (Pycnanthemum virginianum) accessions grown in North Alabama was compared. The study showed the wide variation for essential oil composition and leaf biomass production among the four genotypes. The study showed the potential for the commercial production of mountain mint to cater to the herbal products and confectionary industries.
... These EOs contain a range of chemicals that are known to help the plants' defense mechanisms against plant enemies. Due to their fumigant and touch insecticidal activities and the less strict regulatory approval mechanisms for their exploration due to long history of usage, interest in EOs has regained momentum during the last decade [24,25] . ...
... Mentha pulegium L., also known as Pulegium vulgare Mill., Melissa pulegium (L.) Griseb. Or Minthe pulegia (L.), and commonly referred to as pennyroyal, and as Fliou in Algeria is an aromatic herb widely used in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (Domingues and Santos, 2019). The aerial parts of the plant are widely used in traditional medicine mainly for the treatment of various digestive tract diseases such as flatulence, dyspepsia and intestinal colic due to its carminative and antispasmodic properties (Brahmi et al., 2016;Fatiha et al., 2015). ...
Article
In this study, extracts of chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water were prepared from leaves of Mentha pulegium L. To assess their potential application as a source of bioactive compounds, the different extracts have been studied for their polyphenol content and for certain biological properties that might confer. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid (TFC) contents were estimated using colorimetric methods. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), [2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)] (ABTS), galvinoxyl radical (GOR), Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC), reducing power, β-carotene bleaching, and O-phenanthroline assays were used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the extracts. The inhibitory capacities of the extracts against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), as well as their photoprotective effect, were determined. The highest TPCs and TFCs were recorded in the extract of n-butanol (451.22 ± 1.54 μg GAE/mg of extract and 268.88 ± 2.65 μg QE/mg of extract, respectively), which had the highest antioxidant activity followed by ethyl acetate and water extracts. Most of the extracts studied were found to be inactive against AChE and BChE and only the chloroform extract showed a moderate inhibitory effect with percentages of inhibition of 13.16 ± 1.64 and 24.34 ± 1.12%, respectively at 200 μg/mL. High values of sun protection factor (SPF) were recorded with the extracts ranging from 33.86 ± 0.25 to 36.31 ± 0.40 corresponding respectively to the chloroform and aqueous extracts. The results of this work have shown that the phenolic extracts of Mentha pulegium can constitute a good choice for their application as antioxidant and photoprotective phytoconstituents.
... Son araştırmalar, bakterilerin, mayaların, mantarların, böceklerin, akarinlerin, parazitlerin ve nematodların üzerinde sergilediği abiyositik etki nedeniyle son derece önemli olduğu vurgulanmaktadır. Ayrıca uçucu yağı, veba/haşere kontrolü için geleneksel olarak kullanımından dolayı dikkatleri üzerine çekmektedir (Domingues, 2019). ...
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In this study, we evaluate the potential for in vitro propagation of Mentha spp. for mass production. The two Mentha spp. (Mentha x piperita L., M. pulegium L.) were propagated with four successive 60-day subcultures in MS medium supplemented with for 100µL/L NAA (Naphthylacetic Acid) and 600µl/L IBA( Indole Butyric Acid). The shoots were rooted in the same media. The rooted plantlets were finally acclimatized in a growth room. Callus induction was carried out in MS (Murashige and Skoog) media supplemented with 100µL/L NAA and 250µL/L BAP (Benzylaminopurine). Callus was successfully induced from nodes of Mentha pulegium L. Through micropropagation, both Mentha spp increased in multiplication rates around 6-fold per month compared to the traditional propagation method. Mentha x piperita and Mentha pulegium showed the most significant potential for plantlet production through the micropropagation method.
... It is also used as antispasmodic, carminative, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, antitussive, antiflatulent and menstruation agent (Bouyahya et al., 2017a;Nickavar and Jabbareh, 2018). It is used as an aromatic stimulant, analgesic, and abortifacient (Gordon and Khojasteh, 2015), as an alternative pesticide and insect repellent (Cheraghi Niroumand et al., 2016;Domingues and Santos, 2019), as an antioxidant (El-Ghorab, 2006) and as a cytotoxic agent (Shirazi et al., 2004). The purpose of the present work was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of the essential oil extracted from the aerial part of Mentha pulegium. ...
Article
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This work was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained from the aerial part of Mentha pulegium. The antioxidant power of the essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus was evaluated by using three methods: free radical-scavenging activity, reducing power and liver lipid peroxidation assay. Results showed that Mentha pulegium oil displayed good quality according to its physicochemical characteristics, and a higher yield 5.1 ± 0.2%. The essential oil of Mentha pulegium showed a higher DPPH radical scavenging activity 90.54 ± 1.5 % at a concentration of 1000 µg/mL. This value was close to the results obtained with ascorbic acid 96.23 ± 1.2%, and catechin 94.50 ± 1.4%. This oil exhibited significant potential for reducing iron (the value observed by optical density was 1.8 ± 0.3), while ascorbic acid and catechin provided an OD of 2.069 ± 0.03 and 2.66 ± 0.016 at the same concentration of 1000 µg/mL. The tested oil protected against lipid peroxidation induced by Fe+2, and considerably increased the percentage of anti lipid peroxidation in a dose-dependent manner. The studied oil displayed a good degree of antioxidant activity and can be exploited in food and pharmaceutical industries.
... The conventional methods using synthetic chemicals to control postharvest deterioration had become a source of concern because of several side-effects of synthetic fungicides on humans and possible occurrence of fungicide-resistant strains of fungal pathogens after a long-term usage (Tripathi and Dubey, 2004). Therefore, in recent years the unconventional chemical compounds, such as essential oils or their active components, are gaining growing interest considering their effective antifungal and environmental-friendly properties (Domingues and Santos, 2019). Monoterpene NEL, originally used as food additives and decorative cosmetics, has been shown to inhibit the growth of yeasts and dermatophytes (Miron et al., 2014), warranting its potential as food preservation agent against postharvest diseases. ...
Article
Ceratocystis fimbriata is the most devastating phytopathogen causing significant losses in post-harvest sweet potato. In this study, monoterpene nerol (NEL), the active compound in neroli essential oil, was found to dose-dependently inhibit the mycelial growth and spore germination of C. fimbriata at a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.25 mL L⁻¹. NEL vapor treatments significantly reduced the incidence and lesion diameter of black rot in sweet potato infected by the fungus and regulated the defense-related enzyme activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL). Using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and biochemical assays, it was demonstrated that NEL treatment impaired cell membrane integrity via down-regulating the expression of ergosterol synthesis genes and reduced the ergosterol content. Moreover, an analysis of a series of apoptotic events revealed that NEL treatment caused mitochondrial membrane damage by reducing the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm), which led to down-regulation of genes involved in ATP production, then induced accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Simultaneously, NEL caused nuclear chromatin condensation and concomitant DNA cleavage, which led to the up-regulation of DNA repair genes expression, and the cell-cycle arrest principally occurred at the G2/M phase in C. fimbriata. Altogether, these findings provide information about the underlying antifungal mechanism of NEL against C. fimbriata and suggest that NEL could be a useful alternative for controlling C. fimbriata in post-harvest spoilage of sweet potato.
... In this regard, Igrc Barčić et al. (2006) reported that the residual activity of neem extract lasted up to 7 days, while the residual activity of spinosad lasted a for 10 to 20 days. In addition, there are some recent examples where the insecticidal effect and the persistence of some compounds was greatly benefited by encapsulation (Domingues and Santos 2019;Kavetsou et al. 2019). Kavetsou et al. (2019) observed that the encapsulation of essential oil of M. pulegium extended the duration of insecticidal activity of this insecticide for 3 days. ...
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The Mediterranean basin thrives in native plant species are able to produce numerous derivatives that can be used for insect pest control. This article provides an up-to-date overview of the most important native plant species commonly found in this region that have a certain insecticidal value in vegetable crops. Regarding the insecticidal activity of extracts from selected native species, results from both laboratory and field experiments will be also presented to highlight the potential of the latter as alternatives to synthetic insecticides. Considering the great diversity in ingredients among the various plant species, it is essential to record and describe the chemical composition of these species, in conjunction with their insecticidal activity against the main insect pests of vegetable crops. The review concludes in underlining the critical points for increasing the effectiveness and consequently the practical use of natural insecticides in crop protection. Moreover, emphasis is given in understanding the importance of the production of standardized and stable natural resource-based insecticides through the development of suitable formulations, such as capsule suspension that protects the active ingredients from environmental degradation and improves their residual activity.
... Many parameters determine this impact, such as the application mode (root watering, aerial spraying or injection in the vascular system), the plant organs targeted, the phenological stage (seed, plantlet or mature plant), the physiological state and product formulation. As illustrated by the opposing claims regarding the presence or absence of phytotoxicity of Mentha pulegium (pennyroyal) EOs towards Cucumis sativus (cucumber) and Solanum lycopersicum (tomato), it is necessary to gain insight into the molecular mechanism involved in order to design suitable biopesticides [13][14][15]. ...
Article
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The extensive use of chemical pesticides leads to risks for both the environment and human health due to the toxicity and poor biodegradability that they may present. Farmers therefore need alternative agricultural practices including the use of natural molecules to achieve more sustainable production methods to meet consumer and societal expectations. Numerous studies have reported the potential of essential oils as biopesticides for integrated weed or pest management. However, their phytotoxic properties have long been a major drawback for their potential applicability (apart from herbicidal application). Therefore, deciphering the mode of action of essential oils exogenously applied in regards to their potential phytotoxicity will help in the development of biopesticides for sustainable agriculture. Nowadays, plant physiologists are attempting to understand the mechanisms underlying their phytotoxicity at both cellular and molecular levels using transcriptomic and metabolomic tools. This review systematically discusses the functional and cellular impacts of essential oils applied in the agronomic context. Putative molecular targets and resulting physiological disturbances are described. New opportunities regarding the development of biopesticides are discussed including biostimulation and defense elicitation or priming properties of essential oils.
... Essential oils of plant origin could play in future a significant role in the eco-friendly management of agricultural pests, including weeds [7,8]. As natural compounds, they are easily biodegradable in the environment at certain doses [9], by soil microbiota [10] and display different modes of action, in comparison to the synthetic pesticides [11,12]. ...
Article
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Microencapsulated peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) essential oil (MPEO) is a prospective botanical herbicide. A hypothesis was formulated, that the type of growth medium (vermiculite or silty clay loam soil substrate) affects the phytotoxic potential of MPEO. A pot experiment in a randomized design assessed the effect of five doses of MPEO in a range of 0-108 g m −2 or 0-145 g m −2, mixed with vermiculite or with soil, respectively, on early growth of white mustard (Sinapis alba L. cv. Zlata), tested here as a model "weed" species. The morphologic analyses were supported by selected biochemical measurements. The two highest doses of microcapsules (from 73 to 145 g m −2) caused a significant decrease in plants' height and biomass. An increase of anthocyanin content in the aboveground parts of mustard is supportive for the induction of defense mechanisms against MPEO-triggered stress in mustard leaves. In conclusion, MPEO appears as a promising bio-herbicide. However, we are aware that further studies on the mechanisms of action of MPEO in different weed species are necessary to test (i) whether or not the effect is consistent to be proficiently exploited for weed control in the field and (ii) to deepen the biochemical and physiological reactions by the plants against MPEO treatments.
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Mentha pulegium L. is a plant with numerous health benefits that is utilized in traditional Algerian medicine. The objective of the current study was to analyze the chemical compositions of the essential oils produced by the M. pulegium flower and leaf parts after identifying the best hydrodistillation operating parameters and modeling the kinetic extraction. According to parametric tests, first order extraction kinetics result in yields of 1.7±0.06% (w/w) for leaves through 60 minutes and 4.00±0.10% (w/w) for flowers through 30 minutes. Five compounds were found in flowers, whereas 16 compounds were found in leaves. For leaves, a total of 15 constituents accounting for 100% of the oil were found; for flowers, a total of 5 constituents accounting for 100% of the oil were found. Predominance of oxygenated monoterpenes, such as pulegone (53.09%), menthol (12.53%), and neoisopulegol (5.7%) was determined in leaves, respectively pulegone (83.40%), isopulegylacetate (7.98%), and menthol (3.63%) in flowers. The results indicate that the experimental conditions used provided good yields in the extraction of essential oils, particularly from mint blossoms via hydrodistillation. As a result, there are options for lowering the time and energy required for mint oil extraction while still producing a high-quality product.
Chapter
The growing demand for safe food associated with increased restrictions for the use of synthetic agrochemicals in different cultures has led to the development of more sustainable technologies for control of pests, such as phytonematodes. In this sense, natural products and residues are rich sources of compounds and nutrients that can contribute to productivity and the control of these phytoparasites. Thus, this chapter presents the scientific bases, examples of success, mechanisms of action, advantages and disadvantages regarding the use of: (i) botanical and fungal resources; (ii) management with cover crop and industrial plant residues; (iii) resources from animals and agro-industrial wastes; and (iv) blends. Additionally, a discussion concerning natural or recycled products is proposed, indicating the challenges and trends. In this context, challenges concern: (i) biodiversity conservation, (ii) quality system (e.g. rules and standardization) to guarantee reproducibility, repeatability, reliability, stability, efficiency, and safety, (iii) government policies, (iv) market regulations, public and private institutions integration. Finally, we discuss trends regarding nanotechnology-based green chemistry,, the use of blenders, the Integrated as well as Holistic Pest Management. These trends together integrate the farmer in designing solutions for pest control, minimizing socioeconomic and environmental impacts, and customer satisfaction.
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Allelochemicals have been proposed as environmentally friendly bioherbicides, but their short persistence in soils often limits their performance as natural weed management products. In this study, incorporation into organoclay granules was investigated as a strategy to protect the allelochemical scopoletin from rapid biodegradation and prolong its persistence in soil. The commercial organoclay Cloisite® 10A, in its raw powder form, was used to prepare the granules. A kinetic study revealed slower sorption of scopoletin on the granules than on the organoclay powder and indicated an intraparticle pore diffusion mechanism. The half-life of scopoletin in soil under laboratory conditions increased significantly by incorporating the allelochemical into the organoclay granules, from 0.34 to 14.4 days. A field experiment was also conducted to assess whether the increase in soil half-life measured under controlled laboratory conditions translated to field conditions and to compare the phytotoxicity of the granulated allelochemical with that of its free (dissolved) form. The addition of scopoletin-loaded organoclay granules to soil plots rendered a field half-life for the allelochemical of 20.1 d, in contrast to 0.54 d obtained for its free form. The granules also favored the expression of the phytotoxicity of scopoletin, reducing germination and root growth of Lactuca sativa L. to a greater extent than free scopoletin. The results of this work indicate that incorporation into organoclay granules could be a suitable technological approach to provide allelochemicals with protection from rapid biodegradation losses in soil, which may help increase their persistence for a better performance as crop protection products.
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(−)‐Menthol is one of the most popular aroma compounds worldwide. While in the past mostly extracted from mint plants, today (−)‐menthol synthesis from other raw materials is becoming more relevant. Common starting materials for menthol synthesis are m‐cresol, citral and myrcene, but also substrates like menthone, mono‐ and bicyclic terpenes and terpenoids have been used for this purpose in the past. As for many applications (−)‐menthol of high purity is required, asymmetric syntheses and enantiomeric resolution of obtained raw products are applied for menthol production. This review gives an overview on the most important synthetic menthol production processes of the companies Symrise, Takasago and BASF and relevant literature in the field of menthol synthesis with a focus on the last 20 years. A review on the synthesis of (−)‐menthol from various raw materials, including the main industrial processes of the companies Symrise, Takasago and BASF and recent literature on this topic.
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Spice essential oils (SEOs) are commonly used in food flavoring and are considered an effective food preservative. It has a broad range of applications and promising development prospects. As a natural food additive, SEOs’ antimicrobial effects have been widely studied and utilized towards food preservation. Many SEOs have exhibited significant antimicrobial activities against food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms. We reviewed the antibacterial and antifungal properties of SEOs, the active components, their corresponding mechanisms of actions, as well as their application in the food industry, providing a theoretical basis for SEOs’ further development and application as natural preservatives.
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Plant essential oils may serve as safe alternatives to detrimental synthetic pesticides due to relatively lower side effects on the environment and non-targeted organisms. The current study was conducted to investigate the ovicidal toxicity and physiological disruptions of six medicinal plant essential oils, including Artemisia annua L., Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Origanum vulgare L., Rosmarinus officinalis Spenn., Satureja hortensis L., and Thymus vulgaris L., on elm leaf beetle Xanthogaleruca luteola (Mull.). The LC50 (Lethal Concentration to kill 50% of tested insects) values of 122.8, 287.5, 152.8, 180.6, 315.9, and 1366.2 ppm were recorded for T. vulgaris, L. angustifolia, A. annua, S. hortensis, R. officinalis, and O. vulgare, respectively, 72 h after treatment of 3-day-old eggs of the pest. Significant decreases in the amounts of glucose, protein, and triglyceride macromolecules were also observed after treatment. The application of essential oils derived from T. vulgaris, A. annua, and S. hortensis at 400 ppm revealed 100% ovicidal activity. Accordingly, tested essential oils, particularly the essential oil of T. vulgaris, have been promising potential as biorational insecticides in the management of X. luteola.
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Oral health is known to be associated with overall health and contributes to physical fitness and performances. It also has significant impacts on the quality of daily life. The traditional chewing sticks (TCS) obtained from different plant species are commonly used in the African continent and other neighboring countries. Salvadora persica, Vernonia amygdalina, Acacia nilotica, and Clausea anisata are among the most commonly used plant species for making chewing sticks. Plant parts such as twigs, roots, and stems are mainly used as TCS and are also reported to have antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiseptic activities. Additionally, they are attributed to its mechanical action to remove caries (decays), plaque, etc., and thus play an important role in keeping oral hygiene in good condition. This chapter provides an overview of the role of TCS in oral hygiene in Africa and elsewhere and its phytochemical investigations. For the effective utilization of the pharmacological potentials of TCS, it is important to understand the overall phytochemistry of the TCS. Both validating the traditional knowledge from ethnobotanical studies and justification for the chemical effect of using TCS are the driving forces for further phytochemical investigations.
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The cowpea bruchid Callossobruchus maculatus Fab. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is the major pest of chickpea in storage. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the insecticidal properties of powders of 8 Moroccan aromatic plants on biological parameters of C. maculatus. The toxicity of the powders was assessed by measuring the parameters of the life cycle in a situation of non-choice under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 70–75% HR and a photoperiod of 14h (light) / 10h (darkness). The powder of Mentha pulegium has completely wiped out the population of the Callosobruchus maculatus (% IR=100%) 2%, 1% and 0.5% W/w. Similarly, Mentha pulegium powder retained seed weights, which remained significantly different (P < 0.01) from the control weight. Also, Origanum compactum, Mentha rotundifolia and Inula viscosa have significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the population of bruchids, the percentage reduction reached (% IR= 97.5, % IR = 89.32, and % IR = 27, 38% by the highest 2%). The other plants show no significant difference from the control. The results therefore suggest that Mentha pulegium powder has an insecticide potential similar to those of conventional insecticides and could be an alternative method against infestations and damage caused by C. maculatus in stored products.
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The beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F. 1775) (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) is a destructive pest of stored chickpea seeds. Bio-pesticides are pesticides of animal, plant and bacterial origin. Plant products are among the best known substances tested against insects. These products have an insecticidal and repellent effect on insects and can also affect certain biological parameters such as fecundity, life span and reproduction. In search of plant bio-pesticides to control Callosobruchus maculatus main pest of stored chickpea seeds, 18 plants traditionally used in Morocco to control insect pests have been tested in the laboratory, for their toxic effects against this beetle. A conventional synthetic insecticide was included as a positive control, while untreated seed was used as a control. The toxicity of the powders was assessed by measuring the parameters of the life cycle in a situation of non-choice maintained at a climatic chamber with a temperature of 25 ±1 degrees Celsius, a relative humidity of 75% and a photoperiod of 14h (light) / 10h (darkness) for several successive generations. The powders of Mentha pulegium and Syzygium aromaticum have completely wiped out the population of the bruches (% IR=100%) 2%, 1% and 0.5% p/p. Similarly, the powders of the two plants retained the weights of the seeds, which remain significantly different (P < 0.01) at the weight of the control. Also Origanum compactum , Mentha officinalis, Allium sativum Zingiber officinale, Urtica doica and Calamintha officinalis have significantly reduced (P < - 0.01) the population of bruches, the percentage reduction reached (97.5, 89.32, 72.84, 50.3, 46.52 and 39.24% by the highest 2%). The other plants show no significant difference from the control. The results therefore suggest that Syzygium aromaticum powder and Mentha pulegium have an insecticide potential similar to those of conventional insecticides and could be a biotechnological alternative against C. maculatus infestations and damag
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The environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and other associated problems caused by traditional chemical pesticides with limited modes of action make it urgent to seek alternative environmentally-friendly pesticides from natural products. Tung meal, the byproduct of the detoxified Vernicia fordii (Hemsl.) seed, has been commonly used as an agricultural fertilizer and as a pesticide. However, its active insecticidal extracts and ingredients remain elusive. In the present study, the contact toxicities of tung meal extracts against the agricultural and forest pests like O. formosanus and P. xylostella were examined. Our results showed that ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts showed the strongest toxicity against O. formosanus and P. xylostella, respectively. In order to further explore the chemical profiles of the ethyl acetate and petroleum ether extracts, UPLC-Q/TOF-MS and GC-MS analyses have been performed, and 20 and 29 compounds were identified from EA and PE extracts, respectively. The present study, for the first time, verified the noteworthy insecticidal activities on the aforementioned agricultural and forest pesticides and revealed the potential active parts and chemical composition, which are conducive to further exploiting the potential of tung meal as a natural plant-derived insecticide for biological control of agricultural and forest pests.
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The overuse of synthetic pesticide, a consequence of the rush to increase crop production, led to tremendous adverse effects, as they constitute a major pollutant for both soils and water, with a high toxicity towards humans and animals and, at the same time, led to development of pest resistance. In the last period, the researches were directed towards finding new solutions with a lower toxicity, less damaging behaviour towards the environment, and a better specificity of action. In this context, the use of essential oils, a complex and unique mixture of compounds, can be considered for the next-generation pesticides. This review aims to present the main applications of the essential oils as insecticides, herbicides, acaricides, and nematicides, as they emerged from the scientific literature published in the last 5 years (2015 to present). From the identified articles within the time period, only those dealing with essential oils obtained by the authors (not commercially available) were selected to be inserted in the review, characterized using established analytical techniques and employed for the envisaged applications. The review is concluded with a chapter containing the main conclusions of the literature study and the future perspectives, regarding the application of essential oils as next-generation pesticides.
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Today, due to the increasingly stringent European directives concerning the use of molecules with certain toxicities towards the environment or their users, the essential oils, extracts, and molecules derived from plants exhibiting the characteristic of being biodegradable can be considered as a source of green corrosion inhibitors instead of harmful synthetic chemicals. The present work was devoted to testing the essential oil extracted from Mentha pulegium leaves(M1) as a corrosion inhibitor for C-steel in 1 mol/L HCl solution using both electrochemical techniques and gravimetric measurements for the evaluation of the inhibition efficiencies at different temperatures. The results obtained showed that the inhibition efficiency increased with an increase in M1 concentration to reach a maximum value of 92.21%. We sought to determine the molecule responsible for this high efficiency, starting with the analysis of oil chemical composition by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This analysis revealed that menthol(M2) and isomenthol(M3) were the principal constituents. In order to identify the molecule responsible for the inhibition and explain the protection mechanism involved, quantum chemical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations were used to explain the interaction of menthol, the major constituent of M1 with the Fe-surface. To practically confirm these results, we studied the action of 1 mol/L HCl on steel with and without the addition of M2 by both methods(gravimetric and electrochemical study). A very high efficiency was obtained, an efficiency of 94.90% at 10‒3 mol/L, which was retained for a long exposure time, and slightly decreased in function of temperature. Finally, a good correlation between the experimental data, theoretical calculations, and SEM studies was obtained, which denied that the M1 efficiency was only a result of a synergy effect and confirmed the high efficiency of Mentha oil and its main component(menthol) as a strong ecological inhibitor of corrosion.
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Alginate is a naturally occurring polysaccharide used in the bio industry. It is mainly derived from brown algae species. Alginate-based edible coatings and films attract interest for improving/maintaining quality and extending the shelf-life of fruit, vegetable, meat, poultry, seafood, and cheese by reducing dehydration (as sacrificial moisture agent), controlling respiration, enhancing product appearance, improving mechanical properties, etc. This paper reviews the most recent essential information about alginate-based edible coatings. The categorization of alginate-based coatings/film in food packaging concept is formed gradually with the explanation of the most important titles. Emphasis will be placed on active ingredients incorporated into alginate-based formulations, edible coating/film application methods, research and development studies of coated food products and mass transfer and barrier characteristics of the alginate-based coatings/films. Future trends are also reviewed to identify research gaps and recommend new research areas. The summarized information presented in this article will enable researchers to thoroughly understand the fundamentals of the coating process and to develop alginate-based edible films and coatings more readily.
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Stored grains are threatened by several insects, leading to losses in quality and quantity. Several studies have revealed the risks of using chemicals that can cause serious health problems for humans. It is in this perspective that the objective of our work should be seen: It was to assess the effect of the essential oil and leaf powder of Mentha pulegium against Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum adults attacking post-harvest cereals. The insecticidal activity of the essential oil against these two insects was evaluated by three methods: contact, inhalation and ingestion. The ingestion method was used in the case of the leaf powder. The essential oil and leaf powder of Mentha pulegium exhibited insecticidal activity against Sitophilus oryzae and Tribolium castaneum adults ( Mentha pulegium essential oil caused up to 100% mortality of both insects). Both insects were influenced affected by the dose, exposure time and the method by which the insecticidal activity of the essential oil was demonstrated. Adults of Sitophilus oryzae were more sensitive to different concentrations of essential oil and leaf powder than those of Tribolium castaneum . The essential oil has no effect on the germination rate of soft wheat grains ( Triticum aestivum ). On the contrary, it acts positively by reducing the damage caused by these major stock pests. The data from this study could present an alternative solution for replacing synthetic insecticides for the protection of stored commodities.
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Avian coccidiosis is the most important parasitic disease in poultry production, which inflicts numerous losses to the industry. The extensive use of anticoccidial drugs leads to parasite resistance and drug residue in poultry products. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of three famous essential oils (EOs) and their combination on inactivation of mixed oocysts of Eimeria adenoides, Eimeria dispersa, Eimeria meleagrimitis, and Eimeria meleagridis. The EOs of Thymus vulgaris, Artemisia sieberi, and Mentha pulegium were prepared. After inoculation of each turkey with 7×10⁵ sporulated oocysts, fresh unsporulated oocysts were harvested from their feces. To evaluate the sporulation inhibition effect, 5×10⁴ oocysts were used in each treatment. Each EO was used in increasing concentrations. Half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each EO and they were blended in pairs based on IC50 line. Our results showed that the IC50 values for mentha, artemisia, and thyme were 22.92, 40.5, and 53.42 mg/ml, respectively. According to our results, artemisia and thyme combination has a synergistic effect, whereas the combination of a high concentration of mentha with a low concentration of thyme had an antagonistic effect. During this study, no interactions were observed between mentha and artemisia.
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The effect of gelatin-based edible coating incorporated with Mentha pulegium essential oil (MEO) on physicochemical (pH, titratable acidity (TA), weight loss, total soluble solids (TSS), and total phenolic content (TPC)), microbiological (total aerobic mesophilic flora (TAMF) and yeasts and moulds (YM)), and sensorial (color and firmness) characteristics of strawberries stored under refrigeration was studied. Strawberries were coated with gelatin alone (4%) and/or gelatin combined with two concentrations (0.5 and 1%) of MEO and stored at 4°C for 13 days. Gelatin coating and MEO combination significantly inhibited total flora and moulds and yeasts with comparison to control (uncoated strawberries) and had better hygienic quality at the end of storage. The effect was MEO concentration dependent. Our results also showed that the bioactive coating used in this investigation slowed down changes in pH, TA, weight loss, TSS, firmness, TPC, and color of strawberries. Gelatin coating incorporated with MEO at 1% protected at least 60% of strawberries from deterioration after 13 days of storage and could be used as bioactive packaging to prolong the shelf life and an alternative of pesticides use.
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Pesticides have become an inevitable part of the modern environment as they are widely used in agriculture, household, and public health sectors and, hence, are extensively distributed throughout most ecosystems. Currently, organophosphate pesticides are the most commercially favored group of pesticides, with large application areas all over the world. Depending on their fate, these organophosphorus compounds may become bioavailable for microbial degradation. Environmental microbes, such as Aspergillus, Pseudomonas, Chlorella, and Arthrobacter, are capable of coupling a variety of physical and biochemical mechanisms for the degradation of organophosphate pesticides, including adsorption, hydrolysis of P–O alkyl and aryl bonds, photodegradation, and enzymatic mineralization. Enzymes, such as esterase, diisopropyl fluorophosphatase, phosphotriesterase, somanase, parathion hydrolase, and paraoxonase, have been isolated from microbes to study and understand the catabolic pathways involved in the biotransformation of these xenobiotic compounds. This review highlights various aspects of biodegradation of organophosphate pesticides along with biological and molecular characterization of some organophosphate pesticide-degrading bacteria.
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In the current laboratory study, 14 essential oils (EOs) derived from 12 Lamiaceae plant species and their major components were screened for their larvicidal and repellent properties against Aedes albopictus, an invasive mosquito species of great medical importance. The results of toxicity bioassays revealed that the EOs from Thymus vulgaris, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum dictamnus, Origanum majorana, and Origanum vulgare, as well as their major components (terpenes), namely thymol, carvacrol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene exerted the highest larvicidal effect. Essential oils from Mellisa officinalis, Origanum dictamus, Mentha spicata (chem. piperitenone epoxide), Origanum majorana, and Satureja thymbra were the most potent repellents, with the last two assigned as the best ones. Among the terpenes tested, piperitenone epoxide, carvacrol, thymol, and piperitenone provided the highest level of protection against Ae. albopictus adults. Chemical analysis revealed the presence of a high number of terpenes in the EOs, while in most cases, the biological action of the tested EOs and their major components was in consistency. The most effective EOs and terpenes that were identified through the current laboratory bioassays could be used as alternative agents to control larvae and repel adults of Ae. albopictus.
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The study aims at evaluating the potential insecticide essential oils from two plants of the family Lamiaceae pushing the spontaneous state in the Tiaret region (western Algeria). Insecticides tests were performed in the laboratory by the direct contact method. The results of these tests have shown that rosemary essential oil has remarkable insecticidal properties. They induced 100% mortality of adult rice weevils to 15μl dose after only 24 hours of exposition. The essential oil of pennyroyal induced 70 % mortality at the same dose and for the same exposure time. Lethal doses (LD50) are determined in the order of 5,58 for rosemary and 7,36μl for pennyroyal. The LD90 Are in order of 9.36 μl it mean between the second and third dose tested for the rosemary and of 12.52µl for the pennyroyal and in the same two essential oils experimental conditions prevent the development of rice weevil larvae Sitophylus oryzae to 5 µl dose.
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This work was aimed to investigate the chemical composition of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) aerial parts and castor (Ricinus communis L.) stems essential oils from Tunisia. Fumigant and repellent toxicities were assessed toward two major stored product beetles: Lasioderma serricorne and Tribolium castaneum. Pennyroyal essential oil was characterized by a clear predominance of the oxygenated monoterpenes fraction (97.10%) instead of phenol fraction (61.47%) in the castor essential oil. The major common compounds of Mentha pulegium were pulegone and isomenthone, whereas 2,4-bis (dimethylbenzyl)-6-t-butylphenol was the main volatile compound of castor essential oil. Pennyroyal essential oil showed a strong antiradical capacity (IC50 = 14 µg/mL) which is higher than synthetic standard. The effectiveness of pennyroyal essential oil against the coleopteran insects showed potential fumigant impact particularly against Lasioderma serricorne with LC50 = 8.46 µL/L air. Moreover, significant pest repellent activity was demonstrated with Ricinus communis and Mentha pulegium where the repellency effects reached 80 and 60% after 1 and 24h of exposure against Tribolium castaneum at doses of 0.31 µL/cm² and 0.078 µL/cm² respectively. Hence, these findings underlined the potential insecticidal effect of castor and pennyroyal essential oils and highlighted their use as valuable food and insecticide products instead of synthetic pesticides.
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Background and Objective: Minimizing the exposure to nitrate and nitrite and therefore reducing the level of potentially carcinogenic nitrosamines is desired due to the strong public demand and political controversy around this issue in many countries. The present study was designed to investigate antibacterial activity of five different types of essential oils alone or in combination with different concentrations of sodium nitrite. Material and Methods: Five types of essential oils Zataria multiflora Boiss, Satureja bachtiarica Bunge, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium, and Origanum vulgare L were used in the experiments. NaNO 2 in concentrations of 0, 100, and 200 mg kg-1 were used to study the growth inhibition of Clostridium spp. inoculated in vacuum processed beef fillet. Essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity against vegetative cells of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes were primarily done by disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration of essential oils against vegetative cells were determined by broth macro dilution. Sensory evaluation of the uninoculated cooked vacuum processed beef fillet samples with three essential oils with higher antibacterial activity against the more resistant Clostridium spp. was done Results and Conclusion: Among the examined Essential oils Satureja bachtiarica Bunge showed the most inhibition effect on Clostridium perfringens (4.1 mg ml-1) and Clostridium sporogenes (5.5 mg ml-1) followed by Zataria multiflora Boiss, Origanum vulgare L., Mentha pulegium and Rosmarinus officinalis L. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils against Clostridium spp. was increased in combination with sodium nitrite. It can therefore be assumed that the combination of these two additives could have significant repercussion in the control of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium sporogenes in vacuum processed beef fillet samples without compromising the organoleptic properties. The best result was achieved by the combination of 100 mg kg-1 sodium nitrite and 1.1 %v w-1 Satureja Bakhtiarica Bunge which could inhibit the growth of Clostridium species. The results of the current study showed that the essential oils of interest have had drastic effects on clostridium inhibition and could be used in the meat industry especially for sausages due to their impact on technological, microbiological and sensory properties.
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Mosquitoes can transmit serious human diseases such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, and yellow fever, which affect more than 700 million people annually throughout the world.
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Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oils of Algerian Mentha species were studied. Chemical compositions of different Mentha species oils (Mentha rotundifolia, M. spicata, M. pulegium, and M. piperita) were investigated by capillary GC and GC/MS, and their antifungal activities were evaluated by means of paper disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays. In total, 98 components from all Mentha species were identified. All oils were rich in monoterpene-oxygenated components. In addition, we reported fumigant antifungal activity of Algerian Mentha essential oils against four fungi: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia laxa, and M. fructigena. All oils demonstrated very good inhibition especially against B. cinerea, M. laxa, and M. fructigena. Both Monilinia fungi were extremely sensitive to all Algerian Mentha oils, which suggests that Mentha essential oils have the potential to be used as bio-pesticides to protect fruit trees, such as apple and pear trees, and provides an alternative to chemical pesticides.
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The chemical composition, antimicrobial activity and antioxidant activity of Mentha (M.) requienii, M. pulegium L. and M. aquatica (L.) Huds from Sardinia, Italy were tested. The chemical composition was determined by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) analysis. The antiradical activity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS assay and minimal inhibition concentration was determined by microdilution broth analysis. The major components found in M. requienii EO were pulegone, menthone and limonene; similarly the major components of M. pulegium EO were pulegone and iso-menthone. By contrast, the major components of the EO from M. aquatica are terpinyl acetate and eucalyptol. The antioxidant activity of M. aquatica EO was higher than that of M. requienii and M. pulegium. The EO from M. requienii had good antifungal and antioxidant activity. In the concentration range tested, the mint EOs did not show any antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus 20231 DSMZ, Salmonella enterica subsp. bongori serovar 66:z41:- 13772 DSMZ and four strains of Listeria monocytogenes. Lactic acid bacteria strains were not inhibited by the EOs tested, with the exception of Lactobacillus brevis which showed slight sensitivity to M. pulegium and M. requenii EOs. Yeast strains were in general sensitive to the different Mentha EOs tested and was species and strain dependent;generally, the EOs of M. pulegium and M. requenii were found to be more active than that of M. aquatica.
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The chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) of four Lamiaceae (Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. , Rosmarinus officinalis L., Origanum vulgare L. and Mentha pulegium L.) growing wild in Tunisia was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Obtained results showed significant variations among the different species. The major constituents identified for each species were respectively carvacrol (69%) and δ-terpinene (17%) for T. capitatus, 1,8-cineole (41%) and α-pinene (24%) for R. officinalis, menthol (39%) and 1.8-cineole (17%) for M. pulegium , thymol (30%), p-cymene (30%) and δ-terpinene (27%) for O. vulgare . EO herbicidal effects were evaluated against three invasive weed species in most cultivated crops: Sinapis arvensis L., Phalaris paradoxa L. and Lolium rigidum Gaud. The study of herbicidal activity was carried out on seed germination and seedling vigor and growth. All tested EOs significantly inhibited the germination and growth of weeds in a dose dependent manner and their herbicidal activity could be attributed mainly to their high content in oxygenated monoterpenes. The antifungal ability of EOs was assessed by using disc agar diffusion against ten plant pathogenic fungi affecting crops and stored foods. The EOs displayed strong inhibitory effect on all tested fungi. Our results on EOs chemical composition and biological activities showed properties that could be valorized in managing biocontrol of weeds and plant fungi.
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In the present study, the toxicity of essential oils of Mentha piperata L. and Mentha pulegium L. and pathogenicity of Lecanicillium muscarium (Zare & Gams) were studied in the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover. Analyses of the essential oils by GC–MS indicated limonene (27.28%), menthol (24.71%), menthone (14.01%), and carvol (8.46%) in the M. piperata essential oil and pulegone (73.44%), piperitenone (5.49%), decane (4.99%), and limonene (3.07%) in the essential oil of M. pulegium as the main components. Both essential oils and the pathogenic fungus had useful toxicity against A. gossypii. Probit analysis indicated LC50 values (lethal concentrations to kill 50% of population; 95% confidence limits in parentheses) of M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils as 15.25 (12.25–19.56) and 23.13 (19.27–28.42) µl/liter air, respectively. Susceptibility to the pathogenic fungus increased with exposure time. Aphid mortality also increased when the essential oils were combined with L. muscarium, although the phenomena was additive rather than synergistic. Mycelial growth inhibition of L. muscarium exposed to the essential oils was also very low. Based on our results, M. piperata and M. pulegium essential oils and the pathogenic fungus L. muscarium have some potential for management of A. gossypii.
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While fulfilling the food demand of an increasing population remains a major global concern, more than one-third of food is lost or wasted in postharvest operations. Reducing the postharvest losses, especially in developing countries, could be a sustainable solution to increase food availability, reduce pressure on natural resources, eliminate hunger and improve farmers’ livelihoods. Cereal grains are the basis of staple food in most of the developing nations, and account for the maximum postharvest losses on a calorific basis among all agricultural commodities. As much as 50%–60% cereal grains can be lost during the storage stage due only to the lack of technical inefficiency. Use of scientific storage methods can reduce these losses to as low as 1%–2%. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of the grain postharvest losses in developing countries, the status and causes of storage losses and discusses the technological interventions to reduce these losses. The basics of hermetic storage, various technology options, and their effectiveness on several crops in different localities are discussed in detail
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Biosynthesis and metabolism of phytochemicals in aromatic and medicinal plants are vigorously affected by environmental agents. This study was undertaken to investigate the variations in the growth, nutrient status and the essential oils content and composition of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) plant exposed to different concentrations of copper (Cu; 0, 5, 25 mg kg−1 soil) and zinc (Zn; 0, 10, 50 mg kg−1 soil). The results of the plant treatment responses revealed that the highest plant height, shoot dry weight, essential oil content and yield were achieved in plants treated with Cu and Zn at 5 and 10 mg kg−1. Low Zn concentration showed a synergistic effect on the uptake of Cu, Fe, Mn and K, whereas it revealed **contrary effect on phosphorus (P) status. However, Cu in 5 mg kg−1 poses positive effect on Fe, Mn and P content in root and shoot tissues. Moreover, the addition of Cu and Zn especially at 5 and 10 mg kg−1 was the optimal level in increasing the status of K, Mn, Fe, Cu and Zn in shoot, infusion and decoction. The constituents and quality of M. pulegium essential oils in terms of its major volatile components, namely pulegone, cis-isopulegone, α-pinene, sabinene, 1,8-cineol and thymol, improved significantly with Cu and Zn treatment as compared to control. From this standpoint, M. pulegium can be grown as alternative crop for mildly Cu- and Zn-polluted agricultural soils without contamination of the its industrial products.
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Context: Insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. The total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. In traditional Iranian medicine (TIM), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain medicinal plants described in TIM. Evidence Acquisition: Information about medicinal plants proposed as insecticides and insect repellents in the TIM was collected from the TIM literature, and searched in modern medical databases to find studies that confirmed their efficacy. Results: Modern investigations have supported the claims of the insecticidal activity of several plants, including Allium sativum, Artemisia absinthium, Citrullus colocynthis, Laurus nobilis, Mentha pulegium, Myrtus communis, Nerium oleander, Ocimum basilicum, and Origanum majorana. However, in the cases of plants like Iris florentina and Malva sylvestris, there is not enough evidence in modern medicine to prove their effectiveness with regard to their insecticidal and insect repellent activities. Conclusions: This study confirmed the Iranian traditional medicine claims of the insecticidal and insect repellent activity of certain plants. Further pharmacological and clinical studies are recommended to evaluate the overall efficacy and possible mechanisms underlying these herbs.
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In this study, the hydrodistilled essential oil from aerial parts of Mentha pulegium L. was investigated for the antioxidant activity and identification of active constituents. The chemical composition of the oil was analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The antioxidant activity of the oil was evaluated by the DPPH assay. The most active constituents of the essential oil were detected by the DPPH-bioautography method and identified by GC analysis. 18 constituents were identified in the oil of M. pulegium and pulegone (48.7 %) and menthone (26.8 %) were found to be the main constituents. The DPPH assay showed an IC50 value of 1.61 (1.41–1.84) mg/mL. The DPPH-bioautography guided fractionation of the essential oil followed by GC analysis of the most active fraction was resulted in the identification of menthone and pulegone as the main active constituents.
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The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most serious pests of many crops both indoors and outdoors in south-western Turkey (Antalya). In the present study, essential oils (EOs) from five medicinal and aromatic plants [Mentha pulegium L. (Labiatae), Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Umbelliferae), Pistacia terebinthus L., Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae) and Vitex agnus-castus L. (Verbenaceae)] were tested for their fumigant toxic and development- and reproduction-inhibiting effects against the pest under in vivo conditions. In the fumigant toxicity assays, newly emerged (0–24 h) adult females and larvae and 0-24-h-old eggs of the mite were exposed to four different concentrations of each EO for 12 h in separate desiccators (10 L) used as test chambers. In the development- and reproduction-inhibiting assays, newly emerged (0–24 h) female deutonymphs of the mite were separately exposed to a lower concentration (0.5 µL/L for M. pulegium, 2 µL/L for F. vulgare, 2.5 µL/L for P. terebinthus and 10 µL/L for V. agnus-castus and S. molle) of each EO in desiccators for 12 h, and then, 20 survivors from each EO were individually maintained on cotton leaf discs to obtain data on some parameters (adult emergence rate, number of eggs per female, egg-hatching rate, etc.) until there are no living individuals. The results from the study indicated that all the EOs had fumigant effect against the mite in varying degrees. M. pulegium was found to be the most toxic oil against all the biological stages tested (LC50 = 0.60 µL/L air for eggs, 0.60 µL/L air for larvae and 0.49 µL/L air for adult females), followed by F. vulgare (LC50 = 2.67 µL/L air for eggs and adult females, and 2.56 µL/L air for larvae). M. pulegium EO also had the highest development- and reproduction-inhibiting effect on the pest. Fecundity was reduced by 55.9% and egg hatching was inhibited by 29.9% in survivors of deutonymphs of T. urticae fumigated with M. pulegium EO at 0.5 µL/L air for 12 h. In the phytotoxicity assays with tomato, cucumber, Phaseolus and eggplant seedlings, scattered necrotic spots and slight chlorosis only on the young foliage of cucumber seedlings exposed to M. pulegium EO at the highest concentration for 12 h were visual symptoms of phytotoxicity. Overall results indicate that M. pulegium EO can be used in the management of T. urticae in greenhouses as a fumigant for both toxic and development- and reproduction-inhibiting effects.
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Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) is an important cultural aromatic plant, whose essential oils (EOs) have been used in many industrial applications. EO yields are often negatively influenced by various factors, so it is important to keep finding new growing procedures that increase the quantitative content of EOs. Therefore, this paper is focused on the effects of applying foliar nutrition, including N, P and K in combination with salicylic acid (SA), on selected yield characteristics related to the quantitative and qualitative content of EOs in T. vulgaris plants. As shown by our field experiments, targeted pre-harvest application can significantly increase the yield of EOs, resulting in a quantitative increase in the EO content of the plants, ranging from 18.76% to 42.47% compared to untreated plants. In addition, EOs obtained from the treated plants were found to contain 62.1–64.1% thymol; this range was more stable compared to untreated plants, where the thymol content ranged between 53.1% and 62.7%.
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In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and the development of organic products, four essential oils, Mentha pulegium L., Mentha spicata L., Mentha piperita L. and Cuminum cyminum L., were tested by several parameters against one of the defoliator pests of lettuce, Anarta trifolii (Hufnagel). Fumigant toxicity tests on the second and third larval instars showed the greatest sensitivity to M. pulegium essential oils, with LC50 of 0.41 and 0.80 μL/L air, and LC90 of 0.88 and 9.14 μL/L air, respectively. M. pulegium concentrations of 0.89, 1.34 and 2 μL/L exhibited the highest antifeedant effect on the fourth instar larvae, 47.88%, 31.80% and 11.89% eaten leaf surface, respectively. The lowest concentration of this oil (0.89 μL/ L) revealed significant differences in all nutritional indices of A. trifolii compared to the control, lowest RGR, ECI % and ECD % (0.40, 5.17% and 5.98%, respectively) and the highest CI and AD % as 8.67 and 88.15%, respectively. The duration of larval and pupal stages was also affected and M. pulegium caused the longest larval and pupal durations, 16.67 and 13.80 days, respectively, and the lowest percentage of adult emergence, 13.33%, in the highest concentration, 0.06 μL/L. GC-Mass analysis of the M. pulegium revealed that the pulegone (63.88%) was the major component of this oil. Based on the results, this essential oil had the greatest impact against A. trifolii, compared to the other tested oils. M. pulegium can be considered as a reasonable alternative to chemical pesticides to control this pest under greenhouse conditions.
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Delivery systems are extensively used in cosmetic products. This literature review describes some of the delivery systems used in the cosmetic industry, some general considerations about their presence and incorporation in cosmetic formulations, as well as their skin interactions. This review also covers the manufacturing process of a cosmetic cream formulation, including basic ingredients, natural antioxidants in particular. In addition, future perspectives, recent concerns, and further work regarding the cosmetic industry are also described.
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The advent of biodegradable nanomaterials with enhanced antibacterial activity stands as a challenge to the global research community. In an attempt to pursue the development of novel antibacterial medicinal nanotechnology, we herein a) synthesized ionic-gelated chitosan nanoparticles, b) compared and evaluated the antibacterial activity of essential oils extracted from nine different herbs (Greek origin) and their combinations with a well-defined antibacterial Zn(II)-Schiff base compound, and c) encapsulated the most effective hybrid combination of Zn(II)-essential oils inside the chitosan matrix, thereby targeting well-formulated nanoparticles of distinct biological impact. The empty and loaded chitosan nanoparticles were physicochemically characterized by FT-IR, TGA, and SEM, with the entrapment and drug release studies being conducted through UV–Visible and atomic absorption techniques. The antimicrobial properties of the novel hybrid materials were demonstrated against Gram positive (S. aureus, B. subtilis, and B. cereus) and Gram negative (E. coli and X. campestris) bacteria using modified agar diffusion methods. The collective physicochemical profile of the hybrid Zn(II)-essential oil cocktails, formulated so as to achieve optimal activity when loaded to chitosan nanoparticles, signifies the importance of design in the development of efficient nanomedicinal pharmaceuticals a) based on both natural products and biogenic metal ionic cofactors, and b) targeting bacterial infections and drug resistance.