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Spices are very important wing of horticulture and a variety of spices are used in everyday cooking. Value addition is the highest recognition of the value of the product through processing, packaging and marketing. In other words, it is the process of changing or transforming a product from its original state to a more valuable state. Nowadays, many value-added spices are used and they impart a special taste to food preparations. Value addition has several plus points, viz. the value added products are simple to carry, having long-lasting flavours, with low bacterial contamination, having higher income from food industry, used as preservatives and also in pharmaceutical industry. Some prominent value-added products accredited globally are black pepper powder, pepper oleoresin, cardamom oil, curcumin, turmeric oleoresin, bleached ginger, garlic paste, onion powder, coriander oleoresin, etc. Big entrepreneurship to be developed in large scale, and year round production of the value-added product for meeting the international demand is feasible. This report would review the importance of the need in export of spice and spice based products. It would also discuss the possible threats and challenges of spice industry as well. 1. INTRODUCTION India is the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices in the world. The demand scenario for major and minor spices is increasing at an enormous rate in India and abroad. Spices have been an integral part of the Indian diet, and the demand for spices has been growing year after year.India has certain natural comparative advantages with respect to production and utilization of spices. India is the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices; the country produces about 75 of the 109 varieties listed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and accounts for half of the global trading in spices.These factors include diverse agro-climatic conditions, environments and availability of innumerable varieties and cultivars of each spice suitable for different climatic conditions. Other factors like cheap availability of labour, large domestic market and a strong tradition of using spices and their products in food, medicine and cosmetics. Indian spices scored its recognition in the world for centuries. At present scenario, even the western countries are very much aware about the importance of spice, its bi-products and its various value added products. Yet this time the Indian spices is being in demand due to varying Food Habits and Middle East countries, of people in American and European countries. Spices are grouped basically as major and minor spices in terms of availability, use, importance and demand. Major spices include both seed spices, rhizome spices and tree spices as well. Major spices in terms of demand include chilli, ginger, turmeric, black pepper, small cardamom, garlic, cumin, clove, coriander, all spice, cinnamon, etc. Minor spices include fennel, black cumin, curry leaf, large cardamom, bay leaf, tejpata, etc. The present review would illustrate the diverse availability of spice in India, its utilization potential and the possibility of export in its pure form and in form of various value added products.
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Export potential of spices and its value added products
Article id: 21748
Arghya Mani and Arpan Kabiraj
Department of Post Harvest Technology, BCKV Mohanpur, Nadia
Arghyamani14@gmail.com
Spices are very important wing of horticulture and a variety of spices are used in everyday cooking. Value
addition is the highest recognition of the value of the product through processing, packaging and
marketing. In other words, it is the process of changing or transforming a product from its original state to
a more valuable state. Nowadays, many value-added spices are used and they impart a special taste to
food preparations. Value addition has several plus points, viz. the value added products are simple to
carry, having long-lasting flavours, with low bacterial contamination, having higher income from food
industry, used as preservatives and also in pharmaceutical industry. Some prominent value-added
products accredited globally are black pepper powder, pepper oleoresin, cardamom oil, curcumin, turmeric
oleoresin, bleached ginger, garlic paste, onion powder, coriander oleoresin, etc. Big entrepreneurship to
be developed in large scale, and year round production of the value-added product for meeting the
international demand is feasible. This report would review the importance of the need in export of spice
and spice based products. It would also discuss the possible threats and challenges of spice industry as
well.
1. INTRODUCTION
India is the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices in the world. The demand scenario for
major and minor spices is increasing at an enormous rate in India and abroad. Spices have been an integral
part of the Indian diet, and the demand for spices has been growing year after year.India has certain natural
comparative advantages with respect to production and utilization of spices. India is the world's largest
producer, consumer and exporter of spices; the country produces about 75 of the 109 varieties listed by the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and accounts for half of the global trading in
spices.These factors include diverse agro-climatic conditions, environments and availability of innumerable
varieties and cultivars of each spice suitable for different climatic conditions. Other factors like cheap
availability of labour, large domestic market and a strong tradition of using spices and their products in food,
medicine and cosmetics.
Indian spices scored its recognition in the world for centuries. At present scenario, even the western
countries are very much aware about the importance of spice, its bi-products and its various value added
products. Yet this time the Indian spices is being in demand due to varying Food Habits and Middle East
countries, of people in American and European countries. Spices are grouped basically as major and minor
spices in terms of availability, use, importance and demand. Major spices include both seed spices, rhizome
spices and tree spices as well. Major spices in terms of demand include chilli, ginger, turmeric, black pepper,
small cardamom, garlic, cumin, clove, coriander, all spice, cinnamon, etc. Minor spices include fennel, black
cumin, curry leaf, large cardamom, bay leaf, tejpata, etc.
The present review would illustrate the diverse availability of spice in India, its utilization potential
and the possibility of export in its pure form and in form of various value added products.
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2. Importance of spice and its value added products
The country exports spice oils and oleoresins to the global spices market. India in year 2012- 2013
had produced around 6 million tons of spices and condiments. Out of this, around 8 to 10 percent was
exported to other countries. They contribute about 28 per cent of the total export earnings from spices
[1].The major proportion of the spices produced in India is absorbed in the domestic market and only about
10 per cent is exported to over 150 countries [2].India is known to trade around 50 percent of spices by
volume, all over the world. As per the latest news and research, there is a high demand ofspices around the
globe and the country is predicted to export powdered and other spices likeoils, seasoning, oleoresins, and
extracts.
The demand for Indian spices used all over the world has not only increased the demand for
vegetarian and non-vegetarian recipes to be filled with tasteful and medicinal qualities, but their use in the
cosmetics industry has increased in record quantities this year. Export of spices has increased by 12 percent
in the financial year 2016-17 and exports of spices of 9, 47,790 tons worth Rs. 17,664.61 Crore have been
exported [3].
In 2014-15 fiscal, a total of 8,93,920 tonnes of spices and spice products valued at Rs 14,899.68 crore
(USD 2,432.85 million) were exported, registering a 9 per cent increase in volume and 8 per cent in rupee
terms and 7 per cent in dollar terms in value as compared to 8,17,250 tonnes valued at Rs. 13,735.39 crore
(USD 2,267.67 million) in financial year 2013-14 [4].
3. Demand of spice globally
Increasing demand for ethnic cuisines, Indian, Chinese and Mexican, which use lots of spices, changing food
habits, higher focus on replacing artificial ingredients with natural substitutes (like spices) are also increasing
global demand.
a) Total spices export from India stood at 1.08 billion kgs, valued at US$ 3.11 billion in the year 2017-18.
Between Apr-Oct 2018, 621.98 kgs of spices worth US$ 1.84 billion have been exported [5].
b) Top 10 importers of Indian spices between Apr-Oct 2018 were the US, China, Vietnam, Hong Kong,
Bangladesh, Thailand, UK, UAE, Malaysia and Sri Lanka.
c) During 2017-18, top 10 exported spices and spice products in terms of value were Chilli, Mint
products, Spice Oils & Oleoresins, Cumin, Turmeric, Pepper, Curry powders/paste, Cardamom seeds,
other spices (Tamarind, Asafoetida, and Cassia) and Garlic [16].
d) The total export of spices in 2017-18 stood at US$ 3.11 billion [6].
e) Chilli retained its position as the most demanded spice with exports of 235,000 tonnes amounting to
Rs 2,125.90 crores in value registering an increase of 42% in volume [7].
f) It was followed by cumin with a total volume of 79,460 tonnes worth Rs.1324.58 crore showing an
increase of 16% in volume and 20% in value [7].
g) In 2014-15 fiscal, a total of 8,93,920 tonnes of spices and spice products valued at Rs 14,899.68 crore
(US $2,432.85 million) were exported, registering a 9% increase in volume and 8% in rupee terms and
7% in dollar terms in value as compared to 8,17,250 tonnes valued at Rs 13,735.39 crore (US
$2,267.67 million) in financial year 2013-14 [8].
h) Turmeric had an export volume of 59,000 tonnes having a value of Rs 547.63 crore [7].
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i) According to Prathyush T.P, Assistant Director of the Spice Board told SBS Gujarat, "To Australia,
Indian spices are in high demand because of the quality and the benefits of the spices. Australians are
buying valueaddedproducts like the curry powder and the chilli as it is good in quality”.
j) Garlic also chipped in substantially with a total volume of 37,830 tonnes valued atRs.255.58 crore as
against 19,729 tonnes and Rs.196.06 crore, respectively in the first three quarters of FY 2016-17,
registering an increase of 92 per cent in volume and 30 per cent in value [9].
k) Garlic exports contributed substantially to the overall growth during the year, notching figuresof 92
per cent in value terms and 39 per cent in quantity. The export demand of nutmeg and mace was also
on the higher side, registering an increase of 25 per cent to 5,070 tonnes, ascompared to 4,050 tonnes
during 2015-16.
l) Increased global demand for turmeric, especially in the pharmaceutical sector, drove its exports to
attain figures of 1,16,500 tonnes in volume and crossed Rs 1,241 crore in value terms in 2016-17.
4. Demand of oleoresin and essential oils
Oleoresin and essential oils are most important value added products of spices and condiments. Notably
there is a tremendous increase in demand of value added products of spices and condiments. Spice demand
is increasing but demand of spice based value added products is increasing exponentially.
The export of value added products like curry powder, mint products, spice oils and oleoresins
increased in volume and value while the export of chilli, coriander, fennel and nutmeg and mace registered
an increase in terms of volume only [9].
As for value added products, the export of curry powder/paste was 25,200 tonnes worth Rs.517.52
crore as against 23,027 tonnes valued at Rs.468.35 crore, registering an increase of 9 per cent in volume and
10 per cent in value [9].
During the period, 12,700 tonnes of spice oils and oleoresins valued Rs. 1873.22 crore were exported
as against 9,251 tonnes and Rs.1695.17 crore, respectively in April-December 2016, marking an increase of
37 per cent in volume and 11 per cent in value [9].
This is fostering global confidence that India can also offer value addition in line with global standards
and food safety. ITC, for instance, has developed a complete value chain for food safety which complies with
stringent global standards. A pioneer in the backward integration of chillies and cumin, ITC is working with
about 4,000 farmers over 7,500 hectares to ensure food safety. ITC has achieved Rainforest Alliance (RFA)
certificationa sustainability certification for its chilli programme.
Value-added spice products like spice oils and oleoresins notched a significant high with figures of
11,475 tonnes (exports) and Rs 1,91, 090 lakhs (earnings), registering a growth of 1% in quantity and 10% in
value, respectively [8].
Value added products like curry powder and spice oils and oleoresins are gaining much importance in
the international market and hence have tremendous export potential [7].
Decoding the Spices, notes that India, historically a bulk commodity supplier of spices, is now
becoming a global hub for exporting processed powdered and value-added spice products, such as
oleoresins, oils, extracts and seasonings.
“Some countries—Germany, UK, Netherlands and Francewhich previously imported whole spices,
have shifted to imports of ground and blended spices from India,” explains Rabobank analyst Shiva Mudgil.
According to Rangrass, “There is a clear global focus on sourcing directly from origin, to ensure the
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authenticity of spices and cut out intermediaries, and this is driving spice exports from India and lessening
the role of hitherto re-trading hubs like Spain, Netherlands and Germany.”
In response to the winds of change, Indian merchant exporters are switching to process
manufacturing. “Demand for oleo develresins and seasonings has also led many Indian players (such as
Synthite, Plant Lipids and Kancor) to focus on research and technology in order to manufacture innovative
value-added products such as oleoresins, extracts like essential oils, seasonings, organic spices, vanillin,
menthol and marigold based ingredients,” notes Mudgil. “Spice oils, oleoresins, liquid seasonings (around 40
national and international flavours) which can be used in masalas (spices) and in the ready-to-cook and
ready-to-eat food segments are some of our latest innovations.” shares Dr Jacob. “Additionally, we are
isolating top aromas of spices through the carbon dioxide process for improving the fresh notes of spices in
final products. Absolutes from spices for various segments such as cosmetics, perfumes and even high value
food segments are also in demand. We are making new blended natural colours as per customer
requirements, such as floral anthocyanin in blue colours.” With players willing to innovate, India’s reputation
for being the home of the choicest spices is sure to grow [10].
5. Country wise demand of spice and spice products (2017-18) [11]
A. United States of America - The demand for Indian spices has also gone up in U.S.A. It has imported nearly
79,882 MT of spices worth Rs. 3024.22 crores from India. Hence, it is the largest International marketplace
for spice exports from India. It imports pepper, cardamom, chilli, ginger, turmeric etc from India
B. Vietnam -Vietnam imports spices such as pepper, chilli, cumin, fennel etc. Vietnam has imported 206,879
MT spices valuing around Rs. 2267.43 crores from India.
C. China- China has imported spices such as pepper, chilli, cumin and cardamom. China has imported around
28,981 MT of spices valuing around Rs. 1934.22 crores from India.
D. United Arab Emirates- UAE imported spices such as pepper, cardamom, chilli, ginger, turmeric, coriander
etc. from India. The country has imported around 54,550 MT spices valuing around Rs. 762.83 crores from
India.
E. Thailand- India being the home of spices export, Spice Oils and oleoresins etc. to Thailand. Thailand has
imported 67,043 MT spices around Rs. 710.37 crores from India.
F. United Kingdom- UK imports pepper, cardamom, ginger, turmeric etc from India. United Kingdom has
import 30,659 MT spices valuing around Rs. 681.38 crores from India.
G. Malaysia- It imports spices like chilli, turmeric, coriander, cumin and other spices. Malaysia has imported
62,545 MT spices valuing around 600.45 crores.
H. Saudi Arabia- Cardamom, chilli, ginger, turmeric, coriander etc. are the spices Saudi Arab has imported
around 26,267 MT spices from India. This is valuing around 597.32 crores.
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I. Germany - Germany imports chilli, ginger, cumin, etc from India. It imports a total quantity of 10,222 MT
of spices which is worth Rs. 522.49 crores from India.
J. Sri Lanka- Sri Lanka imports spices such as turmeric, cumin, fenugreek etc. from India. In total Sri Lanka
has imported 65,518 MT spices valuing Rs. 477.23 crores from India.
6. Some value added products of spice
A. Ready-made spice powder and paste
Powdered spice is air tight packaging material is of enormous demand. Increasing urbanization
paired with a rise in number of working women has reduced the time of cooking. Consequently, home-
makers have started demanding readymade spice powder that includes chilli powder, cumin powder, fennel
powder, black pepper powder, turmeric powder. Also popular are ready made paste of onion, garlic, ginger
in packet form.
An official report from Everest Spices Ltd. Reveals their exports about 10 per cent of its products to
the US, West Asia, Singapore,Australia, New Zealand and East Africa, said: “The total market size of branded
spices is estimated at 6,600 crore, and is growing at 14 per cent annually[12].
B. Spices extractives
i. Essential oil
Essential oils are major flavouring constituents of spices, highly concentrated about 75‐100 times than the
fresh spice. Coriander: Major component of volatile oil is linalool (67.7%) followed by alphapinene (10.5%),
amma-terpinene (9.0%), geranyl acetate (4.0%), camphor (3.0%) and geraniol (1.9%). Minor components
include beta-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene,p‐cymene, borneoletc. Indian coriander oil differs from
European oil in Possessing a lower linalool contents and comparatively higher linalyl acetate contents. In
cumin the main constituent is cuminaldehyde and three other aldehydes up to 70%. Dominant
monoterpenes hydrocarbons (total about 50-55%) are B-pinene, g-terpinene and p-cymene, plus
myrceneaand b phellandrene and limonene, with minor amounts of sesquiterpenes hydrocarbons (Baser et
al 1992). Cumin oil is sometimes adulterated with synthetic cuminaldehyde, which is difficult to detect. The
oil is a raw material for the production of thymol. Fennel:Fennel seed oil, usually traded as fennel oil, is
mainly obtained by steam distilling whole or crushed fruit with a yield of 1.5‐6.5%, and more recently by
supercritical carbon dioxide extraction. In general, oil content is greatest in European and lowest in Asian
varieties. The main constituents are transanethole (60‐65%, but up to 90%), fenchone (2-20%) estragol
(methyl chavicol), limonene, camphene, a‐pinene and other monoterpenes, fenchyl alcohol and
anisaldehyde. Oil produced in Nigeria from fennel of Indian origin had 80% anethole content but no
fenchone..Fenugreek:Major constituents are the dihydroactinidiolide, 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and 1-heanol
totaling 7-9% with 20 other constituents at less than 3% and the remainder below 1%. The furanone
derivative, sotolon, is reportedly mainly responsible for the characteristic fenugreek odour.
ii. Oleoresin
Oleoresin represents the complete flavour and non‐volatile resinous fraction present in the spices. The
aroma and taste fractions are proportionally blended to constitute the ‘true essence’ of the natural spice.
The oleoresin can be obtained in a single step by elimination of the steam distillation process.
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iii. Derivatives of essential oil and oleoresins
They include plated encapsulated forms of spice extractives, seasonings in dry carrier such as dextrose, salt
or rusk powder. They impart the strength of good quality freshly ground spices and can be easily
incorporated in the food.
C. Dried whole spice
Dry ginger and kalaunji prices increased by Rs 200 each to finish at Rs 15,200-18,200 and Rs 9,700-10,200
per quintal, respectively [13].
7. Value added products of some major spices
Listed below are the major spices and value added products from different major spices:
A. Black pepper
A variety of products are being made from black pepper. This also includes green pepper based
products, black pepper and white pepper based products and pepper by‐ products. The major green pepper
based products are canned green pepper, green pepper in brine, bulk‐packaged green pepper in brine, cured
green pepper, frozen green pepper, freeze dried green pepper, dehydrated green pepper, green pepper
pickle, mixed green pepper pickle, green pepper sauce and green pepper‐flavoured products. Black pepper
and white pepper based products include whole black pepper, sterilized black pepper, ground black pepper,
cryoground black pepper powder, pepper oil and oleoresin, white pepper and white pepper powder.
Other miscellaneous products from pepper are pepper‐flavoured products, pepper extract, curry powder
spice blends, peppersal, pepper mayonnaise, pepper cookies and pepper tofu.
B. Cardamom
Major products of cardamom are bleached cardamom, decorticated seeds and seed powder, cardamom
volatile oil and cardamom oleoresin. In addition to this, CFTRI, Mysore has developed the following
products: Encapsulated cardamom, cardamom tea, cardamom coffee and cardamom soft drink mix.
C. Ginger
Ginger powder, ginger oil, ginger oleoresins, encapsulated ginger, ginger preserves and salted ginger are the
value added product from ginger.
D. Turmeric
Major value added products are ground turmeric, turmeric oil, turmeric oleoresin and curcuminoids.
E. Chilli
Oleoresin is the main value added product that can be obtained from chilli.Other products from chillies are
dehydrated chilli, canned chilli, brined/pickled chilli and fermented chilli.
F. Nutmegandmace
Nutmeg oil and mace oil, Nutmeg oleoresin, Nutmeg butter are the main value added products. By utilizing
nutmeg pericarp (rind), many value‐added productshave been developed viz., Nutmeg (rind) pickle, Nutmeg
(rind) preserve from slices, and Nutmeg (rind) preserve from shreds, Nutmeg (rind) candy, Nutmeg (rind)
sweet chutneyand Nutmeg (rind) powder.
G. Cinnamon
In addition to cinnamon bark, various other products are obtained from the tree namely, bark oil, leaf oil,
bark oleoresin etc.
H. Seedspices:Value added products such as ground spices, spices extractives, curry powder, consumer
packed spices and organic spices can be obtained from seed spices.
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I. Curry Powders / blends and mixes:
Curry powder is an indigenous seasoning made from various spices (coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek are
common) constitute the raw materials used in quality curry powder. The ingredients of curry change
according to different needs. The colour, form and taste of various curries are in accordance with the custom
of various nations and regions. Consumers all over the world demand different curry powder. The export
trade in curry powder at present is dominated by India. Curry powder is made from a blend of several
spices, the number vary from a minimum of 5 to more than 20 depending on end uses.
Table 1: Commodity-Wise Export of Spices from India from 2013-2018 (Quantity in Tonnes) [14]
8. QUALITY CONTROL OF SPICE FOR EXPORT
A. ORGANIC CERTIFICATION
The package of spice which passes three way screening is actually imported to developed countries. Unlike
underdeveloped and developing countries the countries that imports spice follows a three step checking
that a lot of spice imported are 100% organic. The three dimensional screening includes:
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a. Initial organic certification by a recognized organic certification agency.
b. 2nd screening of spice package before departure from dock.
c. Final screening when the spice actually reaches the nations dock.
B. ABSENCE OF TOXIC RESIDUES
Absence of toxic residues in the spice is the only possible solution by which a package of spice can easily be
exported to a different country. Toxic compounds present in a package due to residual effect of insecticide,
fungicide or herbicide might led to cancelation of entire fleet of spice import
C. OPTIMUM GRADE REQUIREMENT
Unlike developing and underdeveloped countries, developed countries have strict norms about the grade of
spice they import. Usually the spice which is of superior quality are having a higher export potential. Only
superior quality spice is having demand in foreign market. Due to improper agronomic practice the quality of
Indian spices are often impaired. It’s a natural tendency of spice growers in India to go for quantity instead
of quality. This is another reason why the overall quality is somehow less than the best grade product. The
second grade product doesn’t have that demand in foreign market.
D. Optimum handling and quality packaging
Export of spice usually takes place though ship in cargo. Only high value spices like saffron are exported by
air transport as well. As export of spice are long time oriented, there is dire need that the spices do not get
spoiled in the way to the offshore port and ultimately to the consumers abroad. Hence there is a need for
quality handing during harvesting and during all the post-harvest operations. Spices are needed to be dried
to obtain optimum moisture content and reduce the water activity so that there is lesser chance of spoilage.
As spices are also valued for their exclusive flavor and the factors responsible for flavor are volatile in
nature. Hence there is a need for such a package that is not breathable in nature. If the spices are packed in
such a packaging material which is not air tight then, there is a chance of volatile matter to get out of the
packaging system. At the same time, odorous components can also enter the package. Usually quality
package that is not breathable and are have good moisture and gas barrier are selected as primary
packaging material for spices.
9. Challenges and threats to Indian spice and its value added product export[15]
It is a fact that industry of spice in India is divided. The production of spices is huge and the farming and
small farms continue to play an important role in near future. These farms are usually owned by private
Indian Spices Traders and now by companies. The growing ambition and passion of local Indian companies to
introduce fresh products has led to new revolutions in the market. In order to meet this demand, various
brands are looking towards other countries like Vietnam and China to secure supplies. Sensing the increased
profits from export market, the MNCs are also trying to partner with Indian companies with a purpose of
meeting the global demands of Indian spices.
Following the challenges and threats to Indian spice and its value added product export:
i. Lack of planting material
In India (other than south India), the availability of quality planting material is always
an issue. Even though planting material is available they are not that superior in quality as that of the elite
one. Hence the production is quite low.
ii. Small size of spice growing farms
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India is a nation with several small land holdings. This is the main reason why the
production is scattered and hard to be computed and estimated in a single platform. Unlike developed
countries with a larger land holding, the spice industry is scattered and is disruptive in nature.
iii. Lack of technical skills
In a huge nation like India, it is very tough to ensure that the spice growers in every
corner are trained with the latest skills needed for optimum cultivation, management and processing of
spice. In India, farming as a profession is accepted by the least educated section. Hence, the best
technologies are hard to be transmitted at grass root level
iv. Quality standards
Certain spice growers do not follow the ideal growing techniques nor do they obtain
a product quality of an elite grade. Very often they tend to go for the quantitative aspects instead of quality.
This is the reason why the harvested spice are produced in excessive quantity but the overall grade and
quality is impaired.
v. Residual toxicity of chemicals
Usually the developed qualities which are the potential market of spice and value
added products of spice are very much aware and concerned about residual toxicity in the food product they
import. Quality of spice crops are ensured by proper PGR applications.Pest management seldom needs
spraying of chemicals. These agro-chemicals have residual effects. Due to lack of proper organic practice and
absence of Organic certification, export is limited to organic spices only.
vi. Lack of value addition and quality upgradation
Developed countries do import spices at a decent rate and extract the oil and
oleoresins to obtain a huge margin of profit. Spices produced in India are rarely value added in India due to
lack of proper platforms and little MNC/s intervention,.They are imported and value added in different
country. As soon as bigger companies and MNC’s start investing on spice value added products, spice
industry would show an upsurge.
vii. Adoption of improper post-harvest practices
Some spice growers do not follow proper post-harvest practices for their spice crop.
This includes right from the optimum stage of harvesting to proper handling, storage packaging, etc.
Maturity indices for fresh consumption in chilli must be different from that of that of dried chilli for spice
purpose. Similarly, proper packaging is also necessary for ensuring optimum quality after harvest. Rough
handling during interstitial stages can endure rottenness to spices like ginger and turmeric. Improper drying
of cinnamon and black pepper could led to loss of flavor and destruction of oil glands.
10. Promotion of export for value added spices
The Spices Board of India works towards the development and worldwide promotion
of Indian spices. It provides quality control and certification, registers exporters, documents trade
information and provides inputs to the central government on policy matters. The board participates in
major international fairs and food exhibitions to promote Indian spices, apart from organizing various
domestic events.
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11. CONCLUSION
Spices and value added products of spices are having huge demand in foreign countries. The demand is
increasing day by day. By increasing the export of these products the nation’s economy can be improved.
GDP growth in horticulture would be higher as well. Foreign exchange would be also higher. Hence
government must give emphasis on promotion of export of spices and its products. Value addition of spices
would bring more income generation to the farmers and small scale industries. However there is also scope
and need for improvement in export of spice and vits value added products.
REFERENCES
[1]. GOI, (2012-13) Economic Survey. Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
[2]. Shinoj P. and Mathur V.C., (2006). Analysis of Demand for Major Spices in India. Agri. Econ. Res. Rev.
19(1): 367-376.
[3]. http://www.evergreenexports.net/growing-demand-Indian-spices-world (accessed on: 18-12-2018).
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India is the largest producer, consumer, and exporter of spices in the world. The demand scenario for major spices in India has been comprehensively examined in the study. The shift in preferences of domestic consumers for food items, increasing urbanization and rising incomes, altered demographic and social factors and the changes in productivity of spices have brought about changes in the pattern of their consumption and demand. A two-stage budgeting framework, which is a recent development in the theory, of demand with quadratic terms of total expenditure / food expenditure and is an appropriate technique for computing the expenditure elasticities, has been employed to work out the expenditure elasticities for spices in India. The resultant expenditure elasticities range between 0.40 and 0.60 and do not show much disparity across different income classes or regions and over the years. Also, the household consumption demand projections for important spices in the country for the years 2005, 2010 and 2015 show that the domestic demand for spices would increase further in the coming years.
2012-13) Economic Survey. Ministry of Finance, Government of India
  • Goi
GOI, (2012-13) Economic Survey. Ministry of Finance, Government of India.
Marketing of Indian Spices as a Challenge in India
  • M Sajith
  • S Sheena
  • U G Rajan
Sajith M., Sheena. S. and Rajan U.G., (2013). Marketing of Indian Spices as a Challenge in India, International Journal of Business and Management Invention, 2(2):26-31.